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HISTORY 



T 



OF THE 



CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST 



OF 



LATTER-DAY SAINTS. 



I 



PERIOD I. 
History of Joseph Smith, the Prophet. 

BY HIMSELF. 

VOLUME VI. 

AN INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 

BY 

B. H. ROBERTS 



PUBLISHED BY/ THE CHURCH. 

Deseret Nkws. 
salt lake city, utah. 

1912. 



\ 



m HOT 

mam. 






Copyrighted by 
JOSEPH F. SMITH 

FOR 

THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST 

OF 

LATTER-DAY SAINTS. 
li>12. 



I 



THE LIBRARY 
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY 
eapVO, UTAH ^ 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 
Volume VI. 



INTRODUCTION. 



PAGE 



. 



The Time Period 

Why the Latter-day Saints 
were Welcomed to Illinois 

Nauvoo as a Possible Man- 
ufacturing Center 

Educational Measures at 
Nauvoo 

Jealousy of Nauvoo's 
Promising Greatness 

The Character of the Peo- 
ple of Western Illinois... 

Educational Status of the 
People of Western Illinois 

The Political Phase 

Mischief Arisingfrom False 
Lep-al and Political Coun- 
sel ., 



XXXI 



xxxu 



PAGE 

xxi Subserviency of Politicians 

and Lawyers 

xxii The Fate of a Balance of 

Power Factor in Politics 

xxiii Joseph Smith's Candidacy 

for the Presidency xxxiv 

xxiv Missouri as a Factor in the 

Affairs of Nauvoo. xxxv 

xxv Apostate Conspirators at 

Nauvoo xxxvi 

xxvi The Expositor Affair xxxvii 

The Appeal to the Mob 

xxviii Spirit xxxix 

xxviii The Prophet's Nobility in 

the Hour of Trial 

Always the Prophet- 

xxix Teacher 

Prophet and Patriarch 

CHAPTER I. 



xl 

xli 
xlii 



AN ESTIMATE OF THE PROPHET JOSEPH AS A RELIGIOUS LEADER — ANTI- 
MORMON MEETING AT CARTHAGE — HISTORICAL SKETCH — IMPORT- 
TWELVE HELD IN BOSTON. 

of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints 9 



ANT 



CONFERENCE OF THE 

Manchester 



Minutes of the 

Conference 2 

"Joe Smith, the Mormon 

Prophet" 3 

Preamble and Resolutions 4 

Historical Sketch of the Church 



Important Conference of the 
Twelve held at Boylston 
Hall, Boston 11 



CHAPTER II. 



MOVEMENTS OF APOSTLES IN T 
WELL ACQUITTED — SPECIAL 
OF THE PROPHET ON 

Vjfhe Drought of 1843 

Woodruff in a Train Wreck... 

Nauvoo and Joseph Smith 

The Prophet on Socialism 

"Nauvoo Mansion" 

"Nauvoo Mansion" made a 

Hotel 

Legion Parade and Inspection 

Letter of Gevernor Ford to 

the Prophet 



HE EAST — THE NAUVOO MANSION — ROCK- 
CONFERENCE AT NAUVOO — DISCOURSE 
THE DEMISE OF JAMES ADAMS. 



31 Conference in Nova Scotia 35 

32 Porter Rockwell 35 

32 Paci fic, Isl and Mission ^ 36 

33 Report from the Pinery 37 

33 Stewardships. Common Stock 37 

Concerning Horse Thieves.... 38 

33 Meeting of a Special Council 39 

34 Who shall be our next Presi- 

dent? ... 39 

35 The Appointment of a Mission 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

to Russia 41 

Movements of Apostles in the 
East 41 

Pleasure Party and Dinner at 

the Nauvoo Mansion.. 42 

. Anti-Mormonism 43 

Elder Reuben Hedlock to the 
First Fresidency 4 

The Prophet's Visit with Jus- 
tin Butterfield 45 




PAGE 

Instructions Respecting Plur- 
ality of Wives 46 

The Prophet's Dissatisfation 
with Sidney Rigdon 40 

Minutes of a Special Confer- 
ence, 47 

he Prophet's Remarks on 
the Demise of James Adams 50 

Paci fus Isla nd Mission Em- 
barks 52 



CHAPTER III. 



. 



ANCIENT RUINS IN AMERICA, BOOK OF MORMON EVIDENCES — THE 
PROPHET ON THE U. S. CONSTITUTION AND THE BIBLE — MISREP- 
RESENTATIONS CORRECTED — LETTER TO THE U. S. PRESIDENTIAL 
CANDIDATES — THE PROPHET'S ADDRESS TO THE SAINTS. 



Ancient Ruins — Introduction 53 

Letter— H. R. Hotchkiss to 
Joseph Smith 55 

Letter — Joseph Smith to H. 
R. Hotchkiss 55-50 

Location of the Mind 50 

i The Prophet on the Constitu- 
tion of the United States 
and the Bible — Temporal 
Economies 56 

The Prophet's Visit to Mace- 
donia 57 

Misrepresentations Corrected 59 

Labors of the Apostles in the 
East 00 

Hyrum Smith Appointed on 
Temple Committee 01 

Letter — Joseph L. Heywood 
to Joseph Smith 02 



Letters to Candidates for 
Presidency of the U. S. De- 
cided upon 63 

An Epistle of the Twelve to 
the Elders and Churches 
Abroad 03 

President Smith's Letter to 
John C. Calhoun, and other ■— -^ 
Presidential Candidates J G\ 

Post Script to Van Buren \6p 

Work in the British Mission... oo 

The Prophet's Anxiety Con- 
cerning the History of the 
Church.. 66 

Preliminary Steps to Publish- 
ing Nauvoo Edition of Doc-^-^ 
trine and Covenants., I 66^ 

Communication of President 
Joseph Smith to the Saints 69 



CHAPTER IV. 



CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN JAMES ARLINGTON BENNETT AND PRESIDENT 

JOSEPH SMITH — RENEWAL OF PETITIONS TO CONGRESS FOR REDRESS 

OF MISSOURI GRIEVANCES — PRESIDENT JOSEPH SMITH'S APPEAL 

TO THE GREEN MOUNTAIN BOYS, VERMONT— STATUS 

OF THE NAUVOO LEGION IN ILLINOIS MILITIA. 

Prosperity of the Work in nett to President Joseph 

England 71 Smith 71 

Letter — James Arlington Ben- Letter — President Joseph 



CONTEXTS. 



pac;e 

Smith to James Arlington 

Bennett 73 

f Grammar for the Egyptian 

Language Suggested 79 

Meeting at the Prophet's 
Home 79 

Canal Around the Des Moines 
Rapids 80 

The Prophet's Stand on Chast- 
ity and General Moralit}-... 81 

Letter — Brigham Young in 
Behalf of the Twelve to 
Elder John E. Page, Ap- 
pointing him to go to Wash- 
ington 81 



PAGE 

Renewal of Petitions to Con- 
gress 83 

"Memorial"' 81 

Activities in Renewal of Ap- 
peals to Congress :. 88 

President Smith's Appeals 
to his Native State — Ver- 
mont 88 

Letter: W. L. D. Ewing, 
State Anditor, to Major 
John Bills — Legion Affairs 95 

Letter: J. Lamborn, Attorney 
General of Illinois, on Above 95 

Letter: J. N. McDougal to 
State Auditor 90 



CHAPTER V. 

THE AVERY KIDNAPPING — DEFENSIVE PREPARATIONS AGAINST MISSOURI 
MOBS —APPEALS TO THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT FOR PROTEC- 
TION — NAUVOO LEGION OFFERED AS UNITED STATES TROOPS. 



Progress of the Work 

Hvrum Smith meets with an 



> 



Number of the Prophet's Vex- 



Accident 

V 

atious Lawsuits . 

Chapman's Affidavit in the 
Avery Case 

Letter: President Joseph 
Smith to Governor Ford 

Public Meeting at Nauvoo 

Resolutions 

Provisions for German Meet- 
ings 

Precautionary Steps Against 
Missouri Invasion 

Richards and Lewis Affidavit 

An Order to the City Marshal 

The City Marshal's Reply...... 

Mayor's Order to the Com- 
mander of the Nauvoo Le- 
gion 

Special Ordinance in the 
Prophet's Case, vs. Mis- 
souri 

Petition for Nauvoo to be 
Placed Under the General 
Government 

Public Meeting at Nauvoo — 

Letter of Wilson Law to Joseph 



98 

98 

99 

100 

100 
101 
101 

103 

103 
103 
103 
101 



101 



105 



107 
107 



Smith 108 

Avery Case — a Reminiscence of 
Missouri Days 108 

Affidavit of Sission Chase 109 

Letter: Joseph Smith to Gov- 
ernor Ford 109 

Nauvoo's Police Force En- 
larged 110 

Letter: Joseph Smith to John 
Smith 110 

Ordinance Enlarging Police 
Force 110 

Ordinance on the Personal 
Sale of Liquors Ill 

Public Meeting at Nauvoo — 
the Aggressions of Missouri 111 

Letter: Governor Ford to 
President Smith 113 

Comment of the Prophet on 

Gov. Ford's attitude 115 

A Sudden Illness of the 
Prophet 115 

Comment on Appeal to the 
General Government for 
Protection 116 

The Trial of John Elliott 117 

Legion Aid Applied for 119 

Detachment of the Legion 
Ordered into Service 119 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



PAGE 



Affidavit of Willard Richards 
that Nauvoo was in Danger 119 

Legion Ordered into Service 
— Moves and Counter Moves 
of Forces 120 



Strange Celestial Phenomena 

of 1860 121 

Affidavit of Amos Chase 121 

Affidavit of Philander Avery 122 

Affidavit of the Hamiltous... 123 



CHAPTER VI. 

MEMORIAL OF CITY COUNCIL TO CONGRESS ANENT MISSOURI AFFAIRS 
— ROCKWELL RETURNS TO NAUVOO — RECITAL OF HIS ADVEN- 
TURES — AVERY'S ACQUITTAL BY MISSOURI'S COURTS — NAU- 
VOO'S POLICE FORCE INCREASED PUBLICATION 
ON MORMONISM, PRO ET CON — 1843. 



The Prophet for a Clean, Or- 
derly City 124 

Memorial of the City Council 

to Congress 125 

An Ordinance 130 

Letter: W. W. Phelps to J. 

White 132 

Attitude of Prophet on Mob- 

ocracy and Politics 133 

A Christmas Serenade 134 

Rockwell's Return to Nauvoo 134 
Rockwell's Experience in Mis- 
souri 135 

Release of Daniel Avery 142 

A Plan for Women's Subscrip- 
tion to the Temple 142 



Prophet's Joy at the Return 

of Rockwell and Avery 143 

Mr. Rockwell — Editorial 144 

Affidavit of Orson Hyde 145 

Affidavit of Daniel Avery 145 

Joseph H. Jackson — Prophet's 

Interview with 149 

Police Force of Nauvoo In- 
creased 149 

Address of the Mayor to the 

Nauvoo Public 150 

The Mayor Blesses the Police 152 

Letter to Governor Ford 153 

Pro et con Mormonism, Publi- 
cations 154 



CHAPTER VII. 



PRESIDENT SMITH'S CORRESPONDENCE WITH JOHN C. CALHOUN — CART- 
WRIGHT DROWNING CASE, ENGLAND— CITY GUARDS INCREASED — 
FEARS OF LAW AND MARKS— INVESTIGATION BY THE CITY COUN- 
CIL — RESISTANCE OF OFFICERS AT CARTHAGE — ANTI-MOR- 
MON OBJECTIONS TO CITY ORDINANCES — THE PROPH- 
ET'S DIFFICULTIES W T lTH FRANCIS M. HIGBEE — 
REGULATIONS FOR THE SALE OF SPIRITUOUS 
LIQUORS. 



New Years at Mansion (155 

Letter: John C. Calhoun to\ 

Joseph Smith 155 

Letter: Joseph Smith to John 



C. Calhoun lcG 

Release of Pugmire and Cart- 
wright from Prison. Eng- 
land 100 



CONTENTS. 



VII 



Cartwright — Drowning 160 

Difficulty of William Law et 
al. with the Police 162 

Reconciliation of the Prophet 
and William Law 165 

Repartee of Joseph and Emma 
Smith 165 

Alarm of William Marks 166 

Special Session of the City 
Council 166 

Reflections of the Prophet as 
to Traitors in High Places... 

Disgraceful Affair at Carthage 

John Smith. Uncle of the 
Prophet, Ordained a Patri- 
arch '. 

Special Session of City Coun- 
cil — Complaints of Carthage 



PAGE PAGE 

Citizens Considered 173 

Complaints of F. M. Higbee 

Against the Prophet. 174 

Conference in Michigan. 175 

Threats of Francis M. Higbee 176 
Letter: the Twelve Apostles 
to the Saints at Morley Set- 
tlement — Material Help 

Asked for 176 

Appeal to the State of Maine 178 
Francis M. Higbee on Trial 
— Reconciliation with the 

Prophet 178 

An Ordinance Concerning the 

Sale of Spirituous Liquors 178 
An Ordinance Concerning Wit- 
nesses and Jurors' Fees 179 

Assault upon Nelson Judd 180 



170 
171 



173 



CHAPTER VIH. 

PRESENTATION OF THE BOOK OF MORMON TO QUEEN VICTORIA — THE 
SEALING POWERS OF THE PRIESTHOOD— GOVERNOR FORD'S WARNING 
TO THE PEOPLE OF HANCOCK COUNTY — APOSTROPHE TO MIS- 
SOURI—JOSEPH SMITH NOMINATED FOR PRESIDENT OF THE 
UNITED STATES — HIS VIEWS ON THE POWERS AND POLICY 
OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



"Stanzas'' 181 

Discourse: The Sealing Power 

in the Priesthood 183 

Nauvoo Mansion Leased 185 

Sale of the Printing Estab- 
lishment to John Taylor 185 

Importance of Elders Keeping 

Journals 186 

^__JThe Presidential Election Con- 
sidered 187 

The Prophet on the Campaign 18S 
Commencement, of the Proph- 
et's Views on Powers and 

Policy of U. S 189 

Governor Ford's Warning to 

the People 189 

Winchester's Mission to War- 



saw 190 

Preparation of Rigdon's Ap- 
peal to Pennsylvania 191 

"Missouri" 192 

An Appeal to Massachusetts — 

Phinehas Richards 193 

The Prophet's Dream — Troub- 
led Waters Overcome 194 

Mormon Improvement 195 

The 144,000 Selection Begun 196 
Architecture of the Nauvoo 

Temple 196. 

Originalitv of The Prophet's 

Bank Views 197 

Views of the Powers on the 
Government of the United 
States — Joseph Smith 19y 



VJII 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER IX 

COMMENTS ON CANDIDACY OF JOSEPH SMITH FOR PRESIDENT OF THE 

UNITED STATES— TENDERS OF PEACE TO MISSOURI — PRELIMINARY 

STEPS TO WESTERN MOVEMENT OF THE CHURCH — JAMES 

A. BENNETT AND VICE-PRESIDENCY. 



Views of the Prophet on his 
Candidacy for President of 
United States. 

Public Meeting 

Letter: Joseph Smith to Joseph 
L Heywood 

Who shall be our Next Presi- 
dent? 

Pacific Inuendo 

Anti- Mormon Convention at 
Carthage 

Delegation from Lyman Wight 
on Indian Affairs 

Western Movement for the 
Church Contemplated 

The Prophet on the Necessity 
of Complete Obedience to 



PAGE PAGE 

God 223 

Minutes of a Council of the 

210- Twelve 223 

211 The Western Exploring Equip- 
ment 224 

23 3 A Prophecy of Deliverance of 

the Saints 225 

214 The Case of Botswick's Slan- 

218 der of Hyrum Smith 225 

For President, Joseph Smith 226 

221 A Reply Sketched to Cassius 

M. Clay 227 

222 The High Council to the 

Saints in Nauvoo 228 

222 Minutes of a Council Meeting 230 
Letter: Willard Richards to 
James Arlington Bennett... 231 



CHAPTER X. 

URGING THE BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE — TENDERS OF PEACE TO MISSOURI 

— PROPHET'S DISCOURSE ON ELIAS, ELIJAH.MESSIAH— LYMAN WIGHT'S 

PROPOSAL OF A SOUTHWEST MOVEMENT FOR THE CHURCH. 



Special Session of the City 
Council 234 

Packard's Memorial to Legis- 
lature of Massachusetts 230 

Minutes of a General Meeting 
in the Interest of the Tem- 
ple 236 

Arrival of William Kay and 
Company of English Saints 244 

James A. Bennett Ineligible 
for Vice-President U. S 244 

A Friendly Hint to Missouri... 245 

St. Louis' Comment on the 
Prophet's Candidacy....;.... 248 

Copeland, Tennessee, Consid- 



ered as Candidate for Vice- 
President 248 

Matter of Wharfage 248 

Death of King Follett 248 

King Follett's Biography 249 

Discourse of the Prophet on 249 
Letter: Lyman Wight to the 

First Presidency 255 

Letter: Lyman Wight to Presi- 
dent Joseph Smith Suggest- 
ing a Southwest Movement 

for the Church 257 

Special Council Meeting on 
Wight and Miller Letters... 200 



CONTENTS. 
CHAPTER XI. 



IX 



ORSON PRATT SENT TO WASHINGTON AS AGENT OP NAUVOO — AMOS 
FIELDING TO ENGLAND, DITTO — COMMENT ON THE CANDIDACY OF 
JOSEPH SMITH FOR PRESIDENT OF THE U. S. — CONSPIRACY OF THE 
LAWS, HIGBEES, FOSTERS ET AL AGAINST JOSEPH SMITH — 
THE PROPHET'S MEMORIAL TO CONGRESS— OCCUPA- 
TION OF THE WEST CONTEMPLATED. 



PAGE 

Credentials of Orson Pratt as 
Agent for the City of Nan- 

voo 262 

_^Co-operative Store Planned... 263 

Credentials of Elder Amos 
Fielding on Departing for 
England 263 

John Wilkie, the Blessing 
upon him 264 

Status of Nauvoo in the Spring 
of 1844 265 

Wind Storm at Nauvoo 267 

..General Joseph Smith a Candi- 
date for President 268 

New Candidate in the Field.... 268 

Origin of Memorial to Con- 
gress 270 

The Seventies' Hall, Instruc- 



PRGE 

tions on Rebuilding 271 

President Smith's Interview 
with Mrs. Foster 271 

Discourse of President Saiith 
—Conspiracies in Nauvoo 272 

Progress on Memorial to Con- 
gress 274 

The Prophet's Memorial to 
Congress 275 

Ordinauce 275 

Affidavit of Abiathar B. Wil- 
liams 278 

Affidavit of M. G. Eaton 279 

The Robbery at Rollassoa's 
Store in Nauvoo 281 

Memorial to the President of 
the United States 2S2 

Credentials of Orson Hyde.... 283 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE AUTHORITIES OF NAUVOO VS. THE HIGBEES ET AL. — DEDICATION 

OF THE MASONIC HALL— THE CHURCH CONFERENCE IN APRIL, 

1844— ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT SIDNEY RIGDON. 



Comments on the Negro 
Chism's Case 2S4 

The Higbee Brothers in Trou- 
ble 285 

Counter Move of the Higbees 285 

Conference in New York 286 



General Conference Minutes 
of the Church 287 

Opening Address of President 
Joseph Smith 287 

Elder Sidney Rigdon 288 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

CONFERENCE OF THE CHURCH, APRIL, 1844, CONTINUED — ADDRESS OF 
PATRIARCH HYRUM SMITH— THE BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE. 

PAGE PAGE 

Address of Elder Hyrum secure Means for Complet- 

Smith, Patriarch of the ing the Nauvoo Temple 297 

Church — Plans suggested to 



CHAPTER XIV. 

GENERAL CONFERENCE FOR APRIL. 1844, (CONCLUDED) — THE ANNOUNCE- 
MENT THAT THE WHOLE LAND OF AMERICA IS ZION 

INSTRUCTIONS TO ELDERS SET APART FOR MISSIONS — 
A GENERAL CONFERENCE IN ENGLAND. 

President Joseph Smith's Re- Address of Heber C. Kimball 324 

marks — the whole of Amer- Brigham Young's Instruction 

ica Zion 318 to the Elders 325 

Special Meeting of Elders 321 Comment of President Smith 

Address of Brigham Young... 321 on the Conference 326 

North and South America Zion 321 A General Conference in Eng- 

Address of Hyrum Smith, the land 326 

Patriarch 322 



CHAPTER XV. 

DIFFICULTIES WITH THE HIGBEES AND FOSTERS, CONFERENCES APPOINTED 

BY THE TWELVE THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES — INSTRUCTIONS 

TO REUBEN HEDLOCK, PRESIDENT OF THE BRITISH MISSION — 

PREPARATIONS FOR ENLARGEMENT OF THE WORK — 

FRANCIS M. HIGBEE'S SUIT AGAINST PRESIDENT 

SMITH— THE PROPHET RELEASED. 

Excommunication of the Laws Letter: Parley P. Pratt to 

Fosters, et al 341 Joseph Smith, et al 354 

Violence of the Fosters and The Prophet's Petition for 

Higbees 344 Writ of habeas corpus 357 

The Foster-Higbee Embroil- Order of the Municipal Court 358 

ment 348 The People of the State of 

Letter: Brigham Young and Illinois to the Sheriff of 

Willard Richards to Reuben Hancock County 359 

Hedlock 351 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



CHAPTER XVI. 

ADDRESS OF THE PROPHET— HIS PROPHETIC CALLING AND THE RESUR- 
RECTION — STATUS OF AFFAIRS AT NAUVOO — HYDE'S REPORT 
FROM WASHINGTON OF THE WESTERN MOVEMENT — OREGON. 



PAGE 

Theatricals in Xauvoo 362 

President Joseph Smith's Ad- 
dress — Defense of his 
Prophetic Calling 303 

Xauvoo and President Smith 
— Neighbor Editorial 367 

Letter: Elder Orson Hyde's 
Report of Labors in Wash- 
ington 369 

Letter: Orson Hyde's Second 
Letter from Washington An- 
ent the Western Movement 
of the Church 373 

Letter: Henry Clay to the 
Prophet 376 



PAGE 

The Prophet's Answer to Clay's 
Letter 376 

Status of Affairs at Xauyoo 377 

Withdrawal of William Smith 
as Candidate for the Legis- 
lature 378 

Session of Municipal Court — 
Case of Jeremiah Smith 379 

Letter: William Clayton, De- 
scribing the Farcial Pro- 
ceedings of the Court at 
Dixon in the Case of Joseph 
Smith 380 

Steaboat Election 384 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE STATE PRESIDENTIAL CONVENTION AT NAUVOO — THE STATES REPRE- 
SENTED—SPEECH OF JOHNS. REID. ESQ. — EARLY DAYS 
WITH THE PROPHET. 

State Convention at Xauvoo 386 Synopsis of the Remarks of 
Resolutions 390 Hon. John S. Reid 392 

CHAPTER XVIII. 



CHARGES AGAINST PRESIDENT SMITH BEFORE THE CIRCUIT COURT- 
VOLUNTARY APPEARANCE AT COURT — TREAT- 
MENT — RETURN TO NAUVOO. 



Court Session at Carthage 398 

Letter: George A. Smith to 

Times and Seasons 399 

Visit of Sac and Fox Indians 

to Xauvoo 401 

Address of the Prophet to the 

Indians 402 

Hyrutu's Caution to the 

Prophet on the Freedom of 

Speaking , 403 

Letter: Central Campaign 

Committee to Hugh Clark, 



Esq 

Reported Indictment of the 

Prophet 

Letter: Willard Richards to 

Orson Hyde 

Editorial Comment 

C'mference in Jefferson Co., 

X. Y 

Conference, Dresden, Tenn. 
Threat to Kidnap Jeremiah 

Smith 



-HIS 

404 

405 

405 
407 

408 
408 

412 



XII 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



PAGE 



President Smith Voluntarily 
Goes to Carthage to Meet 



Indictments.... 412 

The Return to Nauvoo 414 



CHAPTER XIX. 



CASE OF JEREMIAH SMITH BEFORE MUNICIPAL COURT AT NAUVOO — AFFI- 
DAVITS OF CRIMES OF CHAUNCEY L. HIGBEE — 
APPEARANCE OF THE "EXPOSITOR." 



Arrest of Jeremiah Smith by 
U. S. Authority 416 

Letter: D. S. Hollister to 
Joseph Smith 416 

MunicipalCourt — Case of Jere- 
miah Smith 418 

Municipal Court Minutes in 
the Case of Jeremiah Smith 420 

Letter: Joseph Smith to 
Judge Pope, Introducing 
Jeremiah Smith 422 

Affidavit: H. T. Hugins 
Anent Threat to Bring Drag- 
oons Against Nauvoo - 423 

Joel H. Walker to Joseph 
Smith — Proposes to Join 
Prophet in Western Volun- 
teer Movement 424 

Letter: Joseph Smith to Joel 
H. Walker 425 

Conference at Kalamazoo, 



Michigan 425 

Conference at Glasgow, Scot- 
land .. 426 

Letter: "Horace" to Presi- 
dent Joseph Smith — Threat- 
ened Invasion of Nauvoo... 426 

Letter: Joseph and Hyrum 
Smith to Mr. Tewkesbury — 
Seeking to Restore Latter 
to Fellowship 427 

Prosecution of the Laws and 
Fosters Discussed 427 

Letter: Joseph Smith to I. 
Daniel Rupp — Book on Re- 
ligious Sects 428 

Prophet's Conversation with 
Dr. Foster 430 

First Number of the Expositor 430 

Conference at Pleasant Valley 
Michigan 431 



CHAPTER XX. 



THE DESTRUCTION OF THE NAUVOO EXPOSITOR" — PROCEEDINGS OF 
THE NAUVOO CITY COUNCIL AND MAYOR. 



Nauvoo Expositor Before Nau- 
voo City Council 432 

Ordinance on Libels 432 

Ordinance Concerning Libels 
and for Other Purposes 433 

Synopsis of Proceedings in the 
City Council Against the 
Nauvoo Expositor 434 

Prospectus of the Nauvoo Ex- 
positor 443 



Proclamation 449 

Letter: L. W. Hickock to 
Joseph Smith — Probability 
of Indictment of the Proph- 
et et al. at Springfield 450 

Letter: H. T. Hugins to 
Joseph Smith — Warning the 
Prophet of Probable Indict- 
ment 451 



CONTENTS 



XIII 



CHAPTER XXI. 

PRESIDENT SMITH ARRESTED FOR RIOT IN RELATION TO "EXPOSITOR" 

AFFAIR — HABEAS CORPUS PROCEEDINGS BEFORE MUNICIPAL 

COURT— A CALL FROM ARKANSAS — THE PROPHET'S 

DREAMS — MASS MEETING AT WARSAW — LETTERS 

TO GOVERNOR FORD ON "EXPOSITOR" AFFAIR. 



PAGE 

The People of the State of 
Illinois to all Constables, 
Sheriffs and Coroners of the 
State 453 

The Prophet Asserts his 
Rights Under the Law 454 

The Prophet's Petition for 
Writ of habeas corpus 454 

Petition of the Prophet Granted 455 

Hearing on the Expositor Af- 
ffairs Before the Municipal 
Court at Nauvoo 456 

Letter: Washington Tucker 
to President Smith — Asking 
that Elders be Sent to Ar- 
kansas 458 

Letter: Joseph Smith to 
Washington Tucker, Prom- 
ising that an Elder should 
be 'Se^t 459 

Retributive Justice 400 

Further Action of Municipal 
Court on Expositor Case 400 

The Prophet's Dreams on 



Condition of Apostates at 
Nauvoo 

Threats of Carthage Mob 
Against Nauvoo 

Mass Meeting at Warsaw 

Letter: Joseph Smith to Gov- 
ernor Ford — Explaining 
Action of City Council in 
Proceedings in Expositor 
Affairs 

Letter: John M. Bernhisel to 
Governor Ford — Confirming 
Correctness of the Prophet's 
Report of Expositor Affair 

Letter: Wakefield to Gov- 
ernor Ford — Anent the 
Expositor Affair 

Letter: Sidney Rigdon to 
Governor Ford — Expositor 
Affair 

The Prophet's Advice on Giv- 
ingup Arms 

Letter: A.. Ladd to Joseph 
Smith 



PAGE 

461 

402 
462 



466, 

467 

469 

469 
471 
472 



CHAPTER XXII. 



DISCOURSE OF THE PROPHET— THE GODHEAD — THE, MOB UPRISING 

ARREST OF PRESIDENT SMITH ET AL. OVER THE "EXPOSI- 
TOR" AFFAIR BEFORE ESQUIRE WELLS. 



Conference in Michigan 473 

Sermon by the Prophet — the 
Christian Godhead— Plural- 
ity of Gods 473 

Advice of Judge Thomas on 
Expositor Affair 479 

Inquirv of Delegation from 
Madison 479 

Letter: Joseph Smith to Gov- 
ernor Ford — Inviting the 
Governor to Nauvoo 480 



Affidavit: Mob Movements 480 
Letter: Isaac Morley to Joseph 

Smith— Mob Threats 481 

Letter: Joseph Smith to Isaac 
Morley — Instructions on Re- 
sisting Mob 482 

Minutes of a Public Meeting 

at Nauvoo 483 

Proclamation 484 

Letter: John Smith to Joseph 
Smith, Accompanying Dele- 



XIV 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

gation to the Prophet 485 

Letter: Joseph Smith to John 
Smith — Instructions in Case 

of Mob Violence 485 

Letter: Hyrum Smith to Brig- 
ham Young — Calling Home 
the Twelve 486 



PAGE 



Arrest of the Prophet et al. 
for Destroying the Expositor 
Press 487 

Minutes of the Trial of Joseph 
Smith et al. Before Esquire 
Wells — Expositor Affair 488 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



RUMORS OF INVASION FROM MISSOURI — THE LEGION ORDERED TO ASSIST 

THE CITY MARSHAL — NAUVOO PLACED UNDER MARTIAL 

LAW — THE MAYOR'S ADDRESS TO THE LEGION. 



Affidavit of Stephen Mark- 
ham — Nauvoo to be At- 
tacked 492 

Proclamation 493 

Order to the Legion 493 

Legion Placed at Command of 

City Marshal 493 

Letter: H. T. Hugins to 
Joseph Smith — Probable In- 
dictment of the Prophet at 

Springfield 494 

Charge of Threats Against 

Foster's Life 495 

Declaration of Martial Law 497 
Proclamation 497 



Affidavit: Truman Gillett— 
the Treachery of William 
Law 500 

Letter: Joseph Smith to H. T. 
Hugins — Congratulating 
Jeremiah Smith on his Re- 
lease 501 

Governor Ford's Treatment 
of the Mob 502 

Threats Against the Prophet's 
Life 502 

Affidavit, Canfield and Belk- 
nap — Concerning Threats 
of Invasion from Missouri 502 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



ATTEMPTS TO DRAFT SAINTS INTO MOB SERVICE AGAINST NAUVOO- 
THREATENED INVASION FROM MISSOURI— JAMES A. 
BENNETT URGED TO COME TO NAUVOO. 



Effort to Draft Chester Love- 
land into Mob Service 504 

Roads Leading into Nauvoo 

Picketed 505 

Affidavit: Call, Evans and 
Horner — Treatment of Nau- 
voo Committee by Levi Wil- 
liams et al 505 

Preparations for an Attack 507 

Report of Dr. Southwick 507 

Affidavit: Carlos W. Lyon 507 

An Appeal to President Tyler 508 
Affidavit: Mont and Cunning- 



ham — Attempt to Draft 
them into Mob Service 508 

Affidavit: Allen T. Wait- 
Attempt to Draft him into 
Mob Service 509 

Affidavit: Isaac Morley et al. — 
Attempt to Draft into Mob 
Service 510 

Affidavit: Hancock. Garner, 
Lofton — Attempt to Draft 
them into Mob Service 511 

Affidavit: James Guyman — 
Threats of Invasion from 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



PAGE 

Missouri 511 

Affidavit: Obediah Bowen — 
Attempt to Draft him into 
Service of Mob 512 

Affidavit: Alvah Tippetts — 
Violence of John Williams 
Upon 514 

Reinforcement for Nauvoo 
from Ramus 514 

Letter: Joseph Smith to Bal- 



PAGE 

lantyne and Slater — Advice 

on Moving into Nauvoo 515 

Affidavit: Greene and Bern- 
hisel — Threatened Invasion 
from Missouri 516 

Letter: Willard Richards to 
James Arlington Bennett — 
Affairs in Nauvoo — West- 
ern Movement 516 



CHAPTER XXV. 

THE TWELVE CALLED FROM EASTERN MISSION — GOVERNOR FORD AT CAR- 
THAGE — NAUVOO DELEGATION TO GOVERNOR — THREATS AND CON- 
SPIRACY AGAINST THE PROPHET'S LIFE — GOVERNOR FORD 
INVITED TO NAUVOO TO INVESTIGATE CONDITIONS. 

The Apostles Called Home... 519 Affidavit: John P. Greene— 

A Prophecy — No Gun Fired Joseph H. Jackson Threat 

on Part of Saints 520 ens Prophet's Life 522 

Letter: Robert D. Foster to Affidavit: Joseph Smith — Con- 
John Proctor — Fragment — spiracy Against Affiant's 

Instruction as to Property... 520 Life 523 

Hyrum Smith's Fidelity to the Affidavit: Joseph Jackson — 

Prophet 520 Francis M. Higbee's Threat 

Letter: Governor Ford to to Kill the Prophet 524 

Mayor and Council of Nau- Affidavit: Joseph Jackson — 

voo, Asking Representa- Reporting Mob at Pilot 

tives to Meet him at Car- Grove 524 

thage 521 Letter: Joseph Smith to Gov- 
Joseph H. Jackson at Nauvoo 521 ernor Ford — Inviting the 
Letter: Joseph Smith to Gov- Governor to come to Nau- 
ernor Ford — Submitting voo and investigate Condi- 
Documents 522 tions 525 

CHAPTER XXVI. 



PREPARATIONS TO DEFEND NAUVOO — MOB MOVEMENTS ON CARTHAGE ROAD — 

GOVERNOR FORD'S REVIEW OF HANCOCK COUNTY DIFFICULTIES — 

JOSEPH SMITH'S ACCOUNT OF THE SAME DIFFICULTIES — 

DEFENSE OF HIS OWN AND ASSOCIATES' COURSE. 

Orders for Nauvoo's Entrench- Affidavit: George G. Johnston 

ment 528 — Militia Under Governor 

Affidavit: Edward Robinson — to Move on Nauvoo 530 

Threats Against Nauvoo 528 Affidavit: Gideon Gibbs — Mob 

Affidavit: James Olive — Mob .on La Harpe Road 530 

Movements on the Carthage Affidavit: Luman H. Calkins 

Road. 529 



XVI CONTENTS 

PAGE PAGE 

— Nauvoo Conspiracy Against Mayor and City Council of 

The Prophet's Life 531 the City of Nauvoo 533 

General Orders 532 Letter: Joseph Smith to Gov- 

A Petition to hear the ernor Ford — Defending the 

Prophet Speak 533 Action of the City Council 

Letter: Governor Ford to in the Expositor Affair 538 

CHAPTER XXVII. 



GOVERNOR FORD'S WRONG VIEWPOINT — ELDER TAYLOR'S ACCOUNT OP THE 

INTERVIEW WITH THE GOVERNOR AT CARTHAGE— CLOSE OF THE 

PROPHET'S JOURNAL NARRATIVE OF HIS LIFE. 



Governor Ford's Biased Judg- 
ment 542 

Elder John Taylor's Account 



of Interview with Governor 
Ford at Carthage 543 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

THE PROPHET STARTS FOR THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS — THE COUNSEL OF FALSS 

BRETHREN— THE RETURN TO NAUVOO — THE SURRENDER 

AND ARRIVAL AT CARTHAGE. 



The Warning to Flee to the 
Rocky Mountains 547 

Preparations for the Western 
Movement 548 

Arrival of the Constable's 
Posse 549 

Emma's Message to the 
Prophet 549 

Consultation with Rockwell 549 

Letter: Joseph and Hyrum 
Smith to Governor Ford — 
Consenting to go to Car- 
thage 550 

Letter: Joseph Smith to H. 
T. Hugins — Engaging Coun- 
sel 551 

Letter: Joseph Smith to J. R. 
Wakefield — Soliciting Lat- 
ter's Attendance as Witness 551 

The Prophet Returns to Nau- 
voo 551 

Vacillation of Governor Ford 552 

Certificate: Captain Anderson 
— on Retention of People in 
Nauvoo 553 



Letter: Ed. Johnston to 
Joseph Smith — About Coun- 
sel 553 

Preparations for Going to Car- 
thage 553 

Defendants in the Expositor 

case 554 

Incidents en route for Carthage 554 
Meeting with Captain Dunn 554 

A Pathetic Prophecy 555 

Dunn's Request that the 

Prophet Return to Nauvoo 555 
Letter: Joseph Smith to Gov- 
ernor Ford — Explaining his 

Return to Nauvoo.. 556 

Order: Joseph Smith to Gen- 
eral DunUam — Complying 
with Governor Ford's De- 
mand for State Arms 556 

Messengers sent to Carthage 557 

Surrender of State Arms 557 

The Prophet's Farewell to his 

Family 558 

Looking Back — Sadness 558 

Letter: Messrs. Reid and 



CONTENTS. 



XVII 



PAGE 



Woods to Joseph Smith — 

Documents for Defense 558 

The Prophet's Arrival at Car- 
thage 559 



The Governor Pacifies the 
Mob , 

The Apostates at Carthage 



PAGE 

560 
560 




CHAPTER XXIX. 

^RRESTOF JOSEPH AND HYRUM SMITH ON A CHARGE OF TREASON— FALSE 
IMPRISONMENT— ELD PR TAYLOR'S PROTEST-FALSE IMPRISONMENT. 

The Governor's Pledge of Pro- 
tection oQl 

The Arrest for Treason f^fTT^ 

Writ of Arrest for T reason.... yfRST 

Governor Ford's Speech to the 
Prophet 563 

The Prophet's Request for an 
Interview with Governor 
Ford 563 

The Prophet Presented to the 
Troops 564 

Revolt of the Carthage Greys 564 

Threats of Apostates to Plun- 
der Nauvoo 564 

Letter: the Prophet to Emma 
Smith— Governor Ford Go- 
ing to Nauvoo 565 

The Prophet's Warning to 
Rockwell 565 

The Prophet's Interview with 
Militia Officers 566 



Law Cannot Reach Them, 

Powder and Ball must 
Arraigned on the Expositor 

Affair 

Prophet et al. Bound Over to 

Circuit Court 

The Sureties for the Prophet 
Another Warrant Sought— 

Daniel's Kingdom and 



Treason 

Illegal Imprisonment of the 
Smith Brothers 

Gov. Ford Refuses to Inter 
fere with Illegal Proceed- 
ings 

Elder Taylor's Remonstrance 
with Gov. Ford 

Elder Taylor Takes Independ- 
ent Ac tion 

In Carthage Jail 



569 

.-will 

570 
571 

573 

574 



CHAPTER 



INTERVIEW IN CARTHAG i PRISON BETWEEN GOVERNOR FORD AND THE PROPHET 

—TAYLOR'S REPORT OF THE INTERVIEW— TESTIMONY TO THE EXISTENCE OF 

A CARTHAGE CONSPIRACY AGAINST THE PROPHET'S LIFE. 

Messages to the Governor 575 Affidavit: Alfred Randall- 
Letter : Joseph Smith to Gover- Threats Against the Proph- 

nor Ford— Soliciting an In- et's Life in Carthage 586 

w te 7 xe . w 575 Affidavit: Jonathan C. Wright 

Word from Governor Ford.. 576 —Conspiracy Against the 

Consultation with Counsel 576 Prophet's Life at Carthaee 587 

Interview with Governor Ford 576 Affidavit: Orrin P. Rockwell 

Elder John Taylor's Account - Governor Ford in Nauvoo 5S8 

of Governor Ford's and Affidavit: William G. Sterrett 

President Smith's Interview 579 —Conduct of Governor Ford 



XVIII 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



and posse while in Nauvoo... 589 
Letter: Joseph Smith to Judge 



PAGE 



Thomas — Engaging Thomas 

as Legal Counsel 590 



CHAPTER XXXI. 



THE PROPHET IN CARTHAGE PRISON — THE UNION OF JUDICIAL, EXECUTIVE, 

AND MILITARY AUTHORITY IN DEALING WITH THE 

PRISONERS — THE LAST NIGHT IN PRISON. 



The Prophet's Anxiety for his 
own Safety 592 

Hyrum as Comforter 592 

Status of Prisoners Under the 
Law 593 

Letter: General Miner R. 
Deming to Joseph Smith — 
Protection and Admission to 
Presence of the Prophet 593 

Effect of a False Commitment- 593 

Threats in the Governor's 
Presence 594 

Conference of Governor Ford 
and Justice Smith 594 

Letter: Joseph Smith to 
Messrs. Woods and Reid — A- 
nent Excitement in Carthage 595 

Joseph and Hyrum Smith 



Forced from Prison 595 

Prisoners before the Court... 596 

Examination Postponed 597 

Brave Patriarch John Smith... 597 
Pathetic Interview Between 

the Prophet and "Uncle 

John" 598 

Letter: William Clayton to 

Joseph Smith — Conditions in 

Nauvoo 598 

Militia Council Meeting at 

Carthage : 599 

The Last Night in Carthage 

Prison 600 

Conversation with John S. 

Fullmer 601 

Prophpcy on the Head of Dan 

Jones 601 



CHAPTER XXXII. 



THE DAY OP THE MARTYRDOM— THREATS — REPEATED WARNINGS OP THE PRISON- 
ERS' DANGER GIVEN TO GOVERNOR FORD— THE CARTHAGE GREYS AS GUARDS. 



Threats of Frank Worrell 602 

Governor Ford Warned of 

Worrell's Threats 602 

Jones' Warning to Governor 

Ford 603 

Boasts of the Mob 603 

Chauncey L. Higbee to Kill 

the Prophet 604 

Letter: Joseph Smith to 

Emma Smith — Prophet's 

Instructions as to Reception 

of the Governor 605 

Dr. Southwick's Report of the 

Carthage Meeting 606 

Appointment of the Carthage 

Greys to Guard the Prisoners 606 



Wheelock's Remonstrance to 
Governor Ford 607 

Arm* Given to the Prisoners 607 

Reflections of the Prophet on 
Exposing Wickedness 608 

The Prisoners' Message to 
Friends in Nauvoo 609 

The Prophet's Dream of his 

Kirtland Farm 609 

Testimony of Joseph and 
Hyrum to the Book of 
Mormon 010 

Letter; Postscript 610 

Governor Ford Warned of 
the Conspiracy Against 
Prisoners' Lives 611 



CONTENTS. 



XIX 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

DEPARTURE OF GOVERNOR FORD FOR NAUVOO— THE AFTERNOON IN CARTHAGE 

PRISON— THE ASSAULT ON THE PRISON— THE MARTYRDOM 

OF JOSEPH AND HYRUM SMITH. 



PAGE 

Pass for Willard Richards 612 

Letter: Joseph Smith to 
0. H. Browning — Engaging 
Browning as Legal Counsel 613 
The Guard's False Alarm over 

the Nauvoo Legion 613 

Markham Forced out of Car- 
thage 614 

Anxiety of the Jailor 616 

Wine for the Guard 616 



PAGE 

The Assault on the Jail 617 

The Prisoners' Defense 617 

Death of Hyrum Smith 617 

The "Handsome Fight" of 
Joseph Smith and John Tay- 
lor 618 

Taylor Wounded and Helpless 618 

Two Minutes in Jail 620 

First Message to Nauvoo 622 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 



GOVERNOR FORD IN NAUVOO— NEWS OF THE MARTYRDOM MESSAGE TO NAUVOO 
— ARRIVAL OF THE BODIES— SORROWFUL SCENES — THE BURIAL. 

Governor Ford in Nauvoo 624 

Military Display 624 

Departure of the Governor 

from the Danger Zone 625 

The Start from Nauv< o with 

the Bodies of the Martyrs 626 
The Address of Dr. Richards 

el ul 626 



Preparation of the Bodies for 

Burial 627 

Lying in State 628 

The Real Burial 628 

Official Statement of the Mar- 
tyrdom of the Prophet and 
Patriarch 629 



INTRODUCTION. 

I. The Time Period. 

The time-period covered in this sixth volume of the History of 
the Church is less than one year. Nine months and twenty-eight days, 
to be exact; or from the 1st of September, 1843, to the 29th of June, 
1841. Events within this period are therefore given in elaborate detail. 
The general reader and the student of our history will find in this volume 
a larger collection of documents, official and otherwise, covering this 
period, than will be found elsewhere. 

This volume also closes the first Period of our Church History, the 
period marked off by two events: (1) the birth of the Prophet Joseph 
Smith; and (2) his martyrdom and that of his brother Hyrum, at Car- 
thage, Illinois. 

The Journal History of the Prophet, that great source of historical 
knowledge concerning the development of the New Dispensation, closes 
with his entry of the 22nd of June, 1814. After that, for our knowl- 
edge of the remaining events of the Prophet's life, we are dependent 
upon collections of data by the Church historians from public and pri- 
vate sources, of which collections there are two: the first extends from 
the 22nd of June to the 29th of that month, and forms the concluding 
chapters of this volume; the second begins also with the 22nd of June, 
and extends to the 8th of August, 1814; at which time the Twelve 
Apostles were sustained for the time being as the presiding council of 
the Church. This second collection of data by the Church historians 
will open Volume VII of this History. 

In the present volume we see the Prophet's brave struggle against the 
overwhelming odds of his foes — foes within the Church, false brethren; 
and foes without the Church — the combination of political and sectar- 
ian enemies fixed in their determination to kill him, destroy Nauvoo, 
aud expel the Saints from Illinois: for all these things were included in 
the program of the anti-Mormons of Illinois, even before the death of 
the Prophet was encompassed. Three score and seven years now give 
perspective to the stirring events in which the really great drama was 
enacted; and from that vantage ground of perspective said events may 
be reviewed to the enlightenment of those who seek to know the truth, 



XXII INTRODUCTION. 

and the injustice of the things enacted in Illinois during the closing 
months of the Prophet Joseph's earthly career. 

II. Why the Latter-day Saints were Welcomed to Illinois. 



On the one hand, in the above mentioned struggle, was a peo- 
ple who but a few years before had been welcomed into Illinois 
as exiles from a neighboring state, the victims of a cruel and 
ignorant intolerance. They were welcomed, in part, because of 
the injustice to which they had been subjected in a neighboring 
state, and because their physical sufferings, arising from want of 
shelter and food in an inclement season of the year to which they were 
exposed, was such as to move adamantine hearts to pity. Also they 
were welcomed because, as pointed out in the Introduction to Volume 
IV of this History, the state of Illinois needed augmentation of her 
population by just such a people as the Latter-day Saints were — indus- 
trious, frugal, skilled mechanics, successful farmers, experienced men 
of affairs, men capable of trade and commerce, enterprising and with a 
larger proportion of educated men and women among them than was to 
be found among the people of western Illinois in those days. I do not 
here employ the language of adulation on the one hand, nor seek to 
make invidious distinctions upon the other. Either would be vain, 
since the well-known and accepted facts of history would disprove the 
declarations made if not founded in truth. The fact is, however, that 
all that is claimed above for the Missouri exiled Latter-day Saints is 
true and well- attested by their achievements in settling Nauvoo, which 
in four years rose from a ware-house or two and a few half tumble- 
down shacks on the banks of the river, and called "Commerce," to the 
dignity of being the first city in Illinois in population and commercial 
enterprise, and also gave promise of developing into a manufacturing 
center of great importance. This last item was evidenced in the fact 
that the founder of Nauvoo, President Joseph Smith, and the Nauvoo 
city council appreciated the possibilities in the water power of the 
Lower Des Moines Rapids in the Mississippi, at the head of which the 
city was located. Reference to his journal entry for the 23rd of Sep- 
tember (this volume, p. 80) will witness that he suggested that a peti- 
tion be sent to the national Congress for the construction of a canal 
arouud the rapids to overcome the obstruction for the free passage of 
river craft, which the rapids prevented during the low water period of 
each year, and thus enhance the value of the great stream to the inland 
commerce of the west.* Reference again to President Smith's journal 

* That the general government of the United States has since constructed such 
a canal from Keokuk to Montrose, directly opposite Nauvoo on the west, and at a 
cost of more than four and a half million dollars, completing it in 1877, is noted in 
this volume, p. 80 and foot note. 



INTRODUCTION. XXIII 

entry for the 8th of December, 1843 (this volume, p. 103) will disclose 
the fact that he gave instruction in the forenoon to his clerk to draw a 
plan for a dam in the Mississippi; and that in the afternoon of the same 
day the city council met and passed an ordinance authorizing Joseph 
Smith to "erect a dam of suitable height to propel mills and machinery 
from any point within the limits of said city, and below the Nauvoo 
House;" also in connection with this dam to construct a "harbor or 
basin for steamboats and other craft;" and to construct docks, wharfs 
and landings," the wharfage fees to be "regulated by ordinance of said 
city (this volume p. 106). 

111. Nauvoo as a Possible Manufacturing Center. 

What further contributed to the promise that Nauvoo would be a 
great manufacturing center as well as the center of an immense agricul- 
tural region with a splendid commercial outlet, was the fact tbat arti- 
sans and tradesmen of tbe very first order in skill, were rapidly gather- 
ing into the city, not only from the New England and other Eastern 
states of our own country, but also from the British Isles. It was 
inevitable if let alone that Nauvoo would become the greatest manufac- 
turing center of Illinois, and among the first of such cities in the United 
States The Prophet did not live to see even a commencement made 
upon these large enterprises he had conceived, but subsequently his 
zealous followers organized a company to carry them to a successful 
conclusion under the title of "The Nauvoo Water Power Company,"* 
which began the construction of the dam on the 29th of April, 1845; 
but which had to be abandoned because of the hostilities that soon after 
increased and continued until they culminated in the expulsion of the 
Latter-day Saints from Illinois. t 

• See Nauvoo Neighbor for March 5th and March ]'2th. John E. Page was presi- 
dent of the company; and in a communication to the Neighbor (March 12, 1845) 
urging a vigorous proseciition of the enterprise, he said: 

"We have commenced active operations for the building of a dam in the river, 
as noticed in the Neighbor of last week. * * * 

"Here is the proud and gallant Mississippi, with her rapid current, tumbling to 
the broad Atlantic, seeming to say las she quickens her pace over the rugged 
rocks of the lower rapids just opposite to our beautiful Nauvoo) only improve ray 
shores and banks, ye Saints, as ye improve my neighboring soil; and 1 will propel 
your mills, cotton and woollen manufactories, by which your laborers can And 
employ, and your poor can be clothed and fed." 

t As the suggestion of Joseph Smith for building the canal around the Des 
Moines Rapids by the general government of the United States was carried out; so 
also is the water power of the Des Moines Rapids being utilized for manufactur- 
ing and other purposes, first suggested by the Prophet, but now, of course, in a 
way and on a larger scale than it was possible even for men to dream of when the 



XXIV INTKODUCTION. 

In addition to these measures, manufacturing and agricultural asso. 
ciations were incorporated; also the "Nauvoo House Associations" for 
the erection of a hotel, ambitious to be known as the finest hostelry in the 
Upper Mississippi country. One of the agricultural associations, known 
as the "Big Field Corporation," held six sections, or three thousand 
eight hundred and forty acres of land east of Nauvoo; and the year fol- 
lowing the Prophet's death the company harvested about thirty thous- 
and bushels of corn, nearly the same amount of wheat, besides an 
"abundance of oats, barley, buckwheat, potatoes and other vege- 
tables.* 

IV. Educational Measures at Nauvoo. 

And not only in material things was the superior character of Nau- 
voo's founders and builders proclaimed; but equally broad and compre- 
hensive were their preparations for an educational system. By their 
city charter they were empowertd to establish an institution of learning 
within the limits of the city for the teaching of the arts and sciences and 
learned professions, to be called the "University of the City of Nau- 
voo; " also a common school system for the city, all of which was in 
course of development even in the early years of Nauvoo's existence 
And in addition to these direct educational institutions of common 
schools and projected university, literary and dramatic associations 
were organized, as also choral and band organizations for the cultiva- 
tion of musical talents and to promote the pleasure and refinement of 
society; while the religious zeal of the community expressed itself in 
the rapidly rising walls of the splendid temple— soon to be the most 
solid and pretentious building in the state; and in the tireless mission- 
ary enterprise of the dominant Church. 

city council of Nauvoo, in 1843, authorized the construction of a dam to harness 
this power in the Mississippi for the service of man. This, however, is now nearly 
an accomplished fact through the enterprise of the Keokuk and Hamilton Water 
Power Company, which, between Hamilton on the Illinois side, and Keokuk on 
the Iowa side of the Mississippi (eight or nine miles below Nauvoo), has in 
course of construction a dam which, including abutments, will be 4,700 feet in 
length, will stand 32 feet above the river bed, and be 42 feet wide at its base, 
built of solid concrete. In connection with the dam, and incident to it will be 
wharfage and a large drydock for the construction and repair of floating craft. 
There will be developed and for sale as the result of this enterprise, 200.000 horse- 
power for the service of St. Louis and other towns of Missouri, Illinois and Iowa. 
The dam and power house will be built at a cost of $22,000,000. 

* See '-History of the Mormon Church," Americana magazine, number for Janu- 
ary, 1911, Ch. LIX; al»o Elder John Taylor's Journal entry for 5th of September, 
1844. 



INTRODUCTION. xxv 

V. Jealousy of Nauvoo's Promising Greatness. 
Nothing was lacking,then,in the promises of constant and rapid growth 
of prosperity and future greatness of Xauvoo. Small wonder if the nar' 
row bieotry and jealousy of small-souled men of the time and vicinity— 
especially those who were inhabitants of rival towns, particularly those 
of Warsaw and Carthage— were envious of Nauvoo's prosperity and 
promise of future greatness. Hitherto this element of jealousy of Nau- 
voo's prosperity and promise of future greatness has not been 'accorded 
the importance due to it as a contributing cause to the warfare made 
upon that city and the Saints. Little doubt,however, can be entertained 
now attention has been called to it, but what as a contributing cause 
jealousy of Xauvoo stood next to religious prejudice and political dis 
trust and hatred. 

A correspondent from Fair Haven, Connecticut, to a gentleman in 
Xauvoo, set forth this matter most convincingly. An excerpt of th 
letter was published in the Xauvoo Neighbor of August 7th, 1844. It is 
proper to say that the writer was not a member of the Mormon Church: 
"but," as the editor of the Neighbor describes him, "a citizen of Con- 
necticut, loving law and liberty and life; "and now the paragraph deal- 
ing with the point under discussion: 

"? is now ffi kao ^ here th ^t the lazy speculators of Warsaw, and the 
still lazier office drones at Carthage, cared nothing for Joseph Smith 
personally, or for his tenets either; but the prosperity of Xauvoo in- 
creasing as it did, beyond any former parallel, even in the western 
world, excited in their bosoms envy, hatred and all ungodliness This 
is the true secret of all their barbarous movements against Mornion- 
lsm -and they supposed by destroying the Smiths they should ex- 
tinguish their religion, disperse the Mormons-depopulating and deso- 
lating Xauvoo. 

Also a correspondent to the State Register published at Springfield, 
Illinois, speaking of Thomas C. Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal and 
the anti-Mormon disturbances in Hancock county said: 

"He [Sharp] is also described as having made himself the 'or^an 
of a gang of town lot speculators at Warsaw/ who are afraid that 
Xauvoo is about to kill off their town and render speculation abortive "* 

Mr. Backenstos in January, 1845, when the repeal of the Xauvoo 
Charter was under discussion in the Illinois legislature, referred to this 
same subject in a speech on the floor of the house of representatives 
in the course of which he said: 

"Town rivalry had also something to do with this opposition to 
Nauvoo. While Warsaw was on the decline, Xauvoo was rapidly in^ 

18^ RegtSter aniCle ^ C ° Pied int ° the thG XaUV0 ° ™l*bortor November 13th. 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

creasing in wealth and population; a plan to bring about a re-action 
was soon concocted by the leading men of Warsaw, who made one pil- 
grimage after another to Nauvoo, imploring the Mormon Prophet to 
aid them in building up a city adjoining the town of Warsaw, by set- 
tling a portion of the Mormon population in and about Warsaw, and 
commence the building of a new city. The bubble soon exploded, and 
the speculation failed. This gave rise to dissatisfaction with some who 
had heretofore been exceedingly polite to 'Lieutenant General Joseph 
Smith!'"* 

Thus in every way, to refer back to the point of starting the dis- 
cussion of this subdivision, the Latter- day Saints are proven by their 
achievements and the foundations they laid for the future greatness of 
their city, to be a superior people, and hence a desirable addition to 
the population of the then young commonwealth of Illinois. 

VI. The Character of the People of Western Illinois. 

On the other hand there was a population in western Illinois, and 
perhaps more especially in Hancock couniy, which had more taan its 
full share of lawless and desperate men; who, as by a law of social 
gravitation, seek the frontiers of civilization. Moreover it is 
notorious that the whole upper Mississippi was a rendezvous for 
gamblers, counterfeiters, horse thieves, murderers and other criminals 
that infested the great river, which gave easy ingress and egress to a 
frontier wilderness on the one hand, and to such centers of population 
and activity, on the other, as New Orleans, St. Louis, and many minor 
places, besides. "I must give some account of the anti Mormons," 
says Governor Ford in his History of Illinois, when referring to the 
inhabitants of Hancock county. "I had a good opportunity to know 
the settlers of Hancock county," he continues. "I had attended the 
circuit courts there as state's attorney, from 1830, when the county was 
first organized, up to 1834: and to my certain knowledge the early 
settlers, with some honorable exceptions, were in popular language, 
hard cases" (page 406). Then for a period of several years to the 
advent of the "Mormons" he had no means of knowing the character 
of the people who drifted into the country: "But,'' he adds, "having 
passed my whole life on the frontier, on the outer edge of the settle- 
ments, I have frequently seen that a few first settlers would fix the 
character of a settlement for good or for bad, tor many years after its 
commencement. If bad men began the settlement, bad men would be 
attracted to them, upon the well known principle that birds of a feather 
will flock together. Rogues will find each other out, and so will honest 
men. From all which it appears extremely probable, that the later 

*Nauvoo Neighbor, March 12th, 1845. 



INTRODUCTION. XXVII 

immigrants were many of them attracted to Hancock by a secret sym- 
pathy between them and the early settlers." 

Indeed the governor suggests that it may have been "the promptings 
of a secret instinct," which led the "Mormons'' to"discern their fellows" 
and induced them to settle in Hancock in preference to other locali- 
ties open to them. All which may be regarded as an ingenious thrust 
at the Latter-daj 7 Saints, but which fails of reaching irs mark from the 
fact that it was the criminal element chiefly in Hancock count\"s popu- 
lation which arrayed itself in antagonism against the Saints, and against 
whom they were arrayed in all their conflicts in that county. Whereas, 
under the governor's theory, this criminal element among the "old 
citizens" and the Saints should have been as hand in glove in theit co- 
operation of encompassing evil things. But to the contrai-y; from the 
time the "Mormons" appeared on the scenes at Commerce, in 1839, 
until they were expelled, thev steadfastly and emphatically set their 
faces against the evils that cursed that community, and denounced all 
manner of evil both as manifested in a few of their own delinquent 
members, apostates and camp followers who trailed after the main body 
of the Church from Missouri, as well as in others: such as dram-drink- 
ing, swearing, Sabbath-breakiug, contracting debts under pretense of 
poverty and distress without any prospects or intention of paying,* and 
especially did they denounce stealing, under any and all pretexts what- 
soever.! 

And as it was largely the criminal element among the "old citizens" 
that was arrayed against the Saints (with unprincipled politicians and 
a few bigoted and jealous religious leaders added), so was it the con- 
servative and law-abiding portion of the community among whom they 
had many friends; and nearly all of whom were at least so far friendly 
with the Saints that they could not be induced to oppose them, mueh 
less join in acts of mob violence to the injury of their persons or prop- 
erty; for which reason this portion of the non Mormon population were 
called by the contemptuous name of ' "Jack- Mormons," which epithet 
was invented by the editor of the Warsaw Signal, Thomas C. Shar p, 
who also originated the term "Jack-Mason" when editing an anti- 
Masonic paper in western New York. In all probability it was this 
second name which suggested the first. 

*See John Taylor's communication to the Quincy Argus, May 1st, 1&39, History 
of the Church, Vol. Ill, Chapter XXIII. 

tSee Denunciation of Thieves, 1844, by Hyrum Smith; by President Smith and 
the formal action of the Apostles quorum, this History Vol. IV, Chapter XVII 
Also the minutes of the conference held at Nauvoo Aprn, 1843, this History, Vol. 
V, Chapter XVII. 



XXVIII INTRODUCTION . 

VII. Educational Status of the People of Western Illinois- 

Education among tbe masses of Hancock's non- Mormon population 
was of the meagrest kind. Even Mr. Gregg, the historian of the 
county, who always gives the best report possible of conditions, 
remarks, when treating of the county's educational status, that "a new 
country and among pioneers, is not the place where prosperous colleges 
and seminaries, or even high schools, are actually found. Hence 
common schools and, in many instances, very 'common' ones at that, 
were the best means of education in Hancock county in early days," 
But this is said of the schools of Hancock county; the greater number 
of the adult population, 1839-1846, which represent the years when the 
Saints lived in the county, had migrated from states where educational 
opportunities were even fewer and less advanced than in western Illinois. 
Even some of the men prominent in political life in the state were men 
of extremely limited education. Joseph Duncan, elected governor of 
Illinois in 1834, and who had served four terms in Congress previous 
to his election as governor, had but a limited education,'' says Gregg.* 
And of Thomas Carlin, who was the governor of Illinois when the exiled 
Saints moved into the state — he had previously held many minor offices 
— the same authority says: "He had but a meager education. ''f 

But while the above represents the educational conditions both among 
the masses of Hancock county and western Illinois in general, and of 
some of the men in public life, it is also true that there were here and 
there men in Hancock and surrounding counties of good education and 
enlightened culture, such as Stephen A. Douglas, 0. H. Browning, 
Major Warren, John J. Hardin, General Minor R. Deming, Samuel 
Marshal, Judge Jesse B. Thomas, Josiah Lamborn, Governor Ford and 
others. 

VIII. The Political Phase. 

It has already been observed in these volumes (Vol. IV, Introduc. 
tion) that in addition to the Latter-day Saints being welcomed into 
Illinois on account of their economic value in a newly and sparsely 
settled country, as wealth creators through their industry, frugality 
and skill in mechanics and husbandry, political parties of Illinois both 
Whigs and Democrats vied with each other in heartiness of welcome, 
each hoping to profit by the influx of the new population in both state 

*History of Hancock County, p. 158. 
tlbid. 



JXEBQDJLCTION. XXIX 

and national elections. Hence it was possible to obtain for Nauvoo 
the exceptional powers that constituted her, under the letter of 
her charter, an autonomy within the limits of her boundaries more 
akin to a sovereign state than to a municipality within a state and a 
county. And such were the powers claimed for her by her founders.* 
Hence also that catering to the misconception and wrong interpreta- 
tions of the chartered powers of Nauvoo by lawyers and politicians 
seeking professional and political favors of the people, which encour- 
aged the belief that the city government was the omnipotent political 
power within the city limits; and that her municipal court was not only 
equal to, but even superior to the state courts — "for all other courts 
were restricted," it was contended, while the municipal court of Nauvoo 
was not restricted! Similar claims of absolutism were made respecting 
the city council as a law-making power; and thus were the people of 
Nauvoo misled by their legal and political advisers, who gave false 
counsel instead of true, and who encouraged the people in their pi - eju- 
dices and flattered their vanity rather than corrected their errors by an 
appeal to sound judgment and to the law. 

IX. Mischief Arising from False Legal and Political 

Counsel. 

Much mischief arose from this source. It was because of these 
misconceptions in respect of the character of their city government that 
led to the enactment of those ill advised and unwarranted city ordi- 
nances — 

That made gold and silver alone legal tender within the city; 

That declared Joseph Smith exempt from arrest on requisitions from 
Missouri founded upon the old difficulties in that state, and providing 
that persons making an attempt to arrest him might be taken with or 
without process, imprisoned for life, and might not be pardoned by the 
governor without consent of the mayor;f 

That authorized the city council, marshal, constables and city watch 
to require all strangers entering the city or already tarrying there to 
give their names, former residence and for what intent they were tarry- 
ing in the city, and answer such other questions as the officers respect- 
ively deemed proper to ask; refusal to give the desired information, or 
giving false names or information subjected them to the same penalties 
as "vagrants and disorderly persons;" 

That further authorized and required the above named officers to 

* See this History Vol. V. Ch. ssiv and Vol. IV. Introduction pp, xxii et seq. 
t This ordinance about a month after its enactment was repealed at the suggestion 
of President Smith. See this volume pp. 55-6. 



XXX INTEODUCTION. 

"hail and take all persons found strolling about the city at night after 
nine o'clock and before sunrise, and to confine them in ward for trial 
under the ordinances concerning vagrants and disorderly persons, 
unless they could give a good account of themselves for being out "after 
nine o'clock; " 

That further authorized and required the aforesaid officers to enter 
all hotels or houses of public entertainment, and such other habitations 
as they may judge proper, and require the inmates to give immediate 
information of all persons residing in said hotel or habitation, and their 
business, occupation or movements, under penalty of forfeiture of 
license, if a public house, and they and the transient persons subject 
to the penalties visited upon vagrants for failure to give the informa- 
tion required, or giving false information; while the officer who should 
"refuse or neglect to perform the above duties should be fined $100, and 
be broke of his office;" 

That forbade the search and seizure of person or property by foreign 
process [i. e. other process than that issuing from the city's authority] 
within the city of Nauvoo, leading to the widespread belief that the 
design of said ordinance was "to hinder the execution of the statutes 
of Illinois" within said city;* 

That asked the genei'al government to ratify the Nauvoo Charter, 
and in addition constitute the city a territorial government, by grant- 
ing "all rights, powers, privileges and immunities belonging to territor- 
ies and not repugnant to the constitution of the UnkejLiilatea^j with 
power granted to the mayor to call to his aid a sufficient number of the 
United States troops, in connection with the Nauvoo Legion, to repel 
the invasion of mobs, keep the public peace, protect the innocent from 
lawless banditti; the United States officers to obey the requisition of 
this ordinance; and the Nauvoo Legion, when in service quelling mobs 
and preserving the public peace, to be under the same regulations, 
rules and laws of pay as the troops of the United States; the territorial 
privileges to continue until the "state of Missouri restores to those 
exiled citizens [the Latter-day Saints] the lands, rigUts, privileges, 
property, and damages for all losses" they had sustained by being ban- 
ished from that commonwealth ;f 

And, finally, that asserted the right of the municipal court to arrest 

* This alleged "design" of the ordinance President Smith specifically denied in 
the open session of the city council, and to a committee of lawyers from Carthage, 
who waited upon the city council to protest against this ordinance; and the ordin- 
ance was amended by a third section disclaiming such alleged intention, but still 
retaining the feature that forced state process to be served through the agency of 
Nauvoo's city officers. See this vol. pp. 173-4. 

t This volume pp. 130-132. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

process issued by the state's circuit courts, aud even by the United 
States courts, by habeas corpus proceedings; and insisted, not only upon 
the right to pass judgment upon the sufficiency of writs under which 
arrests were made, but upon the right also to go behind the writs and 
try the cases upon their merits. 

X. Subserviency of Politicians and Lawyers. 

Blame for this political subserviency and misleading political and 
legal advice, may not be charged on one party more than another. 
If Cvrus Walker, a Whig candidate for congress, assented to the doc- 
trine as understood by Nauvoo's leading men, that the municipal court 
of Nauvoo held the power under habeas corpus procedure to arrest exe- 
cution of process of the state courts, as he did,* so, too, did Joseph P« 
Hoge, Democratic nominee; and even Governor Ford, when requested to 
call out the militia to rearrest Joseph Smith after he had been liberated 
from the custody of Sheriff Reynolds, agent of Missouri, under habeas 
corpus proceedings, took refuge behind the habeas corpus proceed, 
ings of the Municipal Court at Nauvoo. In that case the court not 
only inquired into the sufficiency of the writ of requisition from Mis- 
souri, and granted by Governor Ford himself, but also went back of 
the writ and tried the case exparte on its merits, and finally dis" 
charged the prisoner, both "for want of substance in the warrant, 
* * as well as upon the merits of the case.''! When 

answering the request of Missouri to rearrest Joseph Smith, Governor 
Ford, I say, at least took refuge behind the aforesaid proceedings of the 
Municipal Court to the extent of saying, in the face of that procedure, 
that "no process, officer or authority of Illinois had been resisted or 
interfered witb, r ± and therefore refused to call out the militia to rear- 
rest President Smith. 

It is but fair to Governor Ford, however, to say that in his inaugura^ 
speech of December 8th, 1842, he pointed out what he regarded as 
objectionable features in the Nauvoo charter, and recommended its 
modification^ and later censured the lawyers for misleading the Nau- 
voo city authorities in this matter, in the following passage from a 
letter to the Mayor and City Council of Nauvoo, under date of June 
22 nd, 1844. 

You have also assumed to yourselves more power than you are 
entitled to in relation to habeas corpus under your charter. I know that 
you have been told by lawyers, for the purpose of gaining your favor, 

* This History Vol. V, pp. 467-8, 472. 

tThis History, Vov. V, pp. 473-4. 

t See ForcTs letter to Thomas Reynolds, Governor of Missouri, under date of 
August 14. 1843. This History, Vol. V, pp. 553-6. 

§ Ibid p. 200. 



XXXII INTRODUCTION. 

that you have this power to any extent. In this they have deceived you 
tor their own base purposes. Your charter supposes that you may pass 
ordinances, a breach of which will result in the imprisonment of the 
offender. 

For the purpose of giving more speedy relief to such persons author- 
ity was given to the Municipal Court to issue writs of habeas corpus in all 
cases arising under the ordinances of the city. 

It was never supposed by the Legislature, nor can the language of 
your charter be tortured to mean that a jurisdiction was intended to be 
conferred which would apply to all cases of imprisonment under the 
general laws of the state or of the United States, as well as the city 
ordinances. 

To which President Smith replied: 

Whatever power we have exercised m the habeas corpus has been done in 
accordance with the letter of the Charter and Constitution as we confi- 
dently understood them; and that, too, with the ablest counsel; but if it be 
so that we have erred in this thing, let the Supreme Court correct the 
evil. We have never gone contrary to constitutional law, so far as we 
have been able to learn it. If lawyers have belied their profession to 
abuse us the evil be on their heads * 

XI The Fate of a Balance of Poiver Factor in Politics. 

Being misled by false legal and political advice was not the only 
misfortune of the kind perpetrated upon the Saints, first by the subser. 
viency of, and then the betrayal by, politicians and lawyers. The hope 
of both parties to secure political advantage by the influx of the new 
Latter-day Saint population into the state has been already referred to; as 
also the efforts of both parties to gain their favor by granting excep- 
tional favors to them in founding Nauvoo. When, however, the time for 
voting came, and the Saints voted according to their convictions of 
duty, or as their inclinations prompted, the defeated party or candidates 
blamed them for the defeat, and straightway favored the adoption of 
an anti- Mormon policy, which found support not only in the defeated 
party, but also among those who felt a grievance against the Saints on 
other accounts; some because Nauvoo's prosperity and constantly 
increasing importance as a center of population and trade and com- 
merce was rapidly eclipsing all other towns of the state; and others, 
over-anxious to retard, if not destroy, a rival system on account of 
religious prejudice. When an anti-Mormon party took the field, pledged 
kself to repeal the Nauvoo charter, and to drive the Mormons from the 
state— as was the pledge of Joseph Duncan, Whig candidate for Gover- 
nor of Illinois in 1841,f there was really no other course for the Saints 
to pursue but to combine solidly for the defeat of the candidate and 

* This History, Vol. VI. Ch. XXVI, where both letters will be found at length. 
tSee Ford's History of Illinois, p. 269; also this History, Vol IV, pp. 479-481 
and footnotes; Vol. V, p. 490. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIII 

party making such pledges ; the instinct of self-preservation impelled 
such a course, rather than the prompting of inclination. 

For a time, as in all such cases, the party receiving the support of 
this practically solid Mormon vote could be relied upon to protect and 
defend those who had made success possible for them; but at the first 
indication that the hold of the favored party upon such vote is pre- 
carious, that there is a possibility that it might go to the other side,* 
naturally the ardor of their friendship, seldom or never sincere, cools; 
and they are as ready to combine for the destruction of their former 
allies as others have been. And when in addition to precariousness of 
hold upon those who possess the balance of power there stands up in 
the back ground of things the possibility that the balance of power 
party may become strong enough in the political subdivision in which 
they are located to run affairs on their own account, the likelihood of 
all parties combining against them becomes all the more assured. In 
Illinois the Latter-day Saints ran the entire political gamut of experi- 
ence as a "balance of power" factor in the politics of western Illinois. 
The final phase of that experience had been reached when at a mass 
meeting held at Carthage on the sixth of September, 1843, it was— 

Resolved, That as it has been too common for several years past for 
politicians of both political parties, not only of this county, but like- 
wise of the state, to go to Nauvoo and truckle to the heads of the Mor- 
mon clan for their influence, we pledge ourselves that we will not sup- 
port any man of either party in the future who shall thus debase him- 
self.f 

Politicians still sought Mormon aid to encompass their own political 
ends, but, as Governor Ford later remarked, '"they were willing and 
anxious for Mormon voters at elections, but they were unwilling to risk 
their popularity with the people, by taking part in their favor even 
when law and justice, and the Constitution, were all on their side;"f and 

*Such appeared to be the very great probability in the election of 18-43. As will 
be remembered by the readers of Vol. IV of this History, Cyrus Walker, Esq., 
Whig candidate for Congress, rendered valuable service in delivering the Prophet 
from the hands of those bent upon running him into Missouri for trial on the old 
complaint against him in that state. That service could only be obtained in that 
crisis by Joseph Smith pledging himself to vote for Walker, which was interpreted 
tomeam, of course, the Mormon vote; and it was generally conceded that the 
Whigs receiving the Mormon vote would be successful. Before the day of elec- 
tion, however, there had arisen strong reasons for believing that the arrest of the 
Prophet and the effort to take him to Missouri, as also Walker's appearance upon 
the scene to effect his liberation, was itself a political trick to secure the Mormon 
vote for the Whig party, which was thwarted by the Mormons voting, at the last 
moment, the Democratic ticket. (See Vol. V, Chapter XXVI). 

tFord's History of Illinois, p. 364. 

C Vol. VI 



XXXIV INTODRUCTION. 

so finally all parties turned against them, and they were at the last, as 
we shall see in a future volume of this history, expelled without mercy 
from the state. 

(XII. Joseph Smith 1 s Candidacy for the Presidency. 

The mischief that threatened during the Prophet's life time, and 
which finally befell the Saints, was clearly foreseen by the Church 
leaders; and the desire to escape from the threatening portents of it 
prompted the nomination of Joseph Smith for the office of President of 
the United States, in the general election of 1844. Of course there 
could be no hope seriously entertained that, he would be elected; but, as 
explained by an editorial in the limes and Seasons* if the Saints could 
not succeed in electing their candidate, they would have the satisfaction 
of knowing that they had acted conscientiously; they had used their 
best judgment, under the circumstances, and if they had to throw away 
their votes, it was better to do so upon a worthy than upon an unworthy 
individual who might use the weapon they put into his hand to destroy 
them. The Prophet himself evidently regarded his nomination humor- 
ously rather than seriously, except that it might result in withdrawing 
the Saints from the position of shuttle-cock between the battle doors of 
the two old political parties. "I care but little about the presidential 
chair," he said on one occasion. "I would not give half as much for 
the office of President of the United States as I would for the one I now 
hold as Lieutenant General of the Nauvoo Legion." Again he said: 
"When I get hold of eastern papers, and see how popular I am; I am 
afraid myself that I shall be elected; but if I should be, I would not 
say [t. e. to the Latter-day Saints] your cause is just but I can do noth- 
ing tor you." 

As a further evidence that Joseph Smith did not regard his candidacy 
as likely to be successful, he was, at the time of his nomination and 
afterwards, pushing vigorously his project of a western movement for 
the Church. He had drawn up a memorial and ordinance to the 
national congress asking to be authorized by the general government to 
raise one hundred thousand armed volunteers to police the inter- 
mountain and Pacific coast west from Oregon to Texas, for the purpose 
of assuring Texas her independence, and maintaining the claims of the 
United States to Oregon, and affording the whole western population 
of our country protection from Indian depredations; and thus con- 
tribute to the rapid settlement and development of that noble extent of 
country lying between the Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean. His 
agents, Orson Hyde and Orson Pratt, presented the matter to sen- 






'See this volume, pp. 214-217, where the editorial is given in extenso. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

ators and representatives at Washington, and a number favored the 
project of the removal of the Mormons to the west, but generally urged 
that Joseph Smith go without seeking: special authorization from the 
government. ' Reference to Orson Hyde's report of the procedure 
among congressmen and their views upon the subiect will be found in 
his two important communications to the Prophet from Washington, in 
chapter XVI of this volume. Mr. John Wentworth, representative to 
Congress from northern Illinois, introduced President Smith's Memorial 
and Ordinance into the House on the 25th of May, to be read for the 
information of the House; but before the reading was concluded, 
objection was made, and as it required unanimous consent to have it 
read, further reading was prevented. A vote to suspend the rules in 
order that Mr. Wentworth might secure the reading of the memorial 
stood 79 yeas, and 86 nays, which vo'e gives evidence at least of a wide- 
spread desire to have the matter presented to the House.* 

XIII. Missouri as a Factor in the Affairs of Nauvoo. 

In addition to all the Illinois factors that entered into the complex 
situation confronting the Saints at Nauvoo, at the time of the Prophet's 
death, and some time previous to his arrest, was the attitude and 
course pursued by Missouri with reference to Nauvoo and the Saints, 
Disgraced as a state by her own conduct towards the Latter-day Saints, 
when they were inhabitants within her borders, her people were all too 
willing to co-operate with any party or agency that would continue to 
make war upon them. If the state of Illinois which with open arms had 
received the people that Missouri exiled from her borders, under such 
circumstances of cruelty, could also be brought to drive them from that 
state, it would be regarded, in a way, as a vindication of Missouri and 
the course she had taken in her treatment of the Saints, since in effect 
it would say, that the people of Illinois, no less than the people of Mis- 
souri, found it impossible to tolerate the "Mormons;" and therefore 
there must be something fundamentally wrong with them, rather than 
with the people of these states. Hence the anti-Mormons of Hancock 
and adjoining counties in Illinois, always fouud support in whatever of 
violence or wrong they planned against the Saints. Hence the constant 
threats of invasion of mobs from Missouri, emphasized by occasional 
kidnapping expeditions into Hancock county, together with frequent 
requisitions upon the Illinois authorities for the arrest and extradition 
of Joseph Smith on the old charges against him in Missouri. And these 

*See Chapter XI, this volume, where the memorial itself, Hyde's two letters and 
the action in the House of Representatives will he found in full. 



XXXVI INTRODUCTION. 

Missouri threats and outrages were not among the least of the annoy- 
ances and anxieties of the Saints; and they make clear tee necessity 
that was , felt for an efficient militia force at Nauvoo. Hence the 
Nauvoo Legion and the lively interest manifested in its frequent 
musters and drills, and its thorough equipment; all of which, but for 
the constant danger of invasion from Missouri mobs, and the co-opera- 
tion with them of like forces in Illinois, would have been inconsistent 
with the deportment of a religious community whose mission was one of 
peace and good will towards men; and who had been especially com- 
manded to "renounce war and proclaim peace" (Doc and Cov. Sec. 98, 
16); and commanded also to "sue for peace," both to those who had 
"smitten" them— the revelation was given after the expulsion from 
Jackson county, Missouri— and "to all people;" and "lift up an ensign 
of peace, and make a proclamation of peace unto the ends of the earth" 
(Doc. and Cov. sec 105: 38-40). But invasions from Missouri con- 
stantly menacing them, and the danger of mob violence breaking out in 
Illinois, justified the oiganization of the Legion, and the maintenance 
of its efficiency by full equipment of arms and frequent drills and mus- 
ters; for the right of self-preservation is not abrogated by any divine 
law given to the Saints; and duty to protect home and family against 
the assaults of the evil-disposed, presses as firmly upon the Saints, as 
upon those who have not definitely pledged themselves to a piogram of 
righteousness. 

XI F. Apostate Conspirators at Nauvoo. 

One other factor only remains to be mentioned of those that enter 
into that combination of forces that resulted in the death of the Prophet 
and the Patriarch. That is the conspiracy of apostates within Nauvoo 
itself. 

The apostates and their sympathizers were headed by a coterie of 
prominent young men: The two Law brothers, William and Wilson; 
Robert D. and Charles A. Foster, brothers; Francis M. and Chauncey 
L. Higbee, brothers, and unworthy sons of that most faithful man and 
the Prophet's devoted friend, Judge Elias Higbee (See Vol. IV pp. 81- 
100 passim); Sylvester Emmons and Joseph H. Jackson. Of these, 
William Law was counselor in the First Presidency, and Wilson Law 
was a major general, and commander of one of the cohorts of the 
Nauvoo Legion, and all were or had been more or less prominent in the 
public life of Nauvoo. 

The cause of their apostasy seems to have been the baneful influence 
of John C. Bennett's immoralities; for these men were quite generally 
associates of his before his flight from Nauvoo. They evidently lost 






INTRODUCTION. XXXVII 

the spirit of the gospel, wandered through sin into spiritual darkness, 
and seemingly were obsessed by a murderous spirit against the Prophet 
who boldly revealed their wickedness and publicly denounced their con- 
duct; and in retaliation this coterie of apostates entered into conspir- 
acies to encompass President Smith's death, and that of his brother 
Hyrum. They were in communication with the Prophet's enemies in 
Missouri, and sought to betray him into their hands. They were among 
the chief actors in all schemes of opposition and conspiracies against 
him in the closing year of his life, including those plots which eventu- 
ated in the martvrdom of both Prophet and Patriarch at Carthage. \ 

XV. The li 'Expositor" Affair. 

Such are the chief factors that enter into the combination of events 
detailed in this volume of History and which have a direct relationship 
to the martyrdom of the Smith brothers. They existed as combustible 
matarials awaiting only the spark that would set them aflame to work 
death and destruction. 

The spark came. It came in the destruction of the Nauvoo Expositor, 
published by the above mentioned coterie of apostates. It was the in- 
tention of the Expositor, as its name would indicate, to make an expose 
of alleged conditions in Nauvoo, in the moral, social, religious and pol- 
itical phase of them. Also to agitate for the "unconditional repeal of the 
Nauvoo Charter. '' This was a challenge to mortal combat, the issue 
being the life of the city of Nauvoo; and after that the question of the 
existence of the Church in Illinois, or even within the confines of the 
United States; for undoubtedly the city charter once repealed, carrying 
with it the disorganization of the Legion, protection for the Saints, as 
matters stood in 1844, both civil and military, would be gone. It was a 
life and death struggle then that the advent of the Expositor inaugurated. 
The Saints stood at such disadvantage in the proposed contest that if 
the Expositor was allowed to run its course it would inevitably have won 
its case against the city; and against the Church, so far as the latter 
continuing in Illinois, and perhaps as far as its continuance in the 
United States was concerned. 

The new marriage system, involving the practice, within certain limi- 
tations and under very special conditions, of a plurality of wives, con- 
stituted a ground of appeal ro popular prejudices and passions that 
would have been absolutely resistless if the paper had been allowed to 
proceed. The charter would have been repealed; the city government 
destroyed, or at the least modified and placed in the hands of an apos- 
tate or anti-Mormon minority whose administration would have been 
intolerable to the large majority of Nauvoo's citizens; and finally the 



XXXVIII INTRODUCTION. 

scenes of Missouri would have been re-enacted in an Illinois setting. 
In the presence of such difficulties, what was to be done? In addition 
to declaring the existence of the practice of plural marriage, not yet 
announced or publicly taught as a doctrine of the Church, and agitat- 
ing for the unqualified repeal of the Nauvoo charter, gross immoralities 
were charged against leading citizens which doubtless rendered the 
paper grossly libelous. In other cities such an avowed enemy as the 
Expositor was, would have been destroyed by a mob. For the people 
of Nauvoo to have so proceeded would have been a departure from 
their principles of upholding law and order, and would have brought 
upon them the people of the surrounding counties, and from Missouri 
in overwhelming numbers. Mob violence could not be thought of; and 
yet the safety of the community imperatively demanded the suppres- 
sion of the Expositor at any cost. 

Under these circumstances the city council met and took under con- 
sideration the Expositor and the necessity of destroying it. As their 
charter conferred upon the city the right to remove nuisances, the city 
council declared the Expositor press a nuisance and directed the Mayor 
to have it destroyed, which he did by civing an order to that effect, 
and it was destroyed without riot or tumult. 

The legality of the action of the Mayor and City Council was, of 
course, questionable, though some sought to defend it on legal grounds; 
but it must be conceded that neither proof nor argument for legality are 
convincing. On the grounds of expediency or necessity the action is 
more defensible. The existence of the city, the preservation of the 
Latter-day Saints until provision could be made for a retreat from 
Illinois— which retreat was even then being provided for by the Prophet 
in the projected movement of the Church to the west— demanded the 
cessation of the publication of the Expositor. By proceeding at least 
under the forms of law, the city council, though they might be con- 
scious of the illegality of their action,avoided the necessity of the people 
resoning to mob action for self-preservation, and made it possible for 
the legality of their course to be determined in the courts, and the 
parties injured to recover compensation for the press and damages by 
civil process. Meantime the libelous press with its mission of destruc- 
tion of the Saints at Nauvoo was silenced; and had events taken the 
course which the action of the city council provided, a respite would 
have been gained from impending violence, during which arrange- 
ments for the retreat of the Saints from Illinois could have been 
completed and a goal of safety won for them. Under a plea, then, 
of absolute necessity to self-preservation of a community, and to achieve 
the retreat here alluded to, and with the certainty that those injured 
in property by the Expositor's destruction would be fully compensated 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

iii civil action before the courts — the action of the mayor and city 
council of Nauvoo is defensible, even if not on the ground of the 
legality of their procedure.* 

XVI. The Appeal to the Mob Spirit. 

Events did not take the course planned lor them. The uproar that 
followeJ the destruction of the Expositor press, put all reason at de- 
fiance. At Warsaw a mass meetiner was held which issued a statement! 
in connection with the resolution- it passed, that "A mob at Nauvoo, 
under a city ordinance, has violated the highest privile.ee in govern- 
ment- and to seek redress in the ordinary way would be utterly in- 
effectual Resolved, that we hold ourselves at all times in 
readiness to co-operate with our fellow citizens in this state, Missouri, 
and Iowa, to exterminate, utte/ly exterminate the wicked and abominable 
Mormon leaders, the authors of our troubles. * * * The 
time, in our opinion, has arrived when the adherents of Smith as a 
body should be driven from the surrounding settlements into Nauvoo. 
That the Prophet and his miscreant adherents should then be demanded 
at their hands; and, if not surrendered, a war of extermination should 
be waged to the entire destruction, if necessary for our protection, of 
his a~iherents. And we hereby recommend this resolution to the con- 
sideration of the several townships, to the mass convention to be held 
at Carthage." 

The Carthage meeting held a few days later embodied the above in 
their resolutions, as did other mass meetings held at various places. 
The Warsaiv Signal in its impression of June l'ith, passionately said:f 

"We have only to state that this [i. e. The destruction of the Expositor 
press] is sufficient! War and extermination is inevitable! CITIZENS 
ARISE, ONE and ALL! ! ! Can you stand by, and suffer such IN- 
FERNAL DEVILS! to ROB men of their property rights, without 
avenging them? We have no time to comment: every man will make 
his own LET IT BE MADE WITH POWDER and BALL!!!" 

All the combustible material to which attention is called in this Intro 
ductiou was instantlv aflame at the destruction of the Expositor press. 
Every passion was appealed to, jealousy, envy, cupidity, hatred. All 
the lawless elements of the community were practically invited to 

*See Chapter XXX, passim this volume for a discussion of the JExjyosiior; also 
Taylor-Colfax Discussion on the "Mormon" Question, p. 20. Also an editorial 
from the Nauvoo Neighbor, see p. 490, this volume. 

tl follow the typing and punctuation from the Signal as given by the late John 
Hay, secretary of state, Atlantic Monthly of December, 1869. 



XL INTRODUCTION. 

assemble and run riot in lawless violence, and excess of carnage and 
destruction of property and life. Nothing but the wholesome fear of 
the strength and effectiveness of the Nauvoo Legion at that time held 
this lawless element in check. 

It was all in vain that hearings were had before the municipal court of 
Nauvoo, on the Expositor matter; in vain that a subsequent hearing was 
had before Esquire Wells, then not a Mormon and living outside of 
Nauvoo limits; in vain that the Nauvoo Neighbor sought to conciliate 
the awakening wrath that was aroused in the community, bv pleading 
that if the citv council had ''exceeded the law of the land, a higher 
court could regulate the proceedings;" in vain that President Smith 
urged Governor Ford to come to Nauvoo to make personal investigation 
of conditions and take the necessary steps to prevent riot and war — all 
was in vain; preparations were in the making on all sides for an up- 
rising angainst Nauvoo and the Saints, and there was nothing left but 
to defend the city by placing it under martial law and calling upon the 
Legion to resist the threatened assault, which act was made the basis for 
the subsequent charge of "treason." 

Then followed in quick succession the demand of the governor for the 
Mayor and members of the City Council to come to Carthage and submit 
to trial under circumstances that inevitably meant death; the inspira- 
tion of the Prophet to go to the West and all would be well; the cross- 
ing of the Mississippi by the Prophet and a few trusted friends to make 
preparations for that journey; the accusation by false friends of 
cowardice on the Prophet's part, the flight as of a false shepherd leav. 
ing the flock to be devoured by wolves; the lightning-like retort of the 
Prophet — "If my lije is of no value to my friends, it is oj none to myself;'''' 
the return to Nauvoo; the subsequent going to Carthage to submit to 
the demands of the governor of Illinois in every particular, and the 
well-known story of Carthage jail — the martyrdom. 

XVII. llie Prophet's Nobility in the hour of Trial. 

The bearing of the Prophet throughout the closing months with which 
this volume deals is admirable/ There is no faltering or evidence of 
weakness at any point of his conduct. If criticised at all it would be 
for over-daring, for over self-confidence, that approached sublimity. 
Strong men through wickedness fell away from their discipleship, and 
conspired against him; the Prophet reproved them in the gate, and pro- 
claimed their iniquities in public when hope of reforming them was 
gone, ifle saw mobs forming for the destruction of himself and Nauvoo 
and his people; he calmly prepared to meet force with force, and 
drilled and prepared his legion for the conflict, entrenched some of the 
approaches to the city, and picketed them with guards; as,mayor of the 



INTRODUCTION. XLI 

city he placed the city under martial law; and as lieutenant-general he 
took personal command of the Nauvoo Legion and stood ready to de- 
fend the rights of himself and his people, for which his revolutionary 
ancestry had fought in the war for American independence. He be- 
lieved gloriously in the right of self-defense, and resistance to op- 
pression by physical force if necessary. To his uncle John Smith at 
Ramus who had asked for counsel in the disturbed state of things, he 
wrote ten days before his death: 

"I write these few lines to inform you that we feel determined in this 
place not to be dismayed if hell boils over all at once. We feel to 
hope for the best, and determined to prepare for the worst, and we want 
this to be your motto in common with us: We will never ground our arms 
until toe give them up by death.''' 1 

And from Carthage prison, on the morning of the day of his martyr- 
dom, he wrote to his wife for transmission to his people: 

"There is one principle which is eternal: It is the duty of all men to 
protect their lives and the lives of their household, whenever necessity 
requires, and no power has a right to forbid it, should the last extreme 
arrive; but I anticipate no such extreme; but caution is the parent of 
safety." 

When the jail in Carthage was assailed, and the mob was pouring 
murderous volleys into the room occupied by himself and friends, the 
Prophet turned from the prostrate form of his murdered brother to face 
death- dealing guns and bravely returned the fire of his assailants, 
"bringing his man down every time," and compelling even John Hay, 
who but reluctantly accords the Prophet any quality of virtue, to con- 
fers that he "made a handsome fight'' in the jail.* 

XVIII. Always the Prophet- Teacher. 

But what was more wonderful than the manifestation of moral and 
physical courage and good generalship during these turbulent months 
of his career, was the pursuance of his duties as a teacher of religious 
truth — his calling as a Prophet of God. Notwithstanding he was 
troubled on every side, he could compose his mind to instruct the 

*This is the late Secretary of State John Hay, in the Atlantic Monthly for De- 
cember, 1869; "Joe Smith died bravely, he stood by the jam of the door and fired 
four shots, bringing his man down every time. He shot an Irishman named Wills, 
who was in the affair from his congenital love of a brawl, in the arm; Gallagher, a 
Southerner from the Mississippi bottom, in the face; Voorhees, a half-grown hob- 
bledehoy from Bear Creek, in the shouldei ; and another gentleman, whose name I 
will not mention, as he is prepared to prove an alibi, and besides stands six feet 
two in his moccasins." In a later paragraph he refers to "the handsome light in 
the jail." 



XLII INTRODUCTION. 

Church en such doctrines as the complete salvation of their dead; how 
to proceed with the administration of all ordinances given for 
and in behalf of the dead; the doctrine of the resurrection and the 
reality of spiritual existences; the plurality of Divine Intelligences, or 
Gods; the nature of man's spirit; the doctrine of eternal progress for 
intelligences who keep the estates through which they are appointed to 
pass; the nature and character of the Godhead, and the relationship of 
man to God. All these themes and many more he dwelt upon in public 
discourse and private interview and written communications. He lived 
his life, as I have said elsewhere, in cresendo, it grew in intensity and 
volume as he approached its close. Higher and still higher the inspi- 
ration of God directed his thoughts; bolder were his conceptions, and 
clearer his expositions of them. So far was he from being a "fallen 
prophet' 1 in the closing months of his career, as apostates charged, that 
he grew stronger with each passing day; more impressive in weight of 
personal character, and charm of manner; for he preserved amid all the 
conflicts and trials through which he passed — until the shadows ot im- 
pending death began to fall upon him in Carthage prison — the natural 
sweetness of his nature, and the intellectual playfulness characteristic 
of him from boyhood — so do not fallen prophets. 

******* 

Side by side on the banks of the majestic river that half encircles 
Nauvoo, the "beautiful," carrying with it also the idea of "rest," 
peacefully sleep the brothers, Joseph and Hyrum Smith, the Prophet 
and the Patriarch of the Church in the New Dispensation of the Gospel. 
Their lives were interlaced by almost daily associations from childhood 
to the last awful scene of martyrdom. It was therefore most .'ittingthat 
they should be buried beside each other, on the banks of the "Father 
of Waters" in the city they had founded, where they had toiled and 
suffered and achieved; where their joys rose to greater heights and 
their sorrows sounded greater depths than falls to the lot of but few men 
in this world. Undisturbed may their death slumber be until it shall be 
ended by the trump of God, calling them forth to a glorious resurrec. 
tion. 



* 



Prophet and Patriarch 

In the Temple square at Salt Lake City, where tens of thousands, made 
up of people of nearly every nation in the world view them, stand two 
bronze statues, life size, on granite bases. They are the statues of the 
Brothers Smith, the Prophet and the Patriarch of the New Dispensation of 
the Gospel. On the granite basements, respectively, are bronze tablets on 



XLIII INTEODUCTIOX. 

which is engraved the Life Record of these men, and what is character- 
istic of each. 

The text of the bronze plate of Hyruni Smith's statue is as follows: 

HYRUM SMITH. 

The Patriarch and a witness of the Book of Mormon. 

An elder brother, and the steadfast friend and counselor of Jeseph 
Smith, the Prophet. 

Born at Tunbridge, Vermont, February 9th, 1800: suffered martyr- 
dom with the Prophet at Carthage, Illinois, on the 27th of June, 1844. 

The friendship of the brothers Hyrum and Joseph Smith is foremost 
among the few great friendships of the world's history. Their names 
will be classed among the martyrs for religion. 

The Book of Mormon — the plates of which Hyrum Smith both saw 
and handled; the revelations in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants; 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints — these, to bring them 
forth for the salvation of the world, cost the best blood of the 19th 
century. 

"I could pray in my heart that all men were like my brother Hyrum, 
who possesses the mildness of a lamb and the integrity of Job, and, in 
short, the meekness and humility of Christ. I love him with that love 
that is stronger than death." — Joseph Smith. 

"If ever there was an exemplary, honest and virtuous man, the 
embodiment of all that is noble in the human form, Hyrum Smith was 
the representative." — Presideyit John laylor. 

As he shared in the labors, so does he share in the honor and glory 
of the New Dispensation with his Prophet Brother. 

In life they were not divided; in death they were not separated; in 
glory they are one. 

The text on the west side of the base of Joseph Smitn's tablet is: 

JOSEPH SMITH. 

The Prophet of the Xew Dispensation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ 
our Lord. He was born at Sharon, Vermont, on the 23rd of December, 
1805; and suffered Martyrdom for the word of God and the testimony 
of Jesus at Carthage, Illinois, on the 27th of June, 1S44. 

HIS VISION OF GOD. 

I saw two Personages whose glory and brightness defy all descrip 
tion. One of them spake unto me and said: 
" This is my Beloved Son: hear Him " 
I asked which of all the sects was right, and which I should join. I 



XLIV INTRODUCTION. 

was answered I must join none of them; they were all wrong; they 
teach for doctrine the commandments of men; I received a promise that 
the fulness of the Gospel would at some future time be made known 
to me. 

THE BOOK OF MORMON. 

This book was revealed to him, and he translated it by the gift and 
power of God. It is an inspired history of ancient America, and con- 
tains the fullness of the Gospel. It is the American Testament of our 
Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. 

THE ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH. 

Joseph Smith received divine authority through the ministration of 
angels to teach the Gospel and administer the ordinances thereof. He 
established again in the earth the Church of Jesus Christ, organizing it 
by the will and commandment of God on the 6th day of April, 1830. 

He also received commission to gather Israel and establish Zion on 
this land of America; to erect temples and perform all ordinances there- 
in both for the living and the dead; and prepare the way for the glor- 
ious coming of the Lord Jesus Christ to reisrn on earth. 

The contents of the tablet on the east side of the base of the Prophet's 
statue are these gems from his teachings: 

TRUTH GEMS. 

The glory of God is intelligence. 

It is impossible for a man to be saved in ignorance. 

Whatever principles of intelligence we attain unto in this life will rise 
with us in the resurrection. 

There is a law irrevocably decreed in heaven before the foundations 
of this world upon which all blessings are predicated; and when we 
obtain any blessing from God it is by obedience to that law on which it 

is predicated. 

This is the work and glory of God: to bring to pass the immortality 

and eternal life of man. 

Adam fell that man might be; and men are that they might have joy. 

The intelligence of spirits had no beginning, neither will it have an 
end. Jesus was in the beginning with the Father: man was also in 
the beginning with God. Intelligence, or the light of truth, was not 
created or made, neither indeed can be. 

The spirit and body is the soul of man; and the resurrection from 
the dead is the ledemption of the soul. 

It is the first principle of the Gospel to know for a certainty the char- 
acter of God; and to know that man, (as Moses) may converse wit a Him 
as one man converses with another. 



INTRODUCTION. XLV 

This message of the Prophet, and these doctrines of the east bronze 
tablet, together with other doctrines taught by him in this Period I of 
our Church History, and to be found scattered through the six vol- 
umes now published of that history, await only the mind of some God- 
inspired Spencer to cast them into synthetical form — to be adequately 
presented and witnessed — to constitute Mormonisrn both the Religion 
and the Philosophy of modern times — to bring to pass and to glorify the 
Golden Age of the long promised Millennium of Christian hope. 



HISTORY 

OF THE 

Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints 



« 

VOL. VI 



HISTORY 

OF THE 

CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST 

OF 

LATTER-DAY SAINTS. 



PERIOD I. 

HISTORY OF JOSEPH SMITH, THE PROPHET. 



CHAPTER I. 

AN ESTIMATE OF THE PROPHET JOSEPH AS A RELIGIOUS 
LEADER — ANTI-MORMON MEETING AT CARTHAGE — HISTOR- 
ICAL SKETCH — IMPORTANT CONFERENCE OF THE TWELVE 
HELD IN BOSTON. 

Friday, September 1, 1843. — A conference was held 
in Buffalo, New York, Elder John P. Greene presiding; 
Wm. H. Folsom,* clerk: 13 branches, 1 High Priest, 58 

* William H. Folsom named above afterward became prominent as an architect 
in Utah. He was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in March, 1815, and died 
in Salt Lake City, 1901, at the advanced age of 86 years. When a boy he moved to 
Buffalo N.Y. with his parents. When in his twenty fifth year he heard a Mormon 
Elder preach and was converted to the gospel and joined the Church. As a conse- 
quence of this act he was ostracised by his people. He took his family and moved 
to Nauvoo and established himself as an architect and builder, and assisted in the 
construction of the Nauvoo Temple. 

Brother Folsom was expelled from Nauvoo at the time of the general exodus of 
the Saints and settled for a time at Keokuk. He subsequently moved to Council 
Bluffs, and in 1860 went on to Salt Lake valley. His ability as an architect and 
builder was soon required by President Brigham Young. President Young 
conceived the general plan of the now celebrated "Mormon Tabernacle" at Salt Lake 
City, but William Folsom took President Young's suggestions and worked out the 
plans. While others scouted the idea of the structure, Folsom had faith in it, and 
as a consequence he has associated his name inseparably with the building, that 

1 Vol. VI. 



2 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

Elders, 2 Teachers, 1 Deacon, and 247 members were rep- 
resented. 

I attended the meeting of the High Council as a witness 
in the case of Cowles* vs. Greorge J. Adams. Charges not 
sustained. 

Saturday, 2. — I was not well, and therefore adjourned 
Mayor's Court. 

Sunday, 3. — I attended council with my brother 
Hyrum, Newel K. Whitney, Willard Eichards, William 
Law and William Marks, and gave instructions to the 
brethren in relation to things in futurity. 

A tremendous storm at Chester, Penn. The creek rose 
twenty- three feet in two hours, and swept away all the 
bridges, many factories and houses, and upwards of 
twenty persons drowned. 

A conference was held at Hayward's Hotel, Manchester, 
England. 

Minutes of the Manchester Conference, held 3rd of September, 1843. 

Charles Miller, President; William Walker, Clerk. Present: 1 
Patriarch, 1 High Priest, 25 Elders, 40 Priests, 21 Teachers, and 4 
Deacons. 

Total number of members represented was as follows: 1,549 
members, including 44 Elders, 99 Priests, 56 Teachers, 22 Deacons. 
Baptized since last general conference, 80; cut off, 29; emigrated, 18; 
removed, 2G; died, 4. 

Monday, 4. — Attended mayor's court and tried three' 
cases — viz., 

City versus A. Dodge, S. Dodge, and Luther Purtelow. 

The two first I fined five dollars, and the last one 
dollar and costs. One, p. m., called and gave licence for 

stands as one of the world's centers of interest and curiosity. He was the arch- 
itect and superintendent of construction of the Manti Temple, and was an able 
assistant in the construction of all the Temples in Utah. He was the designer of 
the Salt Lake Theater, and of many other buildings that are this day admired for 
their architectural grace and durability. 

* This was Austin Cowles, for some time counselor in the Nauvoo stake of Zion 
(History op the Church, Vol. IV, p. 323) and subsequently a member of the High 
Council. The nature of the charges made against George J. Adams at this time is 
not known. 




A.U. 1843 J HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 3 

a circus performance, which I attended with my family 
until five, p. m. 

I copy from the New York Sun as follows: — 

"joe smith, the mormon prophet."* 

This Joe Smith must be set down as an extraordinary character, a 
prophet-hero, as Carlyle might call him. He is one of the great men of 
this age, and in future history will rank with those who, in one way or 
another, have stamped their impress strongly on society. 

Nothing can be more plebeian, in seeming, than this Joe Smith. 
Little of dignity is there in bis cognomen; but few in this age have 
done such deeds, and performed such apparent miracles. It is no small 
thing, in the blaze of this nineteenth century, to give to men a new 
revelation, found a new religion, establish new forms of worship, to 
build a city, with new laws, institutions, and orders of architecture, — 
to establish ecclesiastic, civil and military jurisdiction, found colleges, 
send out missionaries, and make proselytes in two hemispheres: yet all 
this has been done by Joe Smith, and that against every sort of opposi- 
tion, ridicule and persecution. This sect has its martyrs also; and the 
spirit in which they were imprisoned and murdered in Missouri, does 
not appear to have differed much from that which has attended religious 
persecutions in all ages of the world. 

That Joe Smith, the founder of the Mormons, is a man of great 
talent, a deep thinker, and eloquent speaker, an able writer, and a man 
of great mental power, no one can doubt who has watched his career. 
That his followers are deceived, we all believe; but, should the inherent 
corruptions of Mormonism fail to develop themselves sufficiently to 
convince its followers of their error, where will the thing end? A great 
military despotism is growing up in the fertile West, increasing faster 
in proportion, than the surrounding population, spreading its influence 
around, and marshalling-mjiltitudes under its banners, causing serious 
alarm to every patriot ._^-^-" 

What is the reason that men are so blind that they can- 
not or will not see the hand of the Lord in His work of 
the last days ! 

Tuesday, 5. — Went to the office at nine, a. m., with 
Mr. Hamilton, of Carthage, who had obtained a deed from 

* This article is much of the complexion of one published many years later — 1882 
— by Josiah Quincy of Boston, who visited the Prophet about eight or nine months 
later, and published an account of his visit, and his impression of the Prophet in 
his "Figures of the Past." under the title "Joseph Smith at Xauvoo." 



4 HISTOKY 01 THE CHUKCH. [A. D. 1843 

the sheriff of the county for lot 2, block 103, in the city 
of Nauvoo, for taxes, although I had previously paid them; 
which is another specimen of the oppression, injustice, and 
rascality of Mr. Collector Bagby, who by such foul means 
robs me and other Saints, and abuses all who come un- 
fortunately in his power. 

I requested my clerk to make out a bill of fare for the 
"Mansion." 

The ship Metoka sailed from Liverpool with a company 
of Saints on board. 

Wednesday, 6. — I went to the recorder's about half 
past six, a. m., and found him in bed. 

Held mayor's court in the case, "City versus Joseph 
Owen." 

Anti-Mormon Meeting at Carthage, Seat of Hancock, County Illinois.* 

Meeting convened pursuant to adjournment. The former chairman t 
not being present. 

EdsonWhitney, Esq., was called to the chair, and the meeting being 
organized, the following preamble and resolutions were submitted by 
the committee, and unanimously adopted: — 

PREAMBLE AND RESOLUTIONS. 

This meeting having convened for the purpose of taking under ad- 
visement a subject of vital importance not only to this county, but to all 
the surrounding counties, regret that we are necessarily and irresistibly 
forced to the conclusion that a certain class of people have obtruded 
themselves upon us, calling themselves Mormons, or Latter-day Saints* 
and under the sacred garb of Christianity, assumed, as we honestly be- 
lieve, that they may the more easily, under such a cloak, perpetrate the 
most lawless and diabolical deeds that have ever, in any age of the 
world, disgraced the human species. 

In evidence of the above charge, we find them yielding implicit 
obedience to the ostensible head and founder of this sect, who is a 
pretended prophet of the Lord, and under this Heaven-daring assump- 

* This was an adjourned meeting from one of the same character which had 
met at the same place on the 19th of August previous, which after hearing Anti- 
Mormon addresses and appointing committees to draft resolutions against the 
Mormons, adjourned to meet again on the above date, 6th of September. (See 
History of the Church, Vol. IV pp. 537 — 8). 

t The former chairman was Major Reuben Groves. (See minutes of the 19th of 
August, above note.) 




A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 5 

tion claiming to set aside, by his vile and blasphemous lies, all those 
moral and religious institutions which have been established by the 
Bible, and which have in all ages been cherished by men as the only 
means of maintaining those social blessings which are so indispensably 
necessarv for our happiness. J^> 

"We believe that such an individual, regardless as he must be of his 
obligations to God, and at the same time entertaining the most absolute 
contempt for the laws of man, cannot fail to become a most dangerous 
character, especially when he shall have been able to place himself at 
the head of a numerous horde, either equally reckless and unprincipled 
as himself, or else made his pliant tools by the most absurd credulity 
that has astonished the world since its foundation. 

In the opinion of this meeting, a crisis has arrived, when many of 
the evils to be expected from a state of things so threatening have 
transpired. We feel convinced that circumstances have even now 
occurred which prove to us most conclusively that Joseph Smith, the 
false Prophet before alluded to, has evinced, in many instances, a most 
shameless disregard for all the forms and restraints of law, by boldly 
and presumptuously calling' in question the acts of certain officers, who 
had fearlessly discharged the duties absolutely imposed upon them by 
the laws, particulary when they have come in contact with his own sordid 
and selfish interests. 

He has been heard to threaten — nay, he has committed violence upon 
the person of an officer, because that officer dared honestly to do his 
duties according to law. 

He has caused his city council to pass laws contrary to the laws of 
the state, and subversive of the rights of citizens of this state. 

Citizens have been arrested, tried and punished for breaches of 
those mock laws, from time to time, in such manner, that they have 
been compelled to the humiliating necessity of seeking an asylum else- 
where, in order to escape the tyranny and oppression of this modern 
Caligula. 

He has caused the writ of habeas corpus to be issued by the 
municipal court of the city of Nauvoo, in a case not provided for in the 
charter of this city, and indeed contrary to the letter of that instrum- 
ent; and, himself a prisoner, arrested under grave charges made by a 
neighboring state, brought before said court, tried, and acquitted; 
thereby securing his own rescue from the custody of the law. 

Citizens from the adjoining counties have been denied the right to 
regain property stolen and taken to Nauvoo, even after they have dis- 
covered both the thief and the property; and themselves, under the most 
frivolus pretenses, arrested, fined, and other property rifled from them, 
to satisfy the mock judgments and costs of his cormorant officers. 



6 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1843 

Persons upon whom stolen property has been found in the city of 
Nauvoo, have been brought before this religio-political chief; and he, 
in the capacity of mayor of the city, has refused to convict, where the 
cases have been most clear and palpable. 

We have had men of the most vicious and abominable habits imposed 
upon us to fill our most important county offices, by his dictum, in 
order, as we verily believe, that he may the more certainly control our 
destinies, and render himself, through the instrumentality of these base 
creatures of his ill-directed power, as absolutely a despot over the 
citizens of this county as he now is over the serfs of his own servile clan. 

And, to crown all, he claims to merge all religion, all law, and both 
moral and political justice, in the knavish pretension that he receives 
fresh from heaven divine instructions in all matters pertaining to these 
things; thereby making his own depraved will the rule by which he 
would have all men governed. 

He has caused large bodies of his ragamuffin soldiery to arm them- 
selves, and turn out in pursuit of officers legally authorized to arrest 
himself; he being charged with high crimes and misdemeanors com- 
mitted in the state of Missouri, and those officers arrested by the vilest 
hypocrisy, and placed in duress, that he might enable himself to march 
triumphantly into Nauvoo, and bid defiance to the laws of the land. 

In view of the above grievances, this meeting feel that it is their 
bounden duty to resist, by every laudable means, all such unwarrantable 
attacks upon their liberties. Therefore — 

Resolved, 1 st. That inasmuch as we honestly believe that the com- 
bination of people calling themselves Mormons, or Latter-day Saints, 
have given strong indications, in their recent movements, that they 
are unwilling to submit to the ordinary restraints of law, we are there- 
fore forced to the conclusion that the time is not far distant when the 
citizens of this country will be compelled to assert their rights in some 
way. 

Resolved, 2nd. That while we would deprecate anything like lawless 
violence, without justifiable cause, yet we pledge ourselves in the most 
solemn manner to resist all the wrongs which may be hereafter 
attempted to be imposed on this community by the Mormons, to the 
utmost of our ability, — peaceably, if we can, but forcibly, if we must. 

Resolved, 3rd. That in the event of our being forced into a collision 
with that people, we pledge ourselves that we will stand by and support 
each other in every emergency up to the death. ' 

Resolved, 4th. That we believe that it is also the. interest of our 
friends in the neighboring counties and aiso neighboring states to 
begin to take a firm and decided stand against the high pretensions 
and base designs of this latter-day would-be Mahomet. 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHUKCH. / 

Resolved, oth. That provided we must necessarily, for the well-being 
of this community, the protection of our dearest rights, and the pre- 
servation of our excellent institutions, adopt measures to humble the 
pride and arrogance of that audacius despot; we therefore call upon all 
good and honest men, without distinction of party or place, to come 
to the rescue. 

Resolved, 6th. That we pledge ourselves in the most determined 
manner that if the authorities of the State of Missouri shall make 
another demand for the body of Joseph Smith, and our Governor shall 
issue another warrant to stand ready at all times to serve the officer 
into whose hands such warrant may come, as a posse, in order that it 
may not be said of us, in future, that the most outrageous culprits have 
been suffered "to go unwhipped of justice." 

Resolved, 7th. That a corresponding committee be appointed to 
communicate with the different parts of this county, and also with other 
counties: and we would also recommend to all surrounding counties to 
appoint like committees for the purpose of a mutual interchange of 
views in regard to the subjects embraced in these proceedings. 

Resolved, 8th. That as it has been too common for several years 
past for politicians of both political parties, not only of this county, but 
likewise of the state, to go to Nauvoo and truckle to the heads of the 
Mormon clan for their influence, we pledge ourselves that we will not 
support any man of either party in future who shall thus debase 
himself. 

Resolved, 9th. That if the Mormons carry out the threats they have 
made in regards to the lives of several of our citizens, we will, if 
failing to obtain speedy redress from the laws of the land, take summary 
and signal vengeance upon them as a people. 

Resolved, 10th. That when the (iovernment ceases to afford pro- 
tection, the citizens of course fall back upon their original inherent 
right of self-defense. 

In pursuance of the 7th resolution, the following gentlemen were 
appointed to act as a central corresponding committee at Carthage — 
namely, Captain Robert F. Smith, Major T. J. Bartlet, Harmon T. Wil- 
son, Frank A. Worrel, and Walter Bagby. 

On motion of Henry Stevens, it was ordered that committees, con- 
sisting of two persons, be appointed in each election precinct of this 
county, for the purpose of communicating with the central committee 
at Carthage; and that those two may add to their number at discretion. 

On motion of Daniel Beaver, it was made the duty of the person 
whose name stands first on the list of each committee to act as chair- 
man; and that all communications from the other committees, or from 
any other source, shall be added. 



8 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

The following gentlemen were then appointed by the chair as com- 
mittees in the several precincts, to wit : — 

Green Plains — Edson Whitney and Levi Williams. 

Bear Creek — William White and Andrew Moore. 

Chili — Stephen Owen and Arthur Morgan. 

Augusta — William D. Abernethy and Alexander Oliver. 

Saint Mary's — William Darnell and Daniel Beaver. 

Fountain Green — Thomas Geddis and S. H. Tyler. 

La Harpe — Jesse Gilmer and Charles Comstock. 

Camp Creek — James Graham and Thomas Harris. 

Appanooce — John McCanley and John R. Atherton. 

Montebello — Samuel Steel and Benjamin B. Gates. 

Warsaw — Thomas C. Sharp and Mark Aldrich. 

On motion of Levi Williams, Colonel Root, of McDonough county, 
was added to the central corresponding committee of Carthage. 

On motion of Henry Newton, Esq., 

Resolved, That the central committee of correspondence act as a gen- 
eral committee of supervision; and, in case of a contingency occurring 
requiring aid, that they immediately call on the precinct committees 
and upon all others favorable to our cause to furnish such aid as the 
exigency of the case may require. 

On the motion of Charles C. Stevens, the following supplementary 
resolutions were unanimously adopted: — 

Resolved, That the president of this meeting be requested to com- 
municate with the Governor of Missouri, and respectfully request 
him to make another demand upon the authorities of this state for the 
body of Joseph Smith, commonly called the Mormon Prophet; and in 
the event of a requisition and an order for his arrest and delivery to the 
proper officers of the state of Missouri, we offer our services to enforce 
said order, and pledge ourselves to sustain the supremacy of the laws 
at all hazards and under all circumstances. 

Resolved, That a copy of the proceedings of this meeting be for- 
warded to the publisher of the Warsaw Message, Quincy Whig, and 
Quincy Herald, for publication, with a request to them to add a note, 
soliciting all editors friendly to our cause in this state, Missouri, and 
Iowa Territory, to copy. 

It was then moved and seconded, That this meeting adjourn, subject 
to the call of the central corresponding committee. 

Edson Whitney, Chairman. 

W. D. Abernethy, Secretary. 

Editors throughout Illinois, Missouri, Iowa Territory, friendly to the 
Anti-Mormon cause, are requested to publish the proceedings, in to- 
day's paper, of a meeting held at Carthage on the 6th instant. 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY 01' THE CHURCH. 9 

Thursday, 7.— I took home the letter written to Har- 
risburg* for the Church History, a small fragment of which 
only has been preserved, and is as follows: — 

Historical Sketch of the Church oj Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

Messrs. Editors, — The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
•was founded upon direct revelation, as the true Church of God has ever 
been, according to the Scriptures (Amos iii: 7, and Acts i: 2); and 
through the will and blessings of G'ody-I have been an instrument in 
His hands, thus far, to move forward the cause of Zion: therefore, in 
order to fulfill the solicitations of your letter of July last, I shall com- 
mence with my life. 

[Then follows a brief historical sketch of the Church from the birth 
of the Prophet to the settlement of the Saints at Xauvoo, much in the 
strain of the "Wenticorth Letter" already published in this History, 
(Vol. IV,Ch.xxxi) ; and for the reason that all the historical data in this 
I. Daniel Rupp sketch is contained in the TTenticorth Letter, it is 
thought unnecessary to reproduce it here, excepting the closing para- 
graphs which deal with conditions and prospects at Nauvoo, on the 
date at which we have arrived in our History, viz. September, 1S43. — 
Editor.] 

Xauvoo, upon every point connected with increase and prosperity 
has exceeded the most sanguine expectations of thousands. It now 
contains near 3,500 houses, and more than 15,000 inhabitants. The 
charter contains, among its important powers, privileges or immunities, 
a grant for "The University of Nauvoo," with the same liberal powers 
of the city, where all the arts and sciences will grow with the growth 
and strengthen the strength of this beloved city of the Saints of the 
last days. 

Another very commendatory provision of the charter is that that 
portion of the citizens subject to military duty are organized into a 
body of independent military men, styled the '"Nauvoo Legion,"' whose 
highest officer holds the rank and is commissioned lieutenant-general. 
This Legion, like other independent bodies of troops in this Republican 
Government, is at the disposal of the Governor of the state, and 
President of the United States. There is also an act of incorporation 
for an Agricultural and Manufacturing Association, as well as the 
Nauvoo House Association. 

Since the organization of this Church, its progress has been rapid, 
and its gain in numbers regular. Besides these United States, where 

* This was a Brief Historical Account of the Rise and Progress of the Church 
prepared for one I. Daniel Rupp, of Harrisburg, Penn. It was published in 1844, in 
a "History of Religious Denominations." p. 409. 



10 H1STOKY OF THE CHUECH. [A.D. 1843 

nearly every place of notoriety has heard the glad tidings of the Gospel 
of the Son of God, England, Ireland and Scotland have shared largely 
in the fullness of the everlasting Gospel, and thousands have already 
gathered with their kindred Saints to this the corner stone of Zion. 
Missionaries of this Church have gone to the East Indies, to Australia, 
Germany, Constantinople, Egypt, Palestine, the islands of the Pacific, 
and are now preparing to open the door in the extensive dominions of 
Russia. 

There is no correct data by which the exact number of members 
composing this now extensive and still extending Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints can be known. Should it be supposed at 150,000,* 
it might still be short of the truth. 

Believing the Bible to say what it means and mean what it says, 
and guided by revelation, according to the ancient order of the fathers, 
to whom came what little light we enjoy, and circumscribed only by the 
eternal limits of truth, this Church must continue the even tenor of its 
way. 

Called at the office, and administered the laying on of 
hands to Sister 'Partington and her two children. 

Dreadful conflagration at Stuhlweissenburg, in Hungary. 
About six hundred houses destroyed. 

Friday, 8. — My wife being sick, I was at home all day. 

Stephen Markham started for Dixon with the court 
papers in relation to the writ of habeas corpus, and as a 
witness. 

I directed William Clayton to go to Augusta, Iowa, to 
get a deed signed by Mr. Moffit for the steamer Maid of 
Iowa. 

Muster day of the first cohort. 

The Twelve held a meeting in Boylston Hall, Boston. 
Present— Elders Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, George 
A. Smith, Wilford Woodruff, JohnE. Page. 

Saturday, 9.— My wife a little more comfortable. Wil- 
liam Clayton went to Augusta, got the deed signed by Mr. 
Moffit and his wife, and returned in the evening. 

General training of the Nauvoo Legion. 

The quorum of the Twelve met the church in Boston, 
at Boylston Hall, in conference. Sixteen branches were 
represented, containing 878 members. A great deal of 



k.D. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 11 

valuable instruction was given by the Twelve, and the 
hall, a very large one, was crowded. A number were 
baptized during conference, which lasted three days. The 
minutes of conference I here insert: — 

Important Conference of the Twelve, Held at Boylston Hall, Boston, 

September 9, 1S43. 

Present of the Quorum of the Twelve— Elders Brigham Young, 
Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Orson Hyde, John E. 
Page. Wilford Woodruff, George A. Smith. 

[Reported by Wilford Woodruff.] 

Conference opened with prayer by Elder George A. Smith. 

After the various branches in the New England States were repre- 
sented, Elder P. P. Pratt made a few remarks, of which the following 
is a synopsis: 

Some Elders tell us that they have taught the gathering according 
to the Scriptures. But it is not sufficient to teach the principle from 
the Scriptures alone; for if there was no other guide, the people would 
be left in doubt as to whether they should gather to Jerusalem, Africa, 
America, or elsewhere. It is right to teach the gathering according to 
the Scriptures, although some predictions of the Prophets are obscure; 
but we are not left to them alone. We know and all the Saints ought 
to know that God has appointed a place and time of gathering and has 
raised up a Prophet to bring it about, of which we are witnesses. Our 
message is that we are witnesses of the fulfillment of the predictions of 
the Prophets. 

We have not to lay down a long, round-about [system] of arguments 
and calculations. The specific time and place are pointed out, the stakes 
are driven, the foundations of the city and temple are laid, and a people 
already gathered. We therefore know where to go; and to reject the 
revelations of God, which have pointed out these things to us, only 
brings condemnation. If this is not the case, then our faith is vain, and 
our works and hopes are vain also. 

We worship a God who can inspire His servants to tell the people 
what to do. We have already got the opinions of men enough concerning 
the coming of Jesus Christ; but we need the voice of a Prophet in such 
a case and we have it. I am willing to risk my all upon it: and if the 
Elders understand the principle of gathering, and teach it correctly, 
the people will have the correct spirit of the gathering. 

It is time we come out and declared boldly and definitely what God 
had for the people. We want more than opinions — we want your 
works. He has said he would send a Prophet to prepare the way. And 




12 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1843 

let me ask these profound sectarians, why He has not done it? If the 
angels found a God in heaven able to give instructions, shield them 
from sword and famine, &c, why have we not found Him? Let the 
teachers bear the message they are entrusted with; and if the people 
wish then for Scripture, tell them that their message is in fulfillment of 
prophecy; but let them have the whole message. 

Elder E. P. Maginn said he for one had taught the gathering ac- 
cording to the Scriptures; but he considered all modern revelations 
Scripture as well as those given anciently. 

Elder Brigham Young addressed the meeting on the subject of our 
faith. We hear the Elders represent the feeling of the brethren con- 
erning the gathering. This is right. The Spirit of the Lord Jesus 
hrist is a gathering spirit. Its tendency is to gather the virtuous and 
good, the honest and meek of the earth, and, in fine, the Saints of God. 
The time has come when the Lord is determined to fulfill his purposes. 
The people are apt to say that if they had lived in the days of Jesus 
Christ they would have received His work. But judge ye if the people 
are better now than then. They are not. When the full, set time was 
come, the Lord came in the flesh to do His work, whether the people 
were prepared or not; and He would not have come at all, if He had 
waited till the people were prepared to receive Him. It was decreed 
from all eternity that He should come, and He came. The people were 
not prepared then, nor are they any more prepared now. And now the 
full set time has come for the Lord God Almighty to set His hand to 
redeem Israel. We are not bound to make the people believe, but we 
are bound to preach the Gospel; and having done this, our garments 
are clear. 

The Lord does not require every soul to leave his home as soon as 
He believes. Some may be wanted to go to the isles of the sea, and 
some to go north, and some south. But He does require them to hearken 
to counsel, and follow that course which He points out, whether to 
gather or stay to do some other work. 

-^The Spirit of the Lord and H's work are on the alert, and those who 
keep up with the work must be on the alert also. The Spirit of the 
Lord will leave them who sit down and refuse to obey. When the 
Lord says, "Gather yourselves together," why do you ask Him what 
for? Had you not rather enjoy the society of Saints than sinners whom 
you cannot love? Is it not the principle of the Saints to mingle to- 
gether and promote the great cause in which they are engaged? 

Perhaps some of you are ready to ask, "Cannot the Lord save us as 
well where we are as to gather together?" Yes, if the Lord says so. 
But if He commands us to come out and gather together, He will not 
save us by staying at home. Have you not received the Gospel? Yes. 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 13 

Then do you believe what we say? Have you not received the Holy 
Ghost, by receiving the Gospel which we have brought unto you? Yes. 
thousands have; and it stands as a testimony that God has got a 
Prophet on the earth. You might have been baptized seventy times 
seven in any way except the way God had ordained and pointed out, 
and you would aot have received the Holy Ghost. This also is a 
testimony to you. 

Are you engaged with us in this great work? "Yes, certainly," you 
answer, "heart and band." "Can we do any good?" Yes, you can. 
The sectarian world send the Bible to the nations of the earth. The 
poor among them pat sixpence, fifty cents or a dollar into the box to 
carry out that obiect; and can the Latter-day Saints do nothing? Let 
them do what God requires. He has required that we should build a 
house unto His name, that the ordinances and blessings of His kingdom 
may be revealed, and that the Elders may be endowed, go forth and 
gather together the blood of Ephraim — the people of God, from the 
ends of the earth. 

Can you get an endowment in Boston or anywhere, except where 
God appoints? No, only in that place which God has pointed out. Now, 
query— Could Moses have obtained the law if he had stayed in the 
midst of the children of Israel, instead of going up on to the mountain? 
The Lord said, "Go and do so and so; stand before Pharaoh; pull off 
they shoes, for the place is holy.'' Moses obeyed, and obtained 
blessings which he would not have received if he had been disobedient. 

Has the Lord spoken in these las* days, and required us to build 
Him a house? Then why query about it? If He has spoken, it is enough. 
I do not care whether the people gather or not, if they don't want to 
do so. I do not wish to save the people against their will. I want them 
to choose whether they will gather and be saved with the righteous, or 
remain with the wicked and be damned. I would like to have all people 
bow down to the Lord Jesus Christ; but it is one of the decrees of the 
Lord that all persons shall act upon their agency, which was the case 
even with the angels who fell from heaven. 

Now, will you help us to build the Nauvoo House and Temple? If 
so, you will be blessed: if not, we will build it without you. And if 
you don't hearken, you will not have the Spirit of the Lord; for the 
Spirit of the Lord is on the move. 

The Apostles tried to gather the people together in their day. 
Christ said He would gather the Jews oft as a hen gathereth her chick- 
ens under her wings, but they would not. Neither God nor angels care 
whether men hear or forbear: they will carry on their work; for the 
full, set time is come for God to set up His kingdom, and we go about 
it. We must build a house, and get an endowment, preach the gospel, 



14 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. L A.D. 1843 

warn the people, gather the Saints, build up Zion, finish our work, and 
be prepared for the coming of Christ. 

Now, we want to send four missionaries to the Pacific Islands, 
and we want a little clothing, and beds, and money to pay their pas- 
sage. Can you do something for them? This is not all. We want you 
to give all you have io spare towards building the Temple. We shall 
be able to build it, if we have to work with a sword in one hand. But 
perhaps you are afraid you will not have enough for yourself, when 
you get there; yet how easy it is for the Lord to take it away from you 
by .fire or otherwise! 

Elder Maginn had an ivory can*. I asked him for it, but he declined 
making me a present of it. Not long after, he had it stolen from him 
in a crowd, and it how does neither of us any good. Perhaps your 
purse may slip through your pocket, or you may lose your property; for 
the Lord can give and take away. Jacob, with his faith, obtained all 
the best cattle his father-in-law had. 

If I had a wife and ten children, I would give all my money to 
build the Temple and Nauvoo House, and I would trust in God for 
their support. Yet I will be richer for it; for God would prosper me 
in business. Men are apt to serve God on Sunday, and neglect Him 
all the week. Who blesses you and all the people? God. But do 
the people acknowledge the hand of God in all these things? No; 
they turn away from Him, and do not acknowledge Him, or realize 
from whom their blessings flow. They know not who blesses them. It 
never comes into their hearts. So with the farmer. The blessings are 
constantly flowing to him, and he considers not whence they come. 

Let me tell you a secret. When the Lord shakes the earth, and 
every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be 
made low, He will bring gold for brass, silver for iron, brass for wood, 
and iron for stones. Then you will have no use for gold, for money 
and gods as you now have. You will not care so much about it; 
but the Lord will think as much of it then as now. 

But now we want some of the gods of the Gentiles— some of the gold 
and silver to build the Temple and Nauvoo House for the accommoda- 
tion of the kings, princes and nobles of the earth, when they come to 
inquire after the wisdom of Zion, that they may have a place for their 
entertainment, and for the weary traveler to be refreshed. Let us have 
your gold to take to Nauvoo for this purpose. 

Is there wisdom in Zion? We think so, and the world begins to 
think so. Let the world come forward and translate the plates that 
have of late come forth,* if they have wisdom to do it. The Lord 

* Having reference to certain plates known as the "Kinderkook Plates," found 
at Kinderhook, Illinois, April, 1843. See this History, Vol. V., pp. 372-378. 



A.O. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 15 

intends to take away the gods of the Gentiles: He pulleth down and 
He buildeth up at His own pleasure. 

Sacrifice your gods for the building up of Zion. Administer of 
your substance. Send our missionaries to the islands of the seas.' 
Don't be afraid of a dollar, or a hundred dollars, or even a thousand 
dollars. I would not. I have made a sacrifice of all I possessed a good 
many times, I am richer the more I give; for the Lord has promised 
and does reward me a hundredfold; and if I sacrifice all for the cause 
of God, no good thing will be withheld from me. I have taken this 
course to get rich. I have given all I had, and God has given many 
blessings in consequence. If I am too bold in asking, be too bold in 
giving:. I ask, expecting to receive. Put your shoulders to the 
wheel with all your might. Give your all, and become rich by receiv- 
ing a hundredfold. 

Adjourned until half-past two o'clock, when the meeting was 
opened by singing. 

Prayer by Elder Parley P. Pratt. Singing. 

Elder Parley P. Pratt said: I have a few remarks to make concern- 
ing the subject spoken of in the forenoon by Elder Brigham Young, 
who said we wanted all your gold, silver, and precious things. We 
not only want your all as pertaining to gold, silver, &c, but we want 
you, your wives and ch ldren, and all you have to be engaged in the 
work of the Lord. 

I don't know that I can give you a better pattern of what we want 
than the case of Joseph in Egypt. Israelites will get all they can. 
They are very great to go ahead. The Egyptians believed in dreams; 
and by the peculiar gift of interpretation of dreams, Joseph entered 
into a great scheme of speculation. He used the gift of interpretation 
to become great in the eyes of the Egyptians. He obtained great polit- 
ical influence, came out with gold ornaments, and rode in the king's 
chariot in great splendor. He laid up corn in great abundance during 
the seven years of plenty; and when the famine came, he got all their 
gold, silver, cattle, land, property, and, finally their persons. * * * 

God is the origin of power — the Sovereign. He made the people 
and the earth, and He has the right to reign. There will be good times 
and good government, when the world will acknowledge the God of 
heaven as the Lawgiver, and not till then; and if I could live under His 
government, I should be thankful, although I am a real Republican in 
principle, and would rather live under the voice of the people than the 
voice of one man. But it will be for the good and happiness of man 
when that government is established, which we pray for when we say, 
"Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven;" 
and until that time arrives we must pray for it. 



16 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A. D 1843 

This Joseph in Egypt — the speculator — what a great and good man 
he was! I love him, I admire his course, and I believe a little of his 
blood is in my veins. But had Joseph been like the religious world at 
the present day — had he said he had got religion and done with the 
world, he would not have rode the king's horse, worn his robe, or had 
to do with gold and silver; and he would have done no good, built no 
storehouses, and saved no corn, for fear of speculation. 

But he acted differently. And there is an ancient prediction respect- 
ing our modern prophet, Joseph — namely, that a prophet and seer 
should be raised up, and those who seek to destroy him shall be con- 
founded. This has proved true. Upwards of thirty law suits have 
been brought against the Lord's anointed, and his persecutors have 
as often been confounded. He has been raised and supported according 
to the prophecy, to do a work on the earth, and the Lord has been with 
him. Every weapon formed against him has been broken. He has 
overcome all the lawsuits which have been brought against him, and no 
accusation has been sustained against him; yet he will lay a plan to 
speculate as large as ancient Joseph did; he will have power to buy up 
all the rest of the world. 

What Elder Young said is good. We want all he spoke of, and a 
great deal more, We do not want it for ourselves, but for you. We 
want you to use it; and we have a Prophet who tells how, when and 
where to use it. Take your means and unite your exertions in this 
work. We want you to take that course which will save you. Build 
up a city and temples, and enjoy them, and do as the Lord tells you, 
and hearken to counsel. 

We have prophets to tell us what to do, and we should get as much 
wisdom as the world. If they want a railroad built, all they have to do 
is to open books. The people subscribe stock, a railroad is soon built, 
and an income is realized. The Saints ought to be as well united as the 
world, and do the things that God has required, that a great nation 
may be saved from all nations. 

The old gentleman [Satan] that rules the nations has ruled long 
enough; and if I were an infidel, I would like to have the Lord raise up 
a Joseph, or a Daniel, or a Mordecai, or an Esther, to obtain political, 
temporal, and spiritual power, and cause a change for the good of the 
world. Thank heaven, he has begun to raise them up. He has raised up 
another Joseph to do the great work of God, and it will continue on 
until the saying goes forth that the Lord has built up Zion. 

The kingdom of God must be established, and it will be. I read 
that gold, silver, power, thrones, and dominions will be connected 
with the great work of God in the last days. Then let us wake up 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 17 

to see what God says shall come to pass, and let us enlarge our 
hearts and prepare for the great and glorious work. 

Do the Saints here in Boston know that they are identified with 
the laying of the foundation, and establishiug of a great and mighty 
kingdom, which is to include all the great and glorious work to be 
fulfilled in the last dispensation and fullness of times? And I prophesy, 
in the name of the Lord, that whether the Saints of Boston or 
any other place, stand for it or rise against it, numberless millions 
will celebrate that day when the foundation of this work was laid. 

Elder George A. Smith said: I am pleased with the many remarks 
which have been made this day. You can easily see a similarity 
between the two Josephs, and Jthe revelations that are given for the 
salvation of the present generation. Joseph in Egypt, a savior of 
his father's house and the Egyptians: Joseph [Smith] at this day holds 
the keys of salvation not only to the Gentiles, but also to the house 
of Israel. 

I do not know but some may have reflections different from my 
own. I will, however, show how the Lord deals with mankind. Some 
may say, ''Who can believe that God who dwells in heaven will con- 
descend to speak to the people about building Him a house in this day 
of religion and science? 

This may be considered simple in the eyes of many; but the day 
was when the salvation or damnation of the whole world hung upon as 
small a circumstance. "Noah, by faith, being warned of God of 
things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to the sav- 
ing of his house, by which he condemned the world, and became heir 
of the righteous which is by faith." 

Had the editors of this day lived then, I think they would have said 
and written more against it than they have against Joseph Smith and 
the revelations he has received and published. 

We find God was in the habit of telling men to do many simple things, 
even to the giving of a law concerning the protection of birds' nests. 
You talk about God condescending to speak of small things in the last 
days, but it is only as it was in the days of Moses; for we read in the 
Bible how God commanded the children of Israel, when they found a 
bird's nest, (Deut. xxii: 7) not to take the dam with the young: "But 
thou shaltin any wise let the dam go, and take the young' to thee." 
Why? "That it may be well with thee, and that thou mayst pro- 
long thy days." 

We see from this, that however small and simple the commandments 
of God appear to be, they are great in their results. Connecting this 
with the law of God to Israel concerning the eating of locusts, beetles 
and grasshoppers (Leviticus xi: 22). "Even these of them ye may 

2 Vol. VI. 



18 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. I A. D. 1843 

eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald locust after his kind, and 
the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind." 

Is this as small business for the Lord to talk about as it is for Him to 
command the Saints to build a tavern or boarding house for visitors 
who constantly go to Nauvoo, which, when done, will do much good 
for the spreading of the work to all nations. What good could arise 
from a law of God permitting the eating of beetles and grasshoppers, I 
cannot say. 

All the prophecies have aimed at the gathering of the people, and 
saving them in the last days. But it is better never to have known the 
Master's will than to know it and not perform it; and my advice is, If 
you cannot take hold of the work and go through the whole course, 
stop and go no further. If you have not courage to go on at the 
expense of all things, it is better to turn back. 

We do not want to deceive you. Our traditions have taught us to be 
very religious, to wear long faces, never to tell an amusing story, nor 
to laugh, &c. This was the case with the long-faced Christians in 
Missouri, and they were the first to strike a dagger to our hearts. It 
is better for a man to act out what he is than to be a hypocrite. "Pure 
religion and undefiled before God and the Father, is this," says James, 
"to visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep him- 
self unspotted from the world." 

I do not like that religion which lies in a man's long face, or his coat 
or his hat. If I wear a stiange hat, it is not because of my religion: 
for where the religion of a man is in the shape of a hat or coat, it is 
not very extensive anywhere else. 

Some of the Elders want to appear very big, and to be called great 
preachers; but whenever I have seen them trying to preach something 
large and mysterious, to get a name, I have concluded they have yet 
much to learn. I have been eleven years a member of this Church, and 
was a believer two years before I entered it; and during that time I 
have seen many Elders who like to preach large and mysterious 
sermons. 

As many are desirous of hearing mysteries, I will rehearse a short 
sermon of mysteries for their edification. Elder Kimball has had a 
long standing in the Church. He has preached much, done much good, 
brought many souls into the kingdom, had great influence, and is con- 
sidered the most successful minister among us. 

Elder Amasa Lyman and myself went into Pike county, Illinois, to 
preach where the Elders had preached all the mysteries about beasts, 
heads and horns. They wanted us to preach mysteries. We told them 
we were not qualified to preach mysteries; but if they would send for 
Elder Kimball he would preach them. So they sent about forty miles 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 19 

for Elder Kimball, and brought him down, they were so anxious to hear 
mysteries. 

When he came, he had a large congregation assembled. He arose 
and remarked that he understood they had sent for him to come and 
preach the mysteries to them. "I am well qualified, and fully com- 
petent to do it, and am happy to have the privilege. I want the atten- 
tion of all." When every mind was stretched and eager to learn these 
great mysteries he said, "The first mystery I shall present before you is 
this, "Look at Elder Amasa Lyman; he needs a pair of pantaloons and 
a new hat. But it appears you do not see it; consequently I want to 
open your eyes and reveal to you a great mystery; for an Elder in the 
Church has need of a hat and a pair of breeches as well as yourselves, 
and especially when the Saints knoiv he is so much in need of them! " 
He preached a few more mysteries of the same nature, and the result 
of this sermon was that Elder Lyman got a pair of pants and a new 
hat, and Elder Kimball and myself each a barrel of flour for our 
families. 

Elder Brigham Young arose and said: I will make an apology for 
my remarks in the former part of the day. Some may think I spoke 
very plainly; but the object I had in view was to teach you your duty, 
as I am aware the people are not made to feel it; and the apology 
I have to make is this: I will turn Thomsonian doctor, and give the 
composition without cream and sugar, — it matters not whether I get 
friends or foes. If this work does not live, I do not want to live; for 
it is my life, my ]oy, my all; and if it sinks, God knows I do noc want 
to swim. 

I wish you to understand this — that he that gathereth not with us 
scattereth, and they have not the Spirit of God. We live in anticipa- 
tion of the day when mobs cannot harm us, and they who have tasted 
the bitter cup feel to realize this hope. Wake up, ye Elders of Israel 
who have sought to build yourselves up, and not the kingdom of God, 
and put on your sword. Wake up, ye that have daubed with untemp- 
ered mortar! Hearken and hear me; for I say unto you, in the name 
of Jesus Christ, that if you do not help us to build the Temple and 
the Nauvoo House, you shall not inherit the land of Zion. 

If you do not help to build up Zion and the cause of God, and help 
me and my brethren on our way when we want to go on the Lord's 
business, you shall not partake of the blessings which are laid up in 
store for the Saints. Many Elders seek to build themselves up, and 
not the work of the Lord. They will say "Put gold rings on my fin- 
gers; give m'e what I want;" and they care nothing about the Temple. 
This they should not do. I will not allow myself to do so; and when 
any one does this, no matter who he may be, even though he was one 



20 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1843 

of the Twelve, he will not prosper. Those of the Twelve and others of 
the Elders who have apostatized, I have known their hearts and their 
breathings. I have known their movements although they thought I did 
not know much. But I knew all about them; and when I see men 
preaching to build themselves up, and not Zion, I know what it will 
end in. But you may say you are young. I don't care if you are. 
Are you old enough to know what you are about? If so, preach and 
labor for the building up of- the city of Zion; concentrate your means 
and influence there, and not scatter abroad. Instead of which, some of 
the Elders appear to be dumb and lazy, and care for nothing but 
themselves. 

Now, ye Elders, will you be faithful? If not, you will not be 
chosen, for the day of choosing is at the door. Why be afraid of a 
sacrifice? I have given my all many times, and am willing to do it 
again. I would be glad to hear the Lord say through His servant 
Joseph, "Let my servant Brigham give again all that he has," I would 
obey it in a moment, if it took the last coat off my back. » 

A hymn was sung. 

Elder Kimball arose and said: I get up of necessity to say a few 
words. I am unwell, but I feel the importance of this work. I have 
been a member of this Church twelve years. I came out of the Bap- 
tist church and joined this with all my heart, as I was seeking after 
truth. I have passed through everything but death; in fact I have been 
brought into situations even worse than death. It has been my lot and 
privilege to sacrifice all I possessed from time to time; and we have 
come here to call for help to build the Temple and Nauvoo House. I 
have spent thirty dollars to get here, and have collected fifteen and 
that with much difficulty. 

We were commanded of the Lord to come; but it seems as though 
but few felt interested in it. Here I see four brethren going as mis- 
sionaries to the Sandwich Islands, aod destitute of means to help them- 
selves. I could weep for them. I feel interested in this great work- 
We are seeking to bring about a work that could never before be per- 
formed. 

When the time is brought about that we are to receive our inherit- 
ances, the more faithful we are, the larger will be our reward. We 
have come out to reap, but do we have time to reap new grain? No; 
for it takes all our time to try to save that which is already reaped. 

We have reapers in the field, and we are trying to save the wheat. 
We want to get it on the barn floor, so that we may thrash it. We 
have come after it to warn you. You think Elder Young' put the flail 
on rather heavy; but it is nothing to be compared with the thrashing 
you will get in Zion, and those who have' the hardest heads will, of 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 21 

course, have to be thrashed the hardest. But don't be troubled about 
the chaff when it conies to the barn, for God will prepare a great win- 
nowing mill which will blow all the chaff away, and the wheat will be 
found before the mill: then it has to go through the smut machine, then 
ground, then put through the bolting machine, and many will bolt in 
going through. I speak in parables. I compare the Saints to a good 
cow. When you milk her clean, she will always have an abundance of 
milk to give; but if you only milk her a little, and don't strip her, she 
will soon dry up. So with the Saints: if they do but little in building 
up Zion, they soon have but little to do with. This was the case in 
Cincinnati. 

The night before arriving at Cincinnati, [ had a dream while on the 
steamboat. I dreamt that I had a wagon with a rack on it, and an indi- 
vidual with me. We were going to a field of wheat of mine that had 
been cut, bound and shocked up, in order to haul into the barn. When 
we came to the field, I jumped off the wagon, and got over the fence to 
examine it, "pulled off the cap sheaf, and behold it was oats. Pulling 
the bundles apart, I found there were clusters of rats. On further ex- 
amination I found clusters of mice, and the oats were all eaten up. 

In my dream I was going to haul in wheat, but to my astonishment it 
was oats, and they were all eaten up by the rats and mice. 

I thought these rats and mice were the Elders and official members 
who had been in and lain on the Church at Cincinnati— lived on the 
wheat— eaten it up instead of building up new branches; so that 
when the Twelve came along, they could not get anything for the Tem- 
ple or Nauvoo House, or hardly a place to stay. The rats had eaten 
up the wheat, so we had to go to the world for a home to stay while 
we were there. 

We do not profess to be polished stones like Elders Almon W. 
Babbitt, George J. Adams, James Blakeslee, and Eli P. Maginn, &c, 
&c; but we are rough stones out of the monntain; and when we roll 
through the forest, and knock the bark from the trees, it does not hurt 
us, even if we should get a corner knocked off occasionally; for the 
more we roll about, and knock the corners off, the better we are; but 
if we were polished and smooth when we get the corners knocked off, 
it would deface us. 

Joseph Smith never professed to be a dressed, smooth, polished 
stone, but to have come rough out of the mountain; and he has been 
rolling among the rocks and trees, yet it has not hurt him at all: but 
he will be as smooth and polished in the end as any other stone, while 
many who were so very polished and smooth in the beginning get badly 
defaced and spoiled while they are rolling about. 

Elder Parley P. Pratt said-^Sonie are going to Zion, and the rest 



22 HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. [A.D. 1843 

want to know what they shall do. The Lord, through Jeremiah (iii, 14,15) 
says, "I will take you one of a city, and two of a family, and I will 
bring you to Zion: and I will give you pastors according to mine heart, 
which shall feed you with knowledge and understanding." Inasmuch 
as you hearken to counsel, you will know what the will of the Lord 
is concerning you in all things. Meet often together to worship God 
and to speak to each other of the things of God. Gather as soon as 
you can. Come up to the mountain of the Lord's house, and there 
learn of these things, that the Scriptures may be fulfilled^ 

Elder Orson Pratt said — I do not know that I can say an> thing 
to impress the subjects which have been spoken upon more fully upon 
your minds than has been done. There are some things, however, I 
wish to mention. We have learned from what we have heard this 
day that great blessings will be given to the faithful when the Temple 
is finished. I will speak of some of the consequences that will follow, 
if we do not obey. 

When the Temple is reared, God will manifest Himself in a peculiar 
manner. If we are obedient, He has told us He will make manifest to us 
things we are ignorant of. He has said He will reveal things which 
pertain to this dispensation that have been hidden and kept secret from 
the foundation of the world. 

No former age or generation of the world have had the same things 
revealed: all other dispensations will be swallowed up in this. He 
declares, in His revelations, the consequences of not building the house 
unto His name within such a time. The Lord says, If you build the 
house in that time, you shall be blessed; but if not, you shall be re- 
jected as a church with your dead, saith the Lord. So, if that house is 
not built, then in vain are all our cares; our faith and works, our meet- 
ings and hopes are vain also; our performances and acts will be void. 

The servants of God who are faithful and do their duty will get the 
blessing; and we are determined to do our duty, and lay these prin- 
ciples before the Saints, so that they may have the privilege of contrib- 
uting. We will turn this responsibility upon the heads of the Saints; 
then our garments will be clear, and the Lord is able and will be willing 
to endow all the faithful in some other place ( 

This Church, in its infancy, was directed to do a certain work, and 
the consequences pointed out. The Lord gave a revelation several 
years since to the Church to appoint our wise men, and send up our 
moneys by them to buy land: if not, we should not have an inheritance, 
but our enemies should be upon us. We went through and told the 
Saints these things; but did the churches do as God commanded? No, 
they did not. But the revelation was fulfilled, and the enemies of the 
Saints came upon them, and drove them from their houses and homes, 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 23 

and finally from the State of Missouri. This was in consequence of 
their disobeying the commandments of God through His servant 
Joseph. 

Many suppose they must get direct revelation from God for them- 
selves. Not so. He has a prophet, and he says the Church shall give 
heed to the words of the Prophet, as he is to hold the keys of the king- 
dom of God in this life and in the world to come. Then it is of much 
consequence that you give heed to his word. 

Says one, Suppose we are not satisfied that this is the work of God? 
You can ask God if the work is true, and He will give* you a- testimony. 
You can put every confidence in the Book of Mormon and in Joseph, 
the Prophet; and if you are not satisfied, go to God. I doubt in my 
own mind if men can stand what they will have to pass through,, 
unless they do get a witnes for themselves; and I pray you to give heed 
to the words which the Twelve have taught you, and ask God to 
help you. 

The conference was adjourned until ten o'clock tomorrow morning- 

Sunday, 10th. Conference met according to adjournment. 

Meeting was opened by singing, and prayer by Elder Maginn; after 
which Elder Wilford Woodruff addressed the assembly from Amos iii : 7 — 
"Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto 
his servants the prophets'?" According to the testimony of the Scrip- 
tures in all ages of the world, whenever God was about to bring a 
judgment upon the world or accomplish any great work, the first thing 
he did was to raise up a Prophet, and reveal unto him the secret, and 
send him to warn the people, so that they may be left without excuse. 
This was the case in the days of Noah and Lot. God was about to 
bring judgments upon the people, and he raised up those Prophets who 
warned the people of it: yet they gave no heed to them, but rejected 
their testimony; and the judgments came upon the people, so that they 
were destroyed, while the Prophets were saved by pursuing the course 
marked out by the Lord. 

Jesus Christ testified to the Jews of the things that awaited them as 
a nation, the fall of Jerusalem, and their dispersion among the Gentile 
world; but they did not believe it. Yet the secret of all these things 
was revealed to the Prophets and Apostles. They believed it, and looked 
for its fulfillment; and it came to pass as it was predicted, though 
contrary to the expectation of the Jewish nation. 

In like manner do we look for the certain fulfillment of those tre- 
mendous events upon the heads of the Gentile world which have been 
spoken of and pointed out by all the holy Prophets and Apostles since 
the world began, they having spoken as they were moved upon by the 
power of God and the gift of the Holy Ghost, events which more deeply 



24 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH f A.D. 1843 

concern the Gentile world than the overthrow of Jerusalem and the 
dispersion of the Jews did the Jewish nation; for while they stumbled 
at the stone they were broken; but when it falls upon the heads of the 
Gentile world, it will grind them to powder. 

The full set time is come for the Lord to set His hand to accomplish 
these mighty events; and as He has done in other ages, so has He done 
now — He has raised up a Prophet, and is revealing unto him His secrets. 
Through that Prophet He has brought to light the fullness of the ever- 
lasting Gospel to the present generation, and is again once more for 
the last time establishing His Church upon the foundation of the ancient 
Apostles and Prophets, which is revelation, Jesus Christ being the chief 
corner stone. 

In the Church is now found judges as at the first, and counselors 
as at the beginning; also Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors, and 
Teachers, with gifts and graces, for the perfecting of the Saints, the 
work of the ministry, and the edifying of the body of Christ. 

The Lord has raised up His servants, and sent them into the vine- 
yard to prune it once more for the last time, to preach the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ, and to warn the nations, that they may be left without 
excuse in the day of their visitation; also to gather the honest in heart 
and the meek of the earth, that Zion may be built up, and the sayings 
of the Prophets fulfilled. 

One of the secrets that God has revealed unto his Prophet in these 
days is the Book of Mormon ; and it was a secret to the whole world 
until it was revealed unto Joseph Smith, whom God has raised up as a 
Prophet, Seer, and Revelator unto His people. This record contains an 
account of the ancient inhabitants of this continent and of the cities 
with which they overspread this land from sea to sea, the ruins of 
which still remain as standing monuments of the arts, science, power, 
and greatness of their founders. It also points out the establishing of 
this our own nation, with the conditions for its progress, and those pre- 
dictions contained in the Book of Mormon — the stick of Joseph in the 
hand of Ephraim, will as truly be fulfilled as those contained in the 
Bible — the stick and record of Judah; and both these sticks or records 
contain prophecies of great import concerning the Gentile nations, and 
especially this land and nation, which are not yet fulfilled, but must 
shortly eotne to pass: yea, their fulfillment is nigh, even at the doors. 

Though the secrets which God is revealing through His servant the 
Prophet in these last days may be unpopular and unbelieved in by the 
world, yet their unbelief will not make the truth of God of none effect, 
any more than it did in the days of Lot and Noah, or at the fall of 
Jerusalem. 

When Jesus Christ said there should not be left one stone upon 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 25 

another in the temple that should not be thrown down, the Jewish 
nation did not believe it, neither would they receive such testimony; 
but they looked at outward circumstances, and were ready to say, 
"Who can prevail against us? What nation like unto our nation? We 
have held the giving of the law, the oracles, and the Urirn and Thum- 
mim; the lawgiver has never departed from between our feet; we have 
held the power of government from generation to generation; and what 
nation hath power now to prevail against us?'', 

Through this order of reasoning they were blinded, and knew not 
the day of their visitation : they understood not the things that belonged 
to their peace; they rejected their Lord and King, contended against 
the word and testimony, aud finally put Him to death on the cross, with 
many who followed Him. But this did not hinder the fulfillment of His 
predictions concerning that nation. The words of the Lord had gone 
forth out of His mouth, and could not return unto Him void. The 
things that belonged to their peace were hid from their eyes, and they 
were counted unworthy as a nation. The kingdoin was to be rent out 
of their hands and given to another; the die was cast, and judgment 
must come. 

Jerusalem was soon surrounded by the Eoman army, led on by the 
inspired Titus; and a scene of calamity, judgment, and woe immediately 
overspread the inhabitants of that city, which was devoted to destruct- 
ion, — such a calamity as never before rested upon the nation of Israel. 
Blood flowed through their streets; tens of thousands fell by the edge of 
the sword, and thousands by famine. Women were evil towards the 
children of their own bosoms in the straitness of the siege, the spectacle 
of which shocked the Roman soldiers as they entered the city. The 
Jews were crucified in such numbers by their enemies that they could 
find no more wood for crosses, or room for their bodies; and while 
despair was in every face, and every heart sinking while suffering 
under the chastening hand of God, their enemies rushed upon them in 
the city to strike the last fatal blow; and, as their last resort, they 
rushed for safety into the temple, which was soon on fire, and they sank 
in the midst of the flames with the cry of their sufferings ascending up 
on high, accompanied by the smoke of the crackling spires and towers. 

The remaining population were sold as slaves, and driven like the 
dumb ass under his burthen, and scattered, as corn is sifted in a sieve, 
throughout the Gentile world. Jerusalem was razed from its founda- 
tions, the ruins of the temple thrown down, and the foundation thereof 
ploughed up, that not one stone was left upon another. Christ said that 
Jerusalem should be trodden down of the Gentiles until the times of 
the Gentiles be fulfilled, which has been the case to the very letter 
until the present generation. 



26 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 184S 

Will not God in like manner as truly and faithfully bring to pass 
those great, important and tremendous events upon the heads of 
the Gentile world which have been proclaimed by the Prophets 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and many other holy Prophets; 
also by Christ and the Apostles on the continent of Asia, as well as by 
Lehi, Nephi, Alma, Moroni, and others on this continent— all of whom 
have proclaimed these things as they were moved upon by the Spirit of 
inspiration, the power of God, and the gift of the Holy Ghost? 

The Apostle says that "No prophecy of the Scripture is of any 
private interpretation, for the prophecy came not of old time by the 
will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the 
Holy Ghost." 

Isaiah's soul seemed to be on fire, and his mind wrapt in the visions 
of the Almighty, while he declared, in the name of the Lord, that it 
should come to pass in the last days that God should set His hand again 
the second time to recover the remnant of His people, assemble the 
outcasts of Israel, gather together the dispersed of Judah, destroy the 
tongue of the Egyptian sea and make men go over dry-shod, gather 
them to Jerusalem on horses, mules, swift beasts, and in chariots, and 
rebuild Jerusalem upon her own heaps; while, at the same time, the 
destroyer of the Gentiles will be on his way; and while God was turning 
the captivity of Israel, he would put all their curses and afflictions upon 
the heads of the Gentiles, their enemies, who had not sought to recover, 
but to destroy them, and had trodden them uuder foot from generation 
to generation. 

At the same time the standard should be lifted up, that the honest in 
heart, the meek of the earth among the Gentiles, should seek unto it; 
and that Zion should be redeemed and be built up a holy city, that the 
glory and power of God should rest upon her, and be seen upon her; 
that the watchman upon Mount Ephraim might cry — "Arise ye, and let 
us go up unto Zion, the city of the Lord our God; " that the Gentiles 
might come to her light, and kings to the brightness of her rising; that 
the Saints of God may have a place to flee to and stand in holy places 
while judgment works in the earth; that when the sword of God that is 
bathed in heaven falls upon Idumea, or the world, — when the Lord 
pleads with all flesh by sword and by fire, and the slain of the Lord are 
many, the Saints may escape these calamities by fleeing to the places of 
refuge, like Lot and Noah. 

Isaiah, in his 24th chapter, gives something of an account of the 
calamities and judgments which shall come upon the heads of the Gen- 
tile nations, and this because they have transgressed the laws, changed 
the ordinance, and broken the everlasting covenant. The Apostle Paul 
says to his Roman brethren, that if the Gentiles do not continue in the 



A.D. 1843| HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 27 

goodnes of God, they, like the house of Israel, should be cutoff. Though 
Babylon says, "I sit as a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no 
sorrow," the Revelator says, "Therefore shall her plagues come in one 
day, death and mourning and famine; and she shall be utterly burned 
with fire, for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her." 

Jesus communicated the parable of the fig-tree, which in putting 
forth its leaves betokens the approach of summer; and so likewise, 
when we see the signs in the sun, moon, and stars, and in the heavens 
and the earth of which He spoke, we might know that His coming is 
near — that the generation in which those signs appeared should not pass 
away till all should be fulfilled. 

These things are about to come to pass upon the heads of the present 
generation, notwithstanding they are not looking for it, neither do they 
believe it. Yet their unbelief will not make the truth of God of none 
effect. The signs are appearing in the heavens and on the earth, and 
all things indicate the fulfillment of the Prophets. The fig-tree is 
leafing, summer is nigh, and the Lord has sent his angels to lay the 
foundation of this great and important work. 

Then why should not God reveal His secrets unto His servants the 
Prophets, that the Saints might be led in paths of safety, and escape 
those evils which are about to engulf a whole generation in ruin? 

Monday, 11. Conference met at Boylston Hall at nine o'clock, 
a. m. Present of the quorum of the Twelve, Elders Brigham Young, 
Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, John E. Page, Wilford Woodruff, George 
A. Smith, Heber C. Kimball, and Orson Hyde. 

Opened with prayer by Elder Page. 

Elder Brigham Young stated the object of the meeting. The first 
item of business is tMfe spread of the Gospel of salvation. 1 want to 
state what devolves upon the Twelve. Nine years ago a revelation was 
given which was fulfilled in 1835; and when fulfilled, the Prophet 
lifted up his head and rejoiced before the Lord. Previously, the res- 
ponsibility of spreading the Gospel rested on him; now it is on the 
Twelve. This is ihe relation we hold between the living and the dead — 
to direct how you may escape. 

Last winter we were directed to send men to the nations of the earth. 
Elder Addison Pratt had been to the Sandwich Islands, and proffered 
his services. We have power to ordain them, and call upon the Church 
to assist in sending them. Here are four men willing to go, and we do 
not wish them to cease trying, unless it be to die trying. One of them 
is ill. If he stays, he will die. I would go, or die trying. 

We call on the churches to fit out these men with necessaries. Elder 
Eli P. Maginn and Elder Philip B. Lewis we call on to fit them out. If 



28 HISTORY OF THE CBURCH. [A.D. 1843 

Elder Lewis does not, Maginn will do it himself. This takes the res- 
ponsibility from us. 

If the Saints will not help, the curse of God will rest upon them. If 
the Temple at Nauvoo is not built, we will receive our endowments, if 
we have to go into the wilderness and build an altar of stone. If a man 
gives his all, it is all God requires. Brother Kimball has received one 
dollar since he came to Boston, and seventeen dollars and a half before, 
towards building the Temple. A book is kept of all sums given. This 
book will also be opened. All is recorded. I have received twenty- 
three dollars, and I have spent about forty-five or fifty dollars. I am 
rich, and expect to be so throughout all eternity, with the help of God 
and my brethren. I can get home, if I can sell land. Some of the 
Twelve are more destitute ; but they are the best set of boys you ever saw. 

During the persecution in Missouri, when the mob came against Far 
West, Elder Kimball stood near me in one of the companies; and every 
time they formed, he rammed down another ball into his old musket, 
until be got five balls in. We are a good-feeling set of men, because 
of the Spirit which is in us. What produces it? The impulse of the 
heart. We should feel the same on the desert of Arabia, or on the is- 
lands of the sea; we feel happy wherever we are. When we ask for 
victuals, and get turned away, as we often have been, we feel just 
as well. 

The Spirit which is in me prompts me to look forward to something 
better. We have a prospect of selling shares of the Nauvoo House, and 
of obtaining subscriptions for the Temple, and we feel better. 

Here are twelwe men, and I defy all creation to bring a charge of 
dishonesty against them. We had to give security for the faithful per- 
formance of our duty as agents for the Nauvoo House and Temple. 
This has been heretofore unheard of in the Church. I glory in it. The 
financial affairs of the Church rest on our shoulders, and God is going 
to whip us into it. When men are in future called to do like Brigham, 
I will be one to bind them: this is a precedent. We are the only legally 
authorized agents of the Church to manage affairs, give counsel to emi- 
grants how to dispose of goods, &c. 

Some men come into this Church through designing purposes. Mr. 
Cowen,who lives about 30 miles above Nauvoo, wanted Brother Joseph 
to make a settlement at Shoquokon. Several of the brethren went there 
and preached, and some families moved up with the intention of set- 
tling. Mr. Cowen was all love— a charming fellow, and calculated to 
magnetize. He is now in the Eastern country, and going amongst the 
brethren. He gives one a kiss, and says he, "I am not a Mormon, but 
expect to be : Brother Joseph and myself are confidential friends. Can't 
you lend me five hundred dollars? I have got land, and I will give you 



A.D. 1843J HISTORY OF 1HE CHURCH. 29 

a mortgage." At the same time, be knew quite well that his land was 
in a perfect swamp, and that the place was not fit for a settlement. 
Even the captains of steamers could with difficulty be persuaded upon 
to call there, either on account of goods or passengers. His name is 
John F. Cowen, and he stands five feet six inches high. There are others. 

I would ask the Latter-day Saints, Do you know your benefactors? 
Do you know the source from whence you derive your knowledge? 
Take in the publications and periodicals of the Church. They give you 
intelligence of all matters pertaining to this dispensation with revela- 
tions for the guidance of the Church. 

I know that men who go through the world with the truth have not 
much influence; but let them come with silk velvet lips and sophistry, 
and they will have an influence. It is your privilege to be discerners 
of spirits. If you don't know me or the Twelve, walk with us fifty 
years, and perhaps you will know us then; and if such a man as Cowen 
comes along, will you trust him or me? No power can hide the heart 
from the discerning eye. If we are ignorant, what knowledge have the 
rest of the people? I sit down with all my ignorance, and read people's 
hearts as I see their faces, and they can't help themselves. 

No one has ever stepped aside but I have known it. I know the 
result of their actions, and they cannot help themselves. If you find 
out my heart, you are welcome to it. If any of the Twelve take a 
wrong path, or a course by themselves, I know the path, and know the 
end of it. They are soon in the ditch, crying for help. I sit down and 
let others run. I strike with a crooked stick to hit the whole. 

Now, the Twelve must be helped home, and there must be some- 
thing for the Temple and the Nauvoo House. We have got a plot of 
the city of Nauvoo for lithographing. If any wish to advance the money 
to lithograph, and have a few thousands struck off, they shall be paid 
till they are satisfied. There was not wealth enough in New York and 
the regions round about. [He here exhibited the map of Nauvoo.] He 
concluded with a few remarks relative to the circumstances of Elder 
Hyde, who had just returned from his mission to Jerusalem. 

Elder Parley P. Pratt spoke as follows: — In the middle of last 
April I arrived at Nauvoo houseless and with a large family. Brother 
Joseph said to me, "Brother Parley, stay at home and build a house." 
I was behindhand in instructions and information, while others had 
been at home learning the great things of God. I have now come East 
principally on business, though I always have a mission, wherever I 
am. I speak for my brethren: they have an absolute claim; it belongs 
to them, and they want it. It is justly theirs. I ask for nothing for 
myself. 

Elder Heber C. Kimball said, I suppose .you all understand what 



30 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 184a 

Elder Young has said, and I consider his counsel good. He is my su- 
perior and my head in the council of the Twelve. If I go astray, it will 
be through ignorance. We must be subject to the powers that be; and 
there are no powers but what are ordaiDed of God; and if we reject their 
counsel, we shall be damned. Some of our finest-looking and smartest 
men have fallen. 

I consider those trees in the forest which have the largest and 
highest tops are in the greatest danger: they are blown down; and 
there is no way of restoring them but to cut them off. Let the stump go 
back, and new sprouts come out. Those who have most responsibility 
are in most danger. We must be careful how we treat God's officers. 

No man ever fell, unless it was through rejecting counsel. I as 
well as my brethren see this. My superior knows more than I,because he 
is nearer the fountain. To get knowledge, begin at the foot of the 
stream, and drink all up till you get to the fountain, and then you get 
all the knowledge. 

It is necessary for the people here to obey counsel. God has sent 
me forth, through his servants, to take my part in this great work, and 
the work is true. I know there are but few in this Church who will be 
able to walk in this narrow path. We must keep the celestial law in the 
flesh. The more simple we teach, the better for us. 

It is a wrong idea of Elders whipping sects. Try and win the people; 
salt both sheep and shepherd too; get them up so that they will lick the 
salt out of your hands. [An infidel here handed money to Brother 
Kimball, who prophesied that he would be a Saint and an Elder, and all 
his family should be Saints.] Give them good salt, gain the affections 
of the shepherd, and the whole flook will come. Now, we get sheep up 
to lick; and when the old shepherd of the sheep comes up to lick salt, 
the Elders will hit him over the head with a cane. Their religion is as 
dear to them as ours to us. Don't feed too much salt at once, but give a 
little at a time, or they are cloyed. 

Elders of Israel, be wise! Give short discourses, as long ones cloy 
your hearers, who will say, "A good discourse, but I got tired." 

Never infringe on the right of other people, and never tear down 
other people's houses until you have built a better. We are sent to 
preach repentance, and let people alone. How do you like to go into 
other Churches and hear them abuse us? Do as you would be done by. 
Persuade men, and not compel them, unless the time spoken of by the 
Savior comes, when the Lord shall say unto His servants "Go out into 
the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house 
may be filled." (Luke 14 ch., 23 v.) Let men be humble, kind and 
affectionate. 



A.D. 18431 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 31 



CHAPTER II. 

MOVEMENTS OF APOSTLES IN THE EAST — THE NAUVOO MAN- 
SION — ROCKWELL ACQUITTED — SPECIAL CONFERENCE AT 
NAUVOO — DISCOURSE OF THE PROPHET ON THE DEMISE 
OF JAMES ADAMS. 

Sunday, September 10, 1843. — Cold, and considerable rain. 
Kindled a fire in the office for the first time this The Drought 
fall. This is the first rain of any consequence of 1843 
since the first of June. There have been occasional — say 
three or four slight showers, but not enough to wet the 
potatoe hills, and the vegetables in the gardens have gen- 
erally stopped growing, on account of the drougth. Even 
corn is seriously in juied, — much of it by a worm in the 
ear. Early potatoes are scarcely worth digging. 

Monday, 11. — Early in the morning a petition was pre- 
sented to me, as Lieut. -General, to devise means to get 
the public arms of the State for the Legion ; whereupon I 
appointed William W. Phelps, Henry Miller, and Hosea 
Stout a committee to wait on Governor Ford on the 
subject. 

Election for probate justice; weather cold; people cold. 
Greenleaf received most of the votes in Nauvoo — say 
seven hundred votes. 

Six, p. m., I met with my Brother Hyrum, William 
Law, Newel K. Whitney, and Willard Richards in my 
private room, where we had a season of prayer for Brother 
Law's little daughter, who was sick, and Emma, who was 
somewhat better. 

Tuesday, 12. — Rainy day. 



32 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. TA.D. 1843 

Elder Woodruff left Boston for Portland by railroad and 
woodruff in a while passing through Chester woods, the en- 
Tram wreck. gj ne wag thrown off the tracks, and with the 
baggage cars smashed to pieces. Several of the passen- 
ger cars mounted the ruins, but none of the passengers 
were injured, except two very slightly. The engineer, 
however, was killed instantaneously. Elder Woodruff, 
with most of the passengers, remained all night in the 
woods, and found it very cold. 

Wednesday, 13.— I attended a lecture at the Grove, by 
Mr. John Finch, a Socialist, from England, and said a 
few words in reply. 

The following article appears [this day] in the Neigh- 
bor, copied from The New Haven, Conn., Herald:— 

NAUVOO AND JOSEPH SMITH. 

A gentleman of this town, (New Haven, Conn,) of undoubted 
veracity, who has lately spent several weeks at Nauvoo and among the 
Mormons, informs us that the general impression abroad in regard to 
that place and people is very erroneous. During his residence there 
he became quite familiar with their manners, principles, and habits, 
and says there is not a more industrious, moral, and well-ordered town 
in the country. Society is as much diversified there as it is here, the 
Mormons constituting about two-thirds of the population, while all relig- 
ious sects are as freely tolerated as in any other part of the State. He was 
at the late trial and acquittal of Joseph Smith, and says that the charges 
against him were of the most frivolous and unsubstantial nature. He 
[Jcseph Smith] is an agreeable man in conversation^ respected by those 
who know him, and is 'as much sinned against as sinning.' He only 
claims the privilege of excercising and enjoying his own religion,— a 
privilege which he and his followers cheerfully award to others. They 
inyite immigrants to come among them, and receive those who design 
to enter into the Mormon community with great attention and kindness. 
Houses are prepared for tbeir reception, to which they are conducted 
on their arrival by a committee appointed for that purpose, whose next 
business is to attend to their immediate wants and see them comfortably 
situated. Education is by no means neglected, proper schools and 
teachers being provided, and temperance reigns throughout. It has 
now about 15,000 to 18,000 inhabitants, and promises to become a place 
of extensive business, four or five steamboats stopping there every day. 



A.D. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 33 

The gentleman remarked to us that he wished he could speak as well of 
his own native town as he could of Nauvoo. This is news to us, as no 
doubt it will be to many; but no one who knows him can doubt the in- 
tegrity of our informant. 



Thursday, 14. — I attended a second lecture on Socialism, 
by Mr. Finch; and after he got through, I The Prophet 
made a few remarks, alluding to Sidney Rig- on Socialism - 
don and Alexander Campbell getting up a community at 
Kirtland, and of the big fish there eating up all the little 
fish. I said I did not believe the doctrine.^> 

Mr. Finch replied in a few minutes, and said — "I am the 
voice of one crying in the wilderness. I am the spiritual 
Prophet — Mr. Smith the temporal." 

^^Elder John Taylor replied to the lecture at some length. 

n^ Friday, 15. — I put up a sign, 

"Nauvoo Mansion." 

In consequence of my house being constantly crowded with 
strangers and other persons wishing to see me, 
or who had business in the city, I found myself flanS!?" 
unable to support so much company free of MadeaHoteL 
charge, which I have done from the foundation of the 
Church. My house has been a home and resting-place for 
thousands, and my family many times obliged to do with- 
out food, after having fed all they had to visitors ; and I 
could have continued the same liberal course, had it not 
been for the cruel and untiring persecution of my relentless 
enemies. I have been reduced to the necessity of opening 
"The Mansion" as a hotel. I have provided the best 
table accommodations in the city; and the Mansion, being 
large and convenient, renders travelers more comfortable 
than any other place on the Upper Mississippi. I have 
erected a large and commodious brick stable, and it is 
capable of accommodating seventy-five horses at one time, 
and storing the requisite amount of forage, and is unsur- 
passed by any similar establishment in the State .V 
There was an officers' drill in Nauvoo. 



3 Vol. VI. 



34 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. LA.D. 1843 

Rhoda Ann, daughter of Willard and Jenetta Richards, 
was born at fifteen minutes to three, p. m., in Nauvoo. 

Saturday, 16. — General parade of the Nauvoo Legion 
' . , near my farm. Went in company with my staff 

Legion Parade J a «/ ./ 

and inspec- to the muster, was met by an escort, and ar- 
rived before the Legion about noon. I was 
received and saluted with military honors. The Legion 
was dismissed at about one, p. m., for two hours, and I 
rode home to dinner. I returned about twenty minutes 
after three, attended the review, and with my staff in- 
spected the Legion; after which, I took my post and gave 
orders. 

After the inspection, I made a speech to the Legion on 
their increasing prosperity, and requested the officers to 
increase the Legion in numbers. 

I was highly gratified with the officers and soldiers, and 
I felt extremely well myself. 

About sundown the Legion was dismissed. I rode home 
with my staff, highly delighted with the day's perform- 
ance, and well paid for my services. 

Sunday, 17. — I was at meeting; and while Elder Almon 
W. Babbitt was preaching, I took my post as Mayor out- 
side the assembly to keep order and set an example to the 
other officers. 

After preaching, I gave some instructions about order 
in the congregation, men among women, and women 
among men, horses in the assembly, and men and boys 
on the stand who do not belong there, &c. 

In the evening Mr. Blodgett, a Unitarian minister, 
preached. I was gratified with his sermon in general, but 
differed in opinion on some points, on which I freely ex- 
pressed myself to his great satisfaction, — viz., on perse- 
cution making the work spread, like rooting up a flower- 
garden or kicking back the sun ! 

Monday, 18. — I received a letter from Governor Ford 
as follows: — 



AD. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 35 

Letter of Governor Ford to the Prophet. 

Springfield, September 13, 1843. 

Dear Sir, — In answer to your letter, I have the honor to reply, 
that I will consider it my duty to prevent the invasion of this State, if 
in my power, by any persons elsewhere for any hostile purposes what- 
ever. 

From information in my possession, I am of opinion that there is 
but little danger of any such invasion. It is altogether more likely that 
some other mode of annoyance will be adopted. My enemies here, I 
think, are endeavoring to put something of the kind on foot. 
I am, most respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

Thomas Ford. 

I attended a council at my old house. 

A conference was held at Preston, Halifax County, 
Nova Scotia. 1 Elder, 1 Teacher, 1 Deacon, conference in 
and 14 members were represented. Robert Nova Scotla - 
Dixon, president; J. Jermen, clerk. 

David Greenleaf was elected probate judge for the 
county of Hancock, by a majority of 598 votes. 

Tuesday, 19. — I directed Brother Phelps to answer the 
letter recently received from the Governor, and to enclose 
a copy of the resolutions passed at the meeting of the 
mobocracy at Carthage; which he did. 

Wrote a letter to J. B. Backenstos. 

A portion of the Twelve were present at a general 
muster of the independent companies of Boston. Saw a 
sham battle, in which thirty-five brass cannon were dis- 
charged seven times. One party was commanded by the 
Governor of Mass., and the other by the officer next in 
rank. 

Wednesday, 20. — Visited my farm, accompanied bv my 
Brother Hyruni. 

The Neighbor has the following: — 

PORTER ROCKWELL. 

A few short months ago, it was heralded through this State that 
Porter Rockwell was the individual who attempted to murder ex-Gov- 
ernor Boggs, of Missouri. It was confidently stated that Joseph Smith 



36 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

was accessory before the fact. The thing was swallowed as a precious 
morsel by the enemies of Mormonism. It was iterated and reiterated by 
the public journals, and the general expression of a certain class was 
that Mr. Smith ought to be hung; there was no doubt of his guilt; he 
was one of the most inhuman, diabolical, dangerous, and malignant 
persons in the universe; and when a requisition was made for him by 
the Governor of Missouri, it was considered worse than "arson" or 
"treason" that he should be acquitted by the legal authorities of this 
State, under habeas corpus; and afterwards, when Porter Rockwell 
was taken, it was exultingly stated that they had got the scoundrel, and 
that he would now receive the due demerit of his crime. How stands 
the matter when it is investigated — investigated by a Missouri court? 
The following will show: — 

The last Independence Expositor says: — "Orin Porter Rockwell, the 
Mormon confined in our county jail, some time since, for the attempted 
assassination of ex-Governor Boggs, was indicted by our last grand 
jury for escaping from our county jail some time since, and sent to 
Cla*y county for trial. Owing, however, to some informality in the 
proceedings, he was remanded to this county again for trial. There 
was not sufficient proof adduced against him to predicate an indictment 
for shooting ex-Govornor Boggs, and the grand jury therefore did not 
indict him for that offense." — [St. Louis New Era.~\ 

It appears, then, after all the bluster, the hue-and-cry about Mormon 
outrages, Mormon intrigue, "blood," "arson," and "murder," that 
"there was not sufficient proof adduced against him to predicate an in- 
dictment for shooting ex-Governor Boggs, and the grand jury therefore 
did not indict him for that offense." This speaks for itself: it needs no 
comment. We are glad, for the sake of suffering innocence, that Mr. 
Rockwell stands clear in the eyes of the law. Thus it seeme that after 
exerting all their malice and hellish rage to implicate the innocent, they 
can find no proof against him. But yet he must be again incarcerated, 
without proof, for another hearing. This is Missouri justice. If he was 
guilty of breaking jail, why not try and punish him for that before that 
court? Where is the necessity of remanding him to another county for 
another hearing? It is evident that they wish to immolate him, and, by 
offering him as a sacrifice, glut their thirst for innocent blood. 

I answered Governor Ford's letter received on the 18th. 

Elder Brigham Young instructed Elder Addison Pratt 
pacific island to go and engage a passage for himself and 
Mission. Elders Noah Eogers, Knowlton F. Hanks, and 

B. F. Grouard, as missionaries to the Pacific Islands, 



A.D. 1843.] HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 37 

although they had not one-tenth of the means on hand to 
pay their passage. 

In the evening, Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kim- 
ball, Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, George A. Smith, 
and John E. Page visited Mr. 0. S. Fowler, the phrenol- 
ogist, who examined their heads and gave their phreno- 
logical charts. 

Thursday, 21. — Made affidavit with Willard Richards 
and William Clayton to Auditor of State V.Walter Bagby. 

About eleven, a. m., called with my Brother Samuel H. 
to see about getting a copy of his blessing, and wished 
Doctor Eichards much joy in his new daughter. 

About noon, went on board the Maid of Iowa, with 
William Clayton, clerk of the boat. 

One, p. m., the thermometer stood at 100 dsg. in the 
shade. 

Friday, 22. — The Twelve visited the Navy Yard and 
Harbor of Boston, the Mississippi steamship, the rope- 
walk, the Bunker-hill monument, the State-house, and 
the State's prison. In the evening they addressed the 
Saints in Boylston Hall. 

Elder Addison Pratt, accompanied by Elder Philip B. 
Lewis engaged a passage to the Society Islands at $100 
each for himself, Noah Rogers, Knowlton F. Hanks, and 
B. F. Grouard. 

Saturday. 23. — Elder Stephen Markham returned from 
Dixon, the trial of Reynolds and Wilson being postponed 
till May next. 

Bishop George Miller returned from the Pinery. He 
reports the water in Black River so low that Rep ort from 
they could not get their raft into the Missis- the Pinej T- 
sippi. 

I had an interview with Elder Orson Spencer, from 
whom I borrowed $75 for the Temple. 

Sunday, 24. — I preached on the stand about one hour 
on the 2nd chapter of Acts, designing to show stewardship / 
the folly of common stock. In Nauvoo every mo^Stock. 



38 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. L A D. 1843 

one is steward over his own. After preaching, I called 
upon the brethren to draw stone for the Temple, 
and gave notice for a special conference for the 6th of 
October next. Adjourned the meeting about one, p. in., 
on account of the prospect of rain. Judge McBride and 
a lawyer from Missouri were present at the meeting. 

Monday, 25. — Wet day. At home. Held a conver- 
sation with the Missouri lawyer. 

Tuesday, 26. — Held Mayor's Court, and tried the case 
of "Dana v. Leeches." No cause of action. Called at the 
store about six, p. m., and directed the clerk to issue 
papers in the case of "Medagh v. Hovey." 

Wednesday , 27. — The Neighbor of this date has the 
following editorial : - 

CONCERNING HORSE THIEVES. 

We find that the Quincy Whig has some very righteous remarks to 
make concerning the Mormons, emanating from the purest principles of 
patriotism. (?) The editor has had some ''''private conversation" with 
some individual or individuals about certain charges brought against 
the Mormons, particulary that of screening horse thieves. 

We think that the Whig has not done itself much credit in advocating 
the principles contained in those resolutions. We leave that, however, 
for a discerning public to judge. 

Concerning the horse thieves, however, the informant of the Whig 
would have shown himself a better friend to society to have given in- 
formation to the proper authorities, and had these pests of society 
brought to condign punishment. And the editor of that paper would 
have proved himself more patriotic by telling us who these people are 
that are screened in our midst, than dealing thus in generals and stab- 
bing in the dark. 

Come, Mr. Whig, out with it, and let us know who it is that is found 
transgressing. Who knows but that, far fallen as we are, there yet may 
be virtue enough left to prosecute a horse thief! We have tried this 
more than once, and prosecuted them as far as Carthage; but no sooner 
do they arrive in the jail there than we lose all track of them. The lock 
of the door is so slippery, that it lets them all out. We presume, how- 
ever, that it is on account of the honesty of the people. (?) We are 
pleased to find that the Whig is in the secret' 

Mr. Ivins, of this city, had a horse stolen last week, and we fre- 
quently have occurrences of the kind. Will the editor of that paper be 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 39 

so kind as to ask his informant who the thieves are, and where they 
live, and give us the desired information? and we shall esteem it a 
peculiar tavor. 

I was at home all day, and gave Brother Phelps the priv- 
ilege of occupying the small house near the store. 

Thursday, 28.— At half-past eleven, a. m., a council 
convened over the store, consisting of myself, 

tt i t i oi j_i xt i Meeting o* a 

mv brother Hyrum, Uncle John bmitn, Newel special 
K. Whitney, George Miller, Willard Richards, CounciL 
John Taylor, Amasa Lymau, John M. Bernhisel, and 
Lucien Wood worth; and at seven in the evening we met 
in the front upper room of the Mansion, with William Law 
and William Marks. By the common consent and unani- 
mous voice of the council, I was chosen president of the 
special council. 

The president led in prayer that his days might be pro- 
longed until his mission on the earth is accomplished, 
have dominion over his enemies, all their households be 
blessed, and all the Church and the world. 

Friday, 29. — Elder Brigham Young started from Boston 
for Nauvoo. The Twelve were now scattered amoug the 
branches in the Eastern States. 

Saturday, 30.— Rainy, and strong west wind. 

Elders Young and Woodruff stayed at Elder Foster's, 

in New York. 

Sunday, October 1, 1843.— -I copy the following from the 
Times and Seasons of this date : — 

WHO SHALL BE OUR NEXT PRESIDENT? 

This question we frequently hear asked, and it is a question of no 
small importance to the Latter-day Saints. 

We, as a people, have labored and are still laboring under great in- 
justice from the hands of a neighboring state. The Latter-day Saints have 
had their property destroyed, and their houses made desolate by the 
hands of the Missourians; murders have been committed with impunity, 
and many, in consequence of oppression, barbarism, and cruelty, have 
slept the sleep of death. They [the Saints] have been obliged to flee from 
their possessions into a distant land, in the chilling frosts of winter, 
robbed, spoiled, desolate, houseless, and homeless, without any just pre- 



40 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. (A.D. 1843 

text or shadow of law, without having violated the laws of that state, or 
the United States; and have had to wander as exiles in a strange land, 
without as yet being able to obtain any redress for their grievances. 

We have hitherto adopted every legal measure. First, we petitioned 
the State of Missouri, but in vain. We have memorialized Congress, 
but they have turned a deaf ear to our supplication, and referred us 
again to the State and justice of Missouri. Doubtless many of the 
members of that honorable body were not sufficiently informed of the 
enormity and extent of the crimes of our persecutors, nor of the indeli- 
ble stain which our national escutcheon has received through their in- 
human daring. They have been allowed to revel in blood and luxuriate 
in the miseries of the oppressed, and no man has laid it to heart. 

The fact is that gentlemen of respectability and refinement, who live 
in a civilized society, find it difficult to believe that such enormities 
could be practiced in a Republican government. But our wrong can- 
not slumber. Such tyranny and oppression must not be passed over in 
silence. Our injuries, though past, are not forgotten by us; they still 
rankle in our bosoms, and the blood of the innocent yet cries for justice; 
and as American citizens we have appealed and shall still continue to 
appeal to the legally-constituted authorities of the land for redress, in 
the hopes that justice, which has long slumbered, may be aroused in 
our defense; that the spirit which burned in the bosoms of the patriots 
of '76 may fire the souls of their descendants; and though slow, that 
their indignation may yet be aroused at the injustice of the oppressor; 
and that they may yet mete out justice to our adversaries, and step for- 
ward in the defense of the innocent. 

We shall ask no one to commit themselves on our account. We want 
no steps taken but what are legal, constitutional and honorable. But 
we are A merican citizens-, and as American citizens we have rights in 
common with all that live under the folds of the "star-spangled ban- 
ner." Our rights have been trampled upon by lawless miscreants. We 
have been robbed of our liberties by mobocratic influence, and all those 
honorable ties that ought to govern and characterize Columbia's sons 
have heen trampled in the dust. Still we are American Citizens; and 
as American citizens we claim the privilege of being heard in the coun- 
cils of our nation. We have been wronged, abused, robbed, and ban- 
ished; and we seek redress. Such crimes can not slumber in Repub- 
lican America. The cause of common humanity would revolt at it, and 
Republicanism would hide its head in disgust. 

We make these remarks for the purpose of drawing the attention of 
our brethren to this subject, both at home and abroad, that we may fix 
upon the man who will be the most likely to render us assistance in ob- 
taining redress for our grievances; and not only give our own votes, 
but use our influence to obtain others; and if the voice of suffering in- 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 41 

nocence will not sufficiently arouse the rulers of our nation to investi- 
gate our case, perhaps a vote of from fifty to one hundred thousand 
may rouse them from their lethargy. 

We shall fix upon the man of our choice, and notify our friends duly. 

I published the following in the same number of the 
Times and Seasons: — 

^ THE APPOINTMENT OF A MISSTON TO RUSSIA. 

To all the Saints and honourable men of the earth to whom the Lord 
has given liberally of this world's goods, greeting: 

Our worthy Brother, Elder George J. Adams, has been appointed by 
the First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
at Nauvoo to present to them the importance, as well as the things 
connected with his mission to Russia, to introduce the fullness of the 
Gospel to the people of that vast empire, and also to which is attached 
some of the most important things concerning the advancement and 
building up of the kingdom of God in the last days, which cannot be 
explained at this time. But as the mission is attended with much ex- 
pense, all those who feel disposed to bestow according as God has 
blessed them shall receive the blessings of Israel's God, and tenfold 
shall be added unto them, as well as the prayers of the Saints of God. 

With sentiments of high esteem, we subscribe ourselves your friends 
and brethren in the now and everlasting covenant, 

Joseph Smith, 
Hyrum Smith. 
Presidents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saintsjt- 

I attended meeting chis morning, and adjourned it in 
consequence of the cold and rain. The afternoon being 
more pleasant, the people assembled, and were addressed 
by Elders Marks, Charles C. Eich and Bishop Jacob Foutz. 

Council met in the evening same as on Thursday 
previous. 

Monday, 2. — At home. 

Tuesday, 3. — Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kim- 
ball, Orson Hyde, George A. Smith, Wilford 
Woodruff, and Jedediah M. Grant spent the Apostles in 
day in visiting the Saints in Philadelphia. In t e Easl ' 
the evening they partook of an oyster supper, on the in- 
vitation of Mr. Jeffreys. 

* The fact that Sidney Rigdon and Wm. Law did not sign this document as in the 
First Presidency, should be noted. 



42 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.u. 1843 

The brethren assembled with their wives, to the number 
of about one hundred couple, and dined at the Mansion as 
an opening to the house. A very pleasant day, and all 
things passed off well. 

The following is extracted from the Neighbor of this 

date. 

PLEASURE PARTY AND DINNER AT THE NAUVOO MANSION. 

General Joseph Smith, the proprietor of said house, provided a 
luxurious feast for a pleasure party; and all having partaken of the 
luxuries of a well-spread board, the cloth was removed, and a com- 
mittee appointed to draft resolutions suitable to the occasion. They ad- 
journed for a few moments and returned, when Robert D. Foster was 
appointed chairman. 

The object of the meeting was then briefly stated by the chairman; 
after which a hymn was sung, and prayer by Elder Taylor. The chairman 
then arose and made some appropriate remarks for the occasion, touching 
upon the rise and progress of the city, the varied scenes through which 
the Saints had to pass, the persecutions and abuses the Prophets had to 
undergo, &c, &c. After which he read the following resolutions and 
toast, which were unanimously adopted: — 

Resolved, 1st. That a vote of thanks be presented to General Joseph 
Smith and lady, through the medium of the Nauvoo Neighbor, for the 
very bountiful feast by them provided, for the accommodation of this 
party of more than one hundred couple at their Mansion. 

Resolved, 2nd. General Joseph Smith, whether we view him as a 
Prophet at the head of the Church, a General at the head of the Legion, 
a Mayor at the head of the City Council, or as a landlord at the head of 
his table, if he has equals, he has no superiors. 

Resolved, 3rd. Nauvoo, the great emporium of the West, the center 
of all centers, a city of three years' growth, a population of 15,000 souls 
congregated from the four quarters of the globe, embracing the intel- 
ligence of all nations, with industry, frugality, economy, virtue, and 
brotherly love, unsurpassed by any age in the world, — a suitable home 

for the Saints. 

Resolved, 4th. Nauvoo Legion, a well disciplined and faithful band 
of invincibles, ready at all times to defend their country with this motto, 
"Vive la Republique." 

Resolved, 5th. Nauvoo Charter, like the laws of the Medes and Per- 
sians, an unalterable decree by a patriotic band of wise legislators for 
the protection of the innocent. 

Resolved, 6th. Thomas Ford, Governor of Illinois, fearless and 



A.D. 1843| HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 43 

faithful in the discharge of all official duties, — long may he live, and 
blessiners attend his administration. 

Colonel Francis M. Higbee was then called to the stand, who addiessed 
the audience in a very spirited and appropriate manner for the day. 

Professor Orson Spencer was then called, who arose, and in his usual 
easy and eloquent manner highly entertained the company for nearly 
half-an-hour. 

The next called was Elder John Taylor, who alone was capable of 
putting on the top stone of the entertainment. His address was highly 
interesting, combining, like a Lacoon, a volume in every gesture. 

General Smith then arose, and, in a verj- touching and suitable 
manner, tendered his thanks to the company for the encomiums and 
honors conferred on him. He recited the many woes through which he 
had passed, the persecutions which he had suffered, and the love he had 
for the brethren and citizens of Nauvoo. He tendered his gratitude for 
the pleasing prospects that surrounded him to the great Giver of all 
good. He said he thought that his case was similar to that of old Job's 
— that after he had suffered and drank the very dregs of affliction, the 
Lord had remembered him in mercy, and was about to bless him 
abundantly. 

After he had done, Mrs. Emma Smith presented her thanks, through 
the chair, to the company present; after which, a motion was made and 
carried, to adjourn, whereupon the company were called to their feet. 
Benediction by Elder Taylor, and the party retired with the most 
perfect satisfaction and good humor as was ever witnessed on such 
occasions. 

Robert. D. Fosier, Chairman. 

In the evening Mr. William Backenstos and Clara M. 
Wasson were married at the Mansion. I solemnized the 
marriage in presence of a select party. 

Wednesday, 4. — I extract the following from the Neigh- 
bor of this date : — 

ANTI-MORMONISM. 

With respect to the Carthage meeting, I take upon myself to deny 
the charges in toto* and challenge them to the proof. If we harbor 
horse-thieves among us, as is basely asserted, let the man that has lost 
his horse publish his name and the name of the villain, or how he 
knows him to be a Mormon, and where he is harbored, that we may 
have something more than vague assertions. They well know that no 
such proof can be produced, but that the charges had their birth in the 
minds of one or two heartless scoundrels thirsting for revpnge for their 
late disappointments. The whole of the charges are a tissue of false- 



44 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

hoods got up with the idea of intimidating a peaceable body of cilizens. 

But, sir, we set such designing knaves at defiance and laugh at their 

threats, treating them with utter contempt, but ever ready to abide by 

the truth. 

John Greenhow. 

Elder Reuben Hedlock wrote the following letter: — 

Elder Meuben Hedlock to the First Presidency , 

Liverpool, October 4, 1843. 

To the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, greeting: — 

Dear and Much Esteemed Brethren, — I hasten to inform you of 
my arrival in Liverpool on the 30th day of September, in company with 
Elders John Cairns, James Sloan and wife, James Houston, and Wil- 
liam G. Jermon. We left six of the Twelve in the city of New York, 
the 2nd day of September, and came on board of the ship Columbus. 
Our passage money was five dollars. We had a very hard passage. We 
were very much crowded in the steerage. There were 236 persons — 
Dutch, Irish, English and Scotch, and as dirty as any I ever saw. We 
were not much sick; the weather was cold. Had it been otherwise, we 
should have suffered more. A steamer leaves for New York to-day, 
and I thought I would announce to you my arrival by this opportunity, 
and such information as I was in possession of up to this date. There 
is a ship to sail on the 14th instant, by which I shall write you again. 

I found Elders Hyrum Clark, Thomas Ward, and Amos Fielding in 
Liverpool, and they were well; and as far as I was informed by them, 
the Church is in a good state and on the increase; it numbers some- 
where between eight and Dine thousand members. There is a great 
want of laborers in the vineyard. Many of the first Elders have left 
this for Nauvoo, leaving their places vacant. I presented to the Pres 
fdency here your decision relative to the printing. Elders Ward and 
Fielding received it, and manifested a desire to abide by it. Elder 
Fielding wept when I showed him your decision concerning him and his 
coning to Nauvoo by the first ship to see you face to face. The brethren 
say here that he has been too hasty in some things, and has given some 
an offense; but I do not as yet know anything derogatory to his char- 
acter that I could say aught against him. I shall "write you all the 
particulars as fast as I come in possession of them. As regards the 
printing in this land, we shall stop it after the next number is published. 
In it we wish to publish the news from Nauvoo for the benefit of the 
Saints, and to announce our arrival in this country. 

Permit me here to give you my opinion as regards the printing in 
this land, and I will cheerfully abide your advice notwithstanding. 
After we stop the Star, we shall have during the shipping season to ad- 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 45 

vertise and give general information in the emigration business to the 
Saints scattered abroad. I think it would be best to republish the 
Times and Seasons for the benefit of the Church. The duties on books 
are £2-10s. per hundredweight; and there are now 1,600 Stars circulated 
here at the present, and the demands of our publications are on the in- 
crease. The duties would almost reprint the Times and Seasons, and 
then we could do our advertising on the last page, if thought advisable. 
We could afford it as cheap as the present Star, and pay you something 
for the privilege of publishing, as well as to pay it to the crown. I have 
not yet learned the amount of funds remaining here subject to your 
order. I have not had much time as yet to inquire into those matters, 
in consequence of the multitude of business in unloading our freight 
from shipboard. 

The brethren that came with me wish to say to those whom it may 
concern, that they are well, and will in a few days leave for their fields 
of labor. 

I shall write to you once a month, no preventing Providence, and 
should be glad to have you write to me as often, and give me your ad- 
vice and counsel relating to those things you, in your wisdom, may think 
beneficial to the Saints and emigration in this land. 

I wish Elder Taylor would forward to me the amount of the number 
that will make the volume of the limes and Seasons complete by the 
first opportunity. By so doing I can sell the 200 volumes to advantage. 
I will try to forward to him what I can obtain for the limes and 
Seasons already here. If it should be thought wisdom to reprint the 
limes and Seasons here, I wish Brother Taylor would be particular to 
send, so that we could obtain them, if possible. I am informed by 
Elder Ward that they have not received any intelligence from you 
since last February. 

I wish you would write me your mind concerning the printing im- 
mediately on the receipt of this sheet, so that our communication with 
the Saints in England may not be stopped long. 

I am, as ever, your humble servant in the bonds of the new and ever- 
lasting covenant, 

Reuben Hedlock. 

I was at the mansion preparing some legal papers. — 
Justin Butterfield, Esq. , U. S. Attorney for Mi- The Prophet's 
nois , arrived this afternoon ; and I spent the rest J^tuStter- 
of the day in riding and chatting with him. fleld - 

Council of the quorum [special council, see p. 39] met 
and adjourned to Sunday evening; my Brother Hyrum's 
child being sick. 



46 HISTOKY OF THE CHUBCH. LA.D. 1843 

The quorum of the Twelve started from Philadelphia 
for Pittsburgh . 

Thursday, 5. — This morning I rode out with Esquire 
Butterfield to the farm. 

In the afternoon, rode to the prairie to show some of 
the brethren some land. Evening, at home, 
Respecting aud walked up and down the streets with my 
wires!* 7 ° scribe. Gave instructions to try those persons 
who were preaching, teaching, or practicing 
the doctrine of plurality of wives: for, according to the 
law, I hold the keys of this power in the last days; for 
there is never but one on earth at a time on whom the 
power and its keys are conferred; and I have constantly 
said no man shall have but one wife at a time, unless the 
Lord directs otherwise. 

Friday, 6. — I attended special conference; but as few 
people were out, in consequence of the weather proving 
unfavorable, the organization of the conference was ad- 
journed until to morrow, or the first pleasant day. 

After giving notice that President Rigdon's case would 

be considered, &c, I walked towards home, 

Dis^aSae* s and gave instructions to my scribe to cause 

ney Rigdon! d " all the papers relating to my land-claims in 

the Half Breed Tract in Iowa, to be placed in 

the hands of Esquire Butterfield. 

Saturday, 7 . — I attended conference. 

Sunday, 8. — Slight frost last night. Conference con- 
vened in the morning; but, as it rained, adjourned till 
Monday at ten, a. m. 

Prayer-meeting at my house in the evening. Quorum 
present; also, in addition, Sisters Adams, Elizabeth Ann 
Whitney, my aunt Clarissa Smith, and my mother. 

My brother Hyrum and his wife were blessed, ordained 
and anointed. 

The Twelve arrived at Pittsburgh at ten, a. m., and 
again left by the steamer Baritan, at eleven, a. m., en 
route for Nauvoo. 



A.L). 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 47 

Monday, 9. — Attended conference, and preached a 
funeral sermon on the death of General James Adams ; a 
brief synopsis of which, as reported by Dr. Willard 
Richards, will be found in the minutes below. 

I here insert the conference minutes. 

MINUTES OF A SPECIAL CONFERENCE. 

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Special Conference, 

held in the City of Nauvoo, commencing on the 6th of October, 1843. 

Friday, October 6, ten o'clock, a. m. 

The weather proving unfavorable, the organization of the Confer- 
ence was postponed until the next day at ten o'clock, a. m. 

Saturday, ten o'clock, a. m. 

Conference assembled and proceeded to business. 

President Joseph Smith was called to the chair, and Gustavus Hills 
was chosen clerk. 

Singing by the choir, and prayer by Elder Almon W. Babbitt. 

The president stated the items of business to be brought before the 
conference to be — 

1st. The case and standing of Elder Sidney Rigdon, Counselor in 
the First Presidency. 

2nd. The further progress of the Temple; after which, any miscel- 
laneous business. 
<^Elder Sidney Rigdon addressed the conference on the subject of his 
situation and circumstances among the Saints. 

President- Joseph Smith addressed the conference, inviting an ex- 
pression of any charges or complaints which the conference had to 
make. He stated his dissatisfaction with Elder Sidney Rigdon as a 
Counselor, not having received any material benefit from his labors 
or counsels since their escape from Missouri. .Several complaints were 
then brought forward in reference to his management in the post office; 
a supposed corespondence and connection with John C. Bennett, with 
Ex-Governor Ovrlin, and with the Missourians, of a treacherous char- 
acter; also his leaguing with dishonest persons in endeavoring to 
defraud the innocent. 

President Joseph Smith related to the conference the detention of a 
document from Justin ""iutterfield, Esq., which was designed for the 
benefit of himself, ^President Smith,) but was not handed over for 
. some three or four weeks, greatly to his disadvantage; also, an indirect 
testimony from Missouri, through the mother of Orrin P. Rockwell, 
that said Rigdon and othei-s had given information, by letter, of Pres- 
ident Smith's visit to Dixon, advising them to proceed to that place 



48 HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1843 

and arrest him there. He stated that, in consequence of these and 
other circumstances, and Elder Rigdon's unprofitableness to him as a 
Counselor, he did not wish to retain him in that station, unless those 
difficulties could be removed; but desired his salvation, and expressed 
his willingness that he should retain a place among the Saints. 

Elder Almon W. Babbitt suggested the propriety of limiting the com- 
plaints and proofs to circumstances that had transpired since the last 
conference. 

President Joseph Smith replied, and showed the legality and pro- 
priety of a thorough investigation, without such limitation. 

Elder Sidney Rigdon pleaded, concerning the document from Justin 
Butterfield, Esq., that he received it in answer to some inquiries which 
he [Rigdon] had transmitted to him [Butterfield] ; that he [Rigdon] 
received it at a time when he was sick, and unable to examine it; did 
not know that it was designed for the perusal and benefit of President 
Joseph Smith; that he had, consequently, ordered it to be laid aside, 
where it remained until inquired for by Joseph Smith. He had never 
written to Missouri concerning the visit of Joseph Smith to Dixon, audi 
knew of no other person having done so. That, concerning certain 
rumors of belligerent operations under Governor Carlin's adurinistm- 
tion, he had related them, not to alarm or disturb any one; but that'ne 
had the rumors from good authorities, and supposed them well 
founded. That he had never received but one communication from 
John C. Bennett, and that of a business character, except one addressed 
to him conjointly with Elder Orson Pratt, which he handed over to 
President Smith. That he had never written any letters to John C. 
Bennett. 

The weather becoming inclement, conference adjourned until Sunday, 
ten o'clock, a. m. 

Sunday, 8th, ten o'clock, a. m. 

Conference assembled agreeably to adjournment. 

Singing by the choir, and prayer by Elder William W. Phelps. 

Elder Sidney Rigdon resumed his plea of defense. B.e related the 
circumstances of his reception in the city of Quincy, after his escape 
from Missouri, — the cause oE his delay iu not going to thpcity of Wash- 
ington, on an express to which he had been appointed: &nd closed with 
a moving appeal to President Joseph Smith, concerning their former 
friendship, associations, and sufferings; and expressed his willingness 
to resign his place, though with sorrowful and indescribable feelings. 
During this address, the sympathies of the congregation were highly 
excited. 

Elder Almon W. Babbitt related a conversation he had had with Es- 
quire Johnson, in which he exonerated Elder Sidney Rigdon from the 



A.D. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 49 

charge or suspicion of having had a treacherous correspondence with 
ex-Governor Carlin. 

President Joseph Smith arose and explained to the congregation the 
supposed treacherous correspondence with ex-Governor Carlin, and ex- 
pressed entire lack of confidence in his integrity and steadfastness, judg- 
ing from their past intercourse. 

Patriarch Hyrum Smith followed with appropriate and impressive 
remarks on the attributes of mercy in God, as that by which He in- 
fluences, controls and conquers; and the propriety and importance of 
the Saints exercising the same attribute towards their fellows, and espe- 
cially towards their aged companion and fellow-servant in the cause 
of truth and righteousness. 

Elder Altnon W. Babbitt and President William Law followed with 
remai'ks in defense of Elder Sidney Rigdon. 

On motion by President William Marks, and seconded by Patriarch 
Hyrum Smith, conference voted that Elder Sidney Rigdon be permitted 
to retain his station as Counselor in the First Presidency. 

President Joseph Smith arose and said, "J have thrown him off my 
shoulders, and you have again put him on me. You may carry him, 
but I will not." 1 " 1 * 

Singing. Prayer by Elder William Law. 

Conference adjourned for one hour. \ 

Three, p. m. 

Conference assembled; but in consequence of the inclemency of the 
weather, business was postponed until Monday, ten o'clock, a. m. 

Monday, ten o'clock, a. m. 

Conference assembled, and resumed business. 

Singing by the choir. Prayer by Elder Alpheus Cutler. 

The business pertaining to the Temple was then announced by the 
President as next in order. 

Elder Alpheus Cutler, on the part of the Temple Committee, repre- 
sented the work of the Temple to be retarded for want of team work and 
provisions — also of iron, steel, blasting powder, and clothing, — giving 
as his opinion that the walls could easily be completed next season, if 
these embarrassments were removed, and the brethren would come for- 
ward to sustain them in the work with the means that were in their 
hands. 

Elder Reynolds Cahoon followed, seconding the remarks of Elder 
Cutler, and setting forth the importance of the Saints using their ut- 
most exertions to fulfill the revelation concerning the Temple, earnestly 
exhorting the Saints here and abroad to roll in the necessary means into 
the hands of the Trustee, that the work may advance with rapidity. 

* This paragraph in Italics appears as footnote in the Ms. History. 

4 Vol. VI. 



50 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. f A.D. 1843 

President Hyrum Smith followed with pertinent remarks on the im- 
portance of the work— the ease with which it might be advanced to its 
completion, — that it had already become a monument for the people 
abroad to gaze on with astonishment. He concluded with some advice 
to parents to restrain their children from vice and folly, and employ 
them in some business of profit to themselves, to the Temple, or else- 
where. 

On motion by Elder William Law, and seconded by President Hyrum 
Smith, conference voted that we, as a conference and individuals, will 
use all the means, exertions, and influence in our power to sustain the 
Temple Committee in advancing the work of the Temple. 

Conference adjourned for one hour. 

Two o'clock, p. m. 
Conference re- assembled, and listened with profound attention to an 
impressive discourse from President Joseph Smith, commemorative of 
the decease of James Adams, Esq., late of this city, and an honorable, 
worthy, useful and esteemed member of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. 

THE PROPHET'S REMARKS ON THE DEMISE OF JAMES ADAMS. 

All men know that they must die. And it is important that we 
should understand the reasons and causes of our exposure to the 
vicissitudes of life and of death, and the designs and purposes of God 
in our coming into the world, our sufferings here, and our departure 
hence. What is the object of our coming into existence, then dying and 
falling away, to be here no more? It is but reasonable to suppose that 
God would reveal something in reference to the matter, and it is a 
subject we ought to study more than any other. We ought to study it 
day and night, for the world is ignorant in reference to their true con- 
dition and relation. If we have any claim on our Heavently Father for 
anything, it is for knowledge on this important subject. Could we read 
and comprehend all that has been written from the days of Adam, on 
the relation of man to God and angels in a future state, we should know 
very little about it. Reading the experience of others, or the revelation 
given to them, can never give us a comprehensive view of our condition 
and true relation to God. Knowledge of these things can only be ob- 
tained by experience through the ordinances of God set forth for that 
purpose. <Could you gaze into heaven five minutes, you would know 
more than you would by reading all that ever was written on the 
subject. ^ 

We are only capable of comprehending that certain things exist, 
which we may acquire by certain fixed principles. If men would ac- 
quire salvation, they have got to be subject, before they leave this 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 51 

world, to certain rules and principles, which were fixed by an un- 
alterable decree before the world was. 

The disappointment of hopes and expectations at the resurrection 
would be indescribably dreadful. 

The organization of the spiritual and heavenly worlds, and of spir- 
itual and heavenly beings, was agreeable to the most perfect order and 
harmony: their limits and bounds were fixed irrevocably, and volun- 
tarily subscribed to in their heavenly estate by themselves, and were by 
our first parents subscribed to upon the earth. Hence the importance 
of embracing and subscribing to principles of eternal truth by all men 
upon the earth that expect eternal life. 

I assure the Saints that truth, in reference to these matters, can and 
may be known through the revelations of God in the way of His ordi- 
nances, and in answer to prayer. The Hebrew Church "came unto the 
spirits of just men made perfect^ and unto an innumerable company of 
angels, unto God the Father of all, and to Jesus Christ, the Mediator 
of the new covenant." What did they learn by coming of the spirits of 
just men made perfect? Is it written? No. What they learned has 
not been and could not have been written. What object was gained by 
this communication with the spirits of the just? It was the established 
order of the kingdom of God : the keys of power and knowledge were 
with them to communicate to the Saints. Hence the importance of 
understanding the distinction between the spirits of the just and 
angels. 

<1 Spirits can only be revealed in flaming fire or glory. Angels have 
advanced further, their light and glory being tabernacled; and hence 
they appear in bodily shape. The spirits of just men are made minis- 
i.ering servants to those who are sealed unto life eternal, and it is through 
them that the sealing power comes down. 

Patriarch Adams is now one of the spirits of the just men made 
perfect; and, if revealed now, must be revealed in fire; and the glory 
could not be endured. Jesus showed Himself to His disciples, and they 
thought it was His spirit, and they were afraid to approach His spirit. 
Angels have advanced higher in knowledge and power than spirits./ 

Concerning Brother James Adams, it should appear strange that so 
good and so great a man was hated. The deceased ought never to have 
had an enemy. But so it was. Wherever light shone, it stirred up 
darkness. Truth and error, good and evil cannot be reconciled. Judge 
Adams had some enemies, but such a man ought not to have had one. 
I saw him first at Springfield, when on my way from Missouri to Wash- 
ington. He sought me out when a stranger, took me to his home, en- 
couraged and cheered me, and gave me money. He has been a most 
intimate friend. I anointed him to the patriarchal power — to receive 



52 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

the keys of knowledge and power, by revelation to himself. He has 
had revelations concerning his departure, and has gone to a more im- 
portant work.\When men are prepared, they are better off to go hence. 
Brother Adams has gone to open up a more effectual door for the dead. 
The spirits of the just are exalted to a greater and more glorious work; 
hence they are blessed in their departure to the world of spirits. 
Enveloped in flaming fire, they are not far from us, and know and 
understand our thoughts, feelings, and motions, and are often pained 
therewith^ 

Flesh and blood cannot go there; but flesh and bones, quickened 
by the Spirit of God, can. 

If we would be sober and watch in fasting and prayer, God would 
turn away sickness from our midst. 

Hasten the work in the Temple, renew your exertions to forward 
all the work of the last days, and walk before the Lord in soberness 
and righteousness. Let the Elders and Saints do away with light- 
mindedness, and be sober. 

Such is a faint outline of the discourse of President Joseph Smith, 
which was delivered with his usual feeling and pathos, and was listened 
to with the most profound and eager attention by the multitude, who 
hung upon his instructions, anxious to learn and pursue the path of 
eternal life. 

After singing by the choir, and prayer by the President, Conference 
adjourned sine die, with the benediction of the President. 

Joseph Smith, President. 
Gustavus Hills, Clerk. 

The missionaries to the Society Islands went on board 

paciflcisiands ttie slli P Timoleon, Captain Plasket, at New 
Mission Em- Bedford, and got under way. Elder Philip 
B. Lewis donated $300 towards their passage 
and fitout. Elder Knowlton F. Hanks' health was very 
poor. 



A.D. 1843] 



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 53 



CHAPTER III. 

ANCIENT RUINS IN AMERICA, BOOK OF MORMON EVIDENCE — 
THE PROPHET ON TQE U. S. CONSTITUTION AND THE 
BIBLE — MISREPRESENTATIONS CORRECTED — LETTER TO 
THE U. S. PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES— THE PROPHET'S 
ADDRESS TO THE SAINTS. 

Tuesday, October 10, 1843.— My brother Hyrum was 
appointed, by the voice of the Spirit, one of the Temple 
Committee, in place of Judge Elias Higbee, deceased. 

I spent the day in council with J. and 0. C. Skinner 
and the Rhodes' about the sale of land, and appointed 
William Clayton to buy the property. 

Wednesday, 11.— I was at home this morning. In the 
afternoon I went with my brother Hyrum, William Law, 
and our wives, to Brother John Benbow's. 

The following is from the Times and Seasons : — 

ANCIENT RUINS— INTRODUCTORY. 

Every day adds fresh testimony to the already accumulated evidence 
on the authenticity of the Book of Mormon. At the time that bo^k 
was translated, there was very little known about ruined cities and 
dilapidated buildings. The general presumption was that no people 
possessing more intelligence than our present race of Indians had ever 
inhabited this continent; and the accounts given in the Book of Mormon 
concerning large cities and civilized people having inhabited this land 
were generally disbelieved and pronounced a humbug. Priest, since 
then, has thrown some light on this interesting subject. Stephens, in 
his "Incidents of Travels in Central America," has thrown in a flood of 
testimony, and from the following statements it is evident that the Book 
of Mormon does not give a more extensive account of large and popul- 
ous cities than those discoveries demonstrate to be even now in 
existence. — Ed.] 

(Article from the Texas Telegraph, October 11.) 
We have been informed by a gentleman who has traversed a large 
portion of the Indian country of Northern Texas, and the country 



54 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

lying between Santa Fe and the Pacific, that there are vestiges of 
ancient cities and ruined castles or temples on the Rio Puerco, and on 
the Colorado of the West. 

He says that on one of the branches of the Rio Puerco, a few days' 
travel from Santa Fe, there is. an immense pile of ruins that appear to 
belong to an ancient temple. Portions of the walls are still standing, 
consisting of huge blocks of limestone regularly hewn and laid in 
cement. The building occupies an extent of more than an acre. It is 
two or three stories high, has no roof, but contains many rooms, gene- 
rally of a square form, without windows; and the lower rooms are so 
dark and gloomy that they resemble caverns rather than the apart- 
ments of an edifice built for a human habitation. 

Our informant did not give the style of architecture, but he believes 
it could not be erected by Spaniards or Europeans, as the stones are 
much worn by the rains, and indicate that the building has stood many 
hundred years. From his description, we are induced to believe that it 
resembles the ruins of Pa enque or Otulum. 

He says there are many similar ruins on the Colorado of the West, 
which empties in the Californian sea. In one of the valleys of the Cor- 
dilleras traversed by this river, and about four hundred miles from its 
mouth, there is a large tomple still standing, its walls and spires 
presenting scarcely any traces of dilapidation; and were it not for the 
want of a roof, it might still be rendered habitable. Near it, scattered 
along the declivity of a mountain, are the ruins of what must have been 
once a large city. 

The traces of a large aqueduct, part of which is, however, in the solid 
rock, are still visible. Neither the Indians residing in the vicinity nor 
the oldest Spanish settlers of the nearest settlements can give any 
account of the origin of these buildings. They merely know that they 
have stood there from the earliest periods to which their traditions 
extend. 

The antiquarian who is desirous to trace the Aztec or the Toltec races 
in their migrations from the northern regions of America may find in 
their ancient edifices many subjects of curious speculation. 

Thursday, 12. — Prayer-meeting in my room. We prayed 
for William Marks, who was sick. 
-<^I sent William Clayton to Lathrop, to borrow $50, that 
I might be able to redeem $5000 worth of property, which 
was published co be sold to-day at Rhodes'; but Lathrop 
refused. He also vent to Eli Chase's, but was refused by 
him. I was grieved that the brethren felt so penurious in 
their spirit, although they professed to be guided by the 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH . 55 

revelations which the Lord gives through me. On my 
afterwards giving a pledge that I would repay the $50 in 
forty-eight hours, Lathrop lent the money and enabled 
me to redeem the land. V 

I received the following from H. R. Hotchkiss: 

Letter — H. H. Hotchkiss to Joseph Smith. 

New York, 27th September, 1843. 
Rev. Joseph Smith. 

Dear Sir, — I see by the newspapers that there has been a meeting of 
citizens at Carthage relative to the Mormons, and that several severe 
resolutions have been passed condemning the conduct of the Mormons. 
Knowing how little I can rely upon public rumor upon such subjects, I 
have taken the liberty of applying directly to you for correct informa- 
tion, and solicit as a particular favor that you will communicate at 
your earliest convenience the facts in the case. 

Of course I feel an interest in the prosperity of Nauvoo, and an 
interest also in the success of the Mormon enterprise, and a deep 
interest in the welfare of your people; and the more so, certainly, as 
their pecuniary interest is identified with my own. I make this frank 
acknowledgment, because it is always best for men of sense to talk as 
they mean. I should, howewer, be solicitous for a successful termination 
of your great enterprise, had I not one dollar invested in Xauvoo, 
because the complete triumph of energetic exertions is always gratify 
ing to all business men. 

Your obedient servant, 

Horace R. Hotchkiss. 

I wrote this reply : — 

Letter — Joseph Smith to H. R. Hotchkiss. 

Nauvoo, 111., Oct. 12, 1843, 
Dear Sir, — Your letter of the 27th ult. is at hand, soliciting informa 
tion concerning the "Carthage resolutions." In answer to your very 
candid inquiry and interest relative to our welfare, brevity will suffice. 
Unprincipled men and disappointed demagogues, with here and there 
an "untamed sucker," composed that disgraceful and disgracing as 
well as mobocratic assemblage ; and I feel proud to say that patriots 
and honest men generall}- frown upon such audacious proceedings as 
beneath the dignity of freemen. It is to be hoped that public opinion 
will continue to spurn at such doings, and leave the actors to fester in 
their own shame. 

With the smiling prospects around us at present, success seems 






56 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1843 

certain; and, with the blessings of Jehovah, we shall reap the reward 
of virtue and goodness. I go for the good of the world; and if all honest 
men would do so, mean men would be scarce. You are at liberty to use 
this to counteract falsehoods as you may deem proper. 
Respectfully, I am your obedient servant, 

Joseph Smith. 

Friday, 13. — First severe frost at Nauvoo this season. 
Ice on the water. 

At home ; made arrangements to prepare provisions for 
the workmen in the pinery. From ten, a. m. to three, p. 
m , presided in municipal court, on habeas corpus in 
favor of Charles Drown, to be delivered from the custody 
of Samuel Waterman. The prisoner being sick, adjourned 
the case to the 16th. 

In the afternoon, trying a span of grey horses in the 
carriage. 

Dr. Turner, a phrenologist, came in. I gratified his 
curiosity for about an hour by allowing him to examine 
my head. 

I was engaged settling accounts with D. S. Hollister. 

Saturday, 14.— In the morning, at home, having a long 
Location of conversation with a physiologist and mesmer- 
the mind. \&qv . I asked them to prove that the mind of 
man was seated in one part of the brain more than 
another. 

Sat in City Council till one, p. m., which passed "An 
Ordinance concerning the inspection of flour," and ap- 
pointed William E. Horner inspector of flour for the city 
of Nauvoo. 

Sunday, 15. — Cool, calm, and cloudy. At eleven, a.m., 
I preached at the stand east of the Temple. The following 
synopsis was reported by Dr. Willard Richards: — 

Ihe Prophet on the Constitution of the United States and the Bible — 

Temporal Economies. 

< It is one of the first principles of my life, and one that I have cul- 
tivated from my childhood, having been taught it by my father, to allow 
every one the liberty of conscience. I am the greatest advocate of the 






AD. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 57 

Constitution of the United States there is on the earth. In my feelings 
I am always ready to die for the protection of the we'ak and oppressed 
in their just rights. The only fault I find with the Constitution is, it is 
not broad enough to cover the whole ground. 

Although it provides that all men shall enjoy religious freedom, yet it 
does not provide the manner by which that freedom can be preserved, 
nor for the punishment of Government officers who refuse to protect 
the people in their religious rights, or punish those mobs, states, or 
communities who interfere with the rights of the people on account of 
their religion. Its sentiments are good, but it provides no means of 
enforcing them. It has but this one fault. Under its provision, a man 
or a people who are able to protect themselves can get along well 
enough; but those who have the misfortune to be weak or unpopular 
are left to the merciless rage of popular fury. 

The Constitution should contain a provision that every officer of the 
Government who should neglect or refuse to extend the protection 
guaranteed in the Constitution should be subject to capital punishment; 
and then the president of the United States would not say, "Your cause 
is just, but I can do nothing Jor i/0M,'7a governor issue exterminating 
orders, or judges say, "The men ought to have the protection of law, 
but it won't please the mob; the men must die, anyhow, to satisfy the 
clamor of the rabble; they must be hung, or Missouri be damned to all 
eternity." Executive writs could be issued "when they ought to be, 
and not be made instruments of cruelty to oppress the innocent, and 
persecute men whose religion is unpopular .^> 

I cannot believe in any of the creeds or the different denominations, 
because they all have some things in them I cannot subscribe to, though 
all of them have some truth. I want to come up into the presence of 
God, and learn all things; but the creeds set up stakes, and bay, 
"Hitherto shalt thou come, and no further;" which I cannot subscribe to 
I believe the Bible as it read when it came from the pen 
of the original writers. Ignorant translators, careless transcribers, 
or designing and corrupt priests have committed many errors. As it 
read, Gen. vi. 6, "It repented the Lord that he had made man on the 
earth;" also, Num. xxiii. 19, "God is not a man, that he should lie; 
neither the Son of man, that he should repent; " which I do not believe. 
But it ought to read, "It repented Noah that God made man." This I 
believe, and then the other quotation stands fair. If any man will prove 
to me, by one passage of Holv Writ, one item I believe to be false, I 
will renounce and disclaim it as far as I promulged it. 

The first principles of the Gospel, as I believe, are, faith, repent- 
ance, baptism for the remission of sins, with the promise of the 
Holy Ghost. 



58 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. |A.D. 1843 

Look at Heb. vi. 1 for contradictious — "Therefore leaving the prin- 
ciples of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection." If a man 
leaves the principles of the doctrine of Christ, how can he be saved in 
the principles? This is a contradiction. I don't believe it. I will 
render it as it should be — "Therefore not leaving the principles .of the 
doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection, not laving again the 
foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God, 
of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrec- 
tion of the dead, and of eternal judgment." 

< It is one thing to see the kingdom of God, and another thing to enter 
into it. We must have a change of heart to see the kingdom of God, 
and subscribe the articles of adoption to enter therein. 

No man can receive the Holy Ghost without receiving revelations. 
The Holy Ghost is a revelator. j> 

I prophesy, in the name of the Lord God of Israel, anguish and wrath 
and tribulation and the withdrawing of the Spirit of God from the earth 
await this generation, until they are visited with utter desolation. --.This 
generation is as corrupt as the generation of the Jews that crucified 
Christ; and if He were here to-day, and should preach the same doctrine 
He did then, they would put Him to death 7* I defy all the world to 
destroy the work of God; and I prophesy they never will have power to 
kill me till my work is accomplished, and I am ready to die. ~-*" 

y/\ will now speak a little on the economy of this city. I think there 
^Sstre too many merchants among you. I would like to see more wool 
and raw materials instead of manufactured goods, and the money be 
brought here to pay the poor for manufacturing goods. Set our women 
to work, and stop their spinning street yarns and talking about spiritual 
wives. 

Instead of going abroad to buy goods, lay your money out in the 
country, and buy grain, cattle, flax, wool, and work it up yourselves. 

1 proclaim, in the name of the Lord God Almighty, that will fellow- 
ship nothing in the Church but virtue, integrity, and uprightness. — 

We cannot build up a city on merchandise. I would not run after the 
merchants. I would sow a little flax, if I had but a garden spot, and 
make clothing of it. 

The temporal economy of this people should be to establish and en- 
courage manufactures, and not to take usury for their money. I do not 
want to bind the poor here to starve. Go out into the country and into 
the neighbouring cities, and get food, and gird up your loins, and be 
sober. When you get food, return, if you have a mind to. 

Some say it is better to give to the poor than build the Temple. The 
building of the Temple has sustained the poor who were driven from 
Missouri, and kept them from starving; and it has been the best means 
for this object which could be devised. 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 59 

Oh, all ye rich men of the Latter-dav Saints from abroad, I would 
invite you to bring up some of your money — your gold, your silver, 
and your precious things, and give to the Temple. We want iron, steel, 
spades, and quarrying and mechanical tools. 

It would be a good plan to get up a forge to manufacture iron, and 
bring in raw materials of every variety, and erect manufacturing 
establishments of all kinds, and surround the rapids with mills and 
machinery. 

I never stole the value of a pin's head, or a picayune in my life; and 
when you are hungry don't steal. Come to me, and I will feed you.^>» 

The secret of masonry is to keep a secret. It is good economy to 
entertain strangers — to entertain sectarians. Come up to Nauvoo, ye 
sectarian priests of the everlasting Gospel, as they call it, and you shall 
have my pulpit all day. 

Woe to ye rich men, who refuse to give to the poor, and then come 
and ask me for bread. Away with all your meanness, and be liberal. 
We need purging, purifying and cleansing. You that have little faith 
in your Elders when you are sick, get some little simple remedy in the 
first stages. If you send for a doctor at all, send in the first stages. 

All ye doctors who are fools, not well read, and do not understand 
the human constitution, stop your practice. And all ye lawyers who 
have no business, only as you hatch it up, would to God you would go 
to work or run away! " 

Monday, 16. — At home nearly all day, attending to 
family concerns. 

Went to municipal court, and adjourned hearing of the 
case* to the 17th. 

Tuesday, 17. — Went to municipal court. The prose- 
cutor not appearing, court ordered that the prisoner be 
discharged. 

Wednesday, 18. — Pleasant and comfortable day. 

Fifteen deaths have occured during the past week in 
the city. 

Thursday, 19. — Warm and pleasant day. The water 
has risen about two feet in the Mississippi, 

. r-r j The Prophet's 

and is still rising. visit to Mace- 

' About noon, started for Macedonia, in com- 
pany with Brother William Clayton. Arrived there about 

* This was the case of Chas. Drown on habeas corpus referred to under date of 
13th of October. 



60 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. |A.D. 1843 

sundown, and I stayed at Brother Benjamin F. Johnson's 
for the night. 

Friday, 20. — In the evening I gave instructions to Ben- 
jamin F. Johnson and others in relation to the blessings 
of the everlasting covenant and the sealings of the Priest- 
hood. 

Elder John P. Greene returned from a Mission to the 
State of New York, with about 100 emigrants, some of 
them from Pennsylvania, who joined his company on the 
way. 

Warm, smoky day, with strong wind, very dark evening. 

Saturday, 21. — We left Macedonia, and arrived home 
about two p. m. Pleasant cool day. 

Sunday, 22. — Meeting at the stand. Elder Rigdon 
preached half-an hour on "Poor Rich Folks.' 1 ' 

I remained at home all day, and held a prayer-meeting 

at^my house at two, p. m. ; tweuty-four persons present. 

^Elders Young, Kimball, and G-eorge A. Smith returned 

from their mission to the Eastern States, 

Labors of the . . 

Apostles in having, in connection with Elders Orson Pratt 
and Wilford Woodruff, visited the branches in 
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Yersey, New York, 
Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hamp- 
shire, and Maine; held conferences, set in order the 
churches, collected tithings for the Temple and subscrip- 
tions for the Nauvoo House, baptized many, and stirred 
up a general system of gathering among the Saints in the 
Eastern countries. They have been absent nearly four 
months, and have accomplished a good work. I was very 
glad to see them, and blessed them in the name of the 
LordX Elders Daniel Spencer and Bradford Elliot also 
returned from their missions, and quite a respectable 
number of Saints came in their company. 

Pleasant, cool day. 

Monday, 23. — Those of the Twelve who returned from 
the East yesterday visited me through the day, and paid 
over the means they had received for the Temple and the 



A.D. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 61 

Nauvoo House. I immediately gave directions to send to 
St. Louis for groceries and different articles necessary for 
the Temple and the workmen thereon. 

This morning President Hyrum Smith entered upon the 
duties of his office, having previously been ap- 

01 • -j_ l *.\ Hyrum Smith 

pointed by the voice of the Spirit to supply me Appointed on 
place of the late Elias Higbee, deceased, as ^g* ? * 
one of the Temple Committee. On his arrival 
at the Temple he was greeted by a hearty welcome from 
those engaged on the works, and the universal feeling is 
that great good will result from this appointment. 
The day cloudy, with strong east wind. 
Tuesday, 24.— William W. Phelps and Colonel Dunham 
started for Springfield to see the Governor, and endeavor 
to obtain from him the quota of State arms which belong 
to the Legion. 

Morning warm and pleasant ; afternoon wind west by 
north. At four, a little rain, accompanied by snow, for 
the first time this fall. 

Wednesday, 25.— Ice one-third of an inch thick on small 
bodies of water. Cloudy and cold day. 

In the evening settled the taxes for the Temple and Nau- 
voo House. 

Eleven deaths in the city reported this week. 

Friday, 27.— I was at home and received a visit from 

Bishop George Miller and Elder Peter Haws, who have 

just returned from their trip to Mississippi and Alabama- 

Many emigrants have arrived in Nauvoo the last few 

weeks. 

Prayer-meeting at my house in the evening. 

Saturday, 28.— Cold east wind. At home all day. 

Sunday, 29.— Meeting at the stand, south side of the 
Temple, from eleven, a. m. to two, p. m. Elders Brigham 
Young and John Taylor preached. Dr. Willard Richards 
called for a collection of $8, to buy a new book in which 
to record history, which sum was made up. 

At nine, a. m., Elders Richards, Miller and Haws 



62 



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. |A.D. 1813 



ordained William C. Steffey (who was going to Texas on 
business,) an Elder. 

Two, p. m., prayer-meeting in my house; twenty-five 
present. I gave instructions on the priesthood. 

Monday, 30.— At nine, a. m., went to mayor's court, 
and adjourned it for one week. 

Twelve, noon, attended a court in the office, when the 
parties agreed to leave their difficulty to be settled by the 
arbitration of Brother Flagg. 

I received $300 from Brother Spencer, and immediately 
paid it to Dr. Robert D. Foster. 

On account of the cold weather, most of the masons 
have discontinued the work on the Temple. 

Tuesday, 31.— At nine, a. m., Mr. Moore was brought 
before me for a breach of city ordinance, which was 
proved, and I fined him $5. 

T rode out with Hyrum in the carriage to the prairie, 
returning about three, p. m. Snow on the ground this 
morning; cold east wind, and rain all day. 

Wednesday, November 1, 1843.— In the evening there 
was a prayer-meeting in the mansion; twenty-nine present. 

Thursday, 2. — Sitting in council with Hyrum, Brigham 
Young, HeberC. Kimball, Willard Richards, John Taylor, 
William Law, and William Clayton, at ten, a. m., on the 
subject of the following letter from Joseph L. Hey- 
wood: — 

Letter: Joseph L. Heywood to Joseph Smith. 

Qijincy, October 23, 1843. 
Crew. Joseph Smith. 

Dear Sir,— In a conversation with Colonel Frierson. of this place, a 
short time since, he expressed, in very warm terms, feelings of sym- 
pathy for the wrongs yourself and brethren suffered in Missouri, as well 
as his sense of the vindictive feelings the authorities of that State still 
manifest towards you personally. 

Mr. F. has not yet had the pleasure of a personal acquaintance with 
yourself, although he says he had the pleasure of meeting your lady at 
her sister's residence on Rock River. Mr. F. has been written by the 
Hon. B. Rhett, of S. Carolina, upon the subject of the Persecution: and 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 63 

Mr. F. thinks, of all men, he would be the best qualified to present a 
petition in our behalf; and says, should such an arrangement meet your 
approbation, he will use his influence in favor of a petition; and says 
he knows of some honorable men in Missouri who, he has no doubt, are 
anxious to wipe off the stain that rests upon them, by [making] some 
just reparation. 

I submit, by permission of Mr. F., a copy of a letter he has written 
to a distinguished citizen of South Carolina, together with a circular put 
out confidentially by the friends of Mr. Calhoun, of S. C, whom with 
my present feelings I should cheerfully support for our next President, 
and who, I have no doubt would be preferred, by the brethren to Mr. 
Van Buren. 

If the plan suggested of memorializing Congress should meet your 
approbation, please inform me. Colonel Frierson promises his aid in 
such an event, and says he would go to Nauvoo and assist in arranging 
papers relative to such a step. Please accept my assurances of love 
and esteem for yourself and family, and a prayer that wisdom from on 
high may direct you in your deliberations. 

I remain your brother in Christ, 
_ Jos. L. Heywood. 

\ We agreed to write a letter to the five candidates for the 
Presidency of the United States, to inquire 

i_ ii • « i- t t Letters to 

what their reelings were towards us as a people, candidates for 
and what their course of action would be in £^u* e ™ Y ° f 
relation to the cruelty and oppression that we Decided u P° n 
have suffered from the State of Missouri, if 
they were elected. \ 

The Twelve Apostles published the following in the 
Times and Seasons: — 

An Epistle of the Iwelve, to the Elders and Churches Abroad. 

On our late mission to the Eastern States, we discovered that the 
publications at Nauvoo were very little patronised by the Saints and 
branches in the various sections of the country where we passed, while 
the common newspapers of the day received a liberal support by those 
who pretend to "hunger and thirst after righteousness." We feel 
justified, therefore, in reprobating such a course as detrimental to the 
general good of the whole Church, that shows a lack of charity in the 
Elders. 

"Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?" 

Nauvoo at present is the seat of the First Presidency, the place of the 



64 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. TA.D. 1843 

gathering for all Saints, and the great center of the world for pure 
religion, revelation, truth, virtue, knowledge, and everything else pre- 
paratory to the coming of the Son of Man. The best news, the best 
people, and the best plan of salvation must be there. Wherefore, 

Resolved unanimously that the traveling Elders are hereby instructed 
to use due diligence in obtaining subscribers for the Times and Seasons 
and Nauvoo Neighbor, and forward the pay by safe hands to the 
publishers at Nauvoo, that the Saints and the world may receive "line 
upon line and precept upon precept, here a little and there a little," 
together with such extracts of translations and revelations as the Pres- 
idency of the Church may direct, for the edification of the whole body 
of the Church in righteousness. 

Done in council at Nauvoo, Nov. 2nd, 1843. 

Brigham Young, 

President of the Twelve. 
Willar.j Richards, Clerk. 

Friday, 3rd. — I continued in council all day. 

Died at sea, Elder Knowlton F. Hanks. The following 
extract is from a letter of Addison Pratt, one of the 
Pacific Islands missionaries: — 

[Under this date there is inserted in the Prophet's History a long 
letter from Elder Addison Pratt of the Pacific Island mission, describing 
in great detail the last illness, death and burial at sea of Elder Knowl- 
hon F. Hanks. Elder Hanks died of consumption; and of the death the 
Prophet remarks: "Elder Hanks is the first Elder who has died at sea 
while on a foreign mission. He was a faithful Elder, cut off by con- 
sumption in the flower of his days."] 

Saturday, 4. — Elders Richards and Taylor were with 
me- at the Mansion, assisting writing letters. 
-^^Vrote to John C. Calhoun as follows: — 

President Smith's Letter to John C. Calhoun, and other Presidential 

Candidates. 
Hon. John C. Calhoun. 

Dear Sir, — As we understand you are a candidate for the Presidency 
at the next election; and as the Latter-day Saints (sometimes called 
"Mormons," who now constitute a numerous class in the school polite of 
this vast republic,) have been robbed of an immense amount of prop- 
erty, and endured nameless sufferings by the State of Missouri, and 
from her borders have been driven by force of arms, contrary to our 
national covenants; and as in vain we have sought redress by all con- 
stitutional, legal, and honorable means, in her courts, her executive 



f 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE OHUECH. 65 

councils, and her legislative halls; and as we have petitioned Congress 
to take cognizance of our sufferings without effect, we have judged it 
wisdom to address you this communication, and solicit an immediate, 
specific, and candid reply to "What will be your rule of action relative 
to us as a people," should fortune favor your ascension to the chief 
magistracy? 

Most respectfully, sir, your friend, 

and the friend of peace, good order, 
and constitutional rights, 

Joseph Smith. 
In behalf of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-dav Saints. 

Similar letters were written to Gen. Lewis Cass, Hon. 
Richard M. Johnson, Hon. Henry Clay, and President 
Martin VanBuren.1 To Mr. Yan Buren's letter 1 added 
the following: — 

s Post Script to Van Bur en. 

^-^Also whether your views or feelings have changed since the subject 
matter of this communication was presented you in your then official 
capacity at Washington, in the year 1841, and by you treatedjsvith a 
coldness, indifference, and neglect, bordering on contempt. 



Elder Wilford Woodruff: arrived at Nauvoo with paper 
for the use of the printing office. 

Sunday, 5. — Rode out with mother and others for her 
health. 

At dinner I was taken suddenly sick ; went to the door 

and vomited all my dinner, dislocated my m , 

. i The Pr °P het 

jaw, and raised fresh blood, and had many poisoned. 

symptoms of being poisoned. 

In the evening a prayer-meeting in the hall over the 
store. 

Mr. Cole having kept a school in the hall for some 
time, the noise proved a nuisance for the clerks in the 
history office, and I gave Dr. W. Richards orders to tell 
Mr. Cole he must find some other room in which to teach 
school, as the room is needed for councils. 

Meeting at the stand. Elder Rigdon preached. 

Received a letter, from Reuben Hedlock, dated Liver- 
pool, October 16. He informs me there is a great call for 

5 Vol. VI. 



66 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

preaching, and many Elders are wanted throughout the 
work m the British Isles. Much opposition. The Saints 
British Mis- are anxious to have the Star continue its 

sion. 

publication, as 1,600 copies are circulated. 

Also received a letter from Hyrum Clark, giving a 
partial account of the business affairs of the emigration 
and publishing offices. 

Monday, 6. — Domestic affairs kept me busy in the 
morning, and in the afternoon listened to William W. 
Phelps giving a relation of his visit to the governor, which 
amused me. 

It has been very cool for some days past. 

Elder Erastus Snow arrived with a company from Mas- 
sachusetts • x' 

Tuesday,.,/. — Mr. Cole moved the tables back into the 

The Prophet's na ^' wnen Richards and Phelps called to 
Anxiety con- report that the noise in the school disturbed 

cerning the x 

History of the them in the progress of writing the History. 
I gave orders that Cole must look out for an- 
other place, as the history must continue and not be 
disturbed, as there are but few subjects that I have felt a 
greater anxiety about than my history, which has been a 
very difficult task, on account of the death of my best 
clerks and the apostasy of others, and the stealing of 
records by John Whitmer, Cyrus Smalling and others. > 

The quorum of the Twelve — viz., President Brigham 
Young, Parly P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, 
John Taylor, George A. Smith, and Willard Richards, 
assembled in the mayor's office, and voted to raise $500 to 
get paper, &c. , to print the Doctrine and Covenants. 
Preliminary Also voted that Parley P. Pratt, Wilford 
HsMnNauvoo Woodruff , and John Taylor be a committee to 
Doctrinelnd borrow or get the money, and that President 
Covenants. Young go along with them. 

Wednesday, 8. — From nine to eleven, a. m., had an 
interview with Richards and Phelps, read and heard read 
part of my history, then attended to settling some accounts 



AD. 1843J HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 67 

with several individuals. In the afternoon, I examined a 
sample of fringe designed for the pulpits of the Temple ; 
and from two to three, conversed with Phelps, Lewis, 
John Butler and others. 

The Neighbor has the following: — 

Misrepresentations Corrected. 

We know that statements made by the Carthage mob in their reso- 
lutions, as published in the late Warsaiv Message, were false. We also 
felt convinced that the parties themselves were apprized of that fact, 
and that it was a thing generally understood by the public; and there- 
fore we did not trouble ourselves about it. But having the following 
testimonies and affidavits sent us for publication, we insert them for the 
information of those who may not have had opportunities of informing 
themselves relative to this subject. 

State of Illinois, 

ss. 



Lee County. 



"} 



We the undersigned citizens of the town of Dixon, county of Lee, 
State of Illinois, being duly sworn according to law, depose and say 
that we have seen the article entitled "Statement of facts connected 
with the arrest of Joseph Smith and his discharge therefrom," published 
in the Warsaiv Message of the date of 15th of July, A.D. 1843; and have 
also seen an editorial article in the same number of said paper, in which 
it is stated that said statement of facts wai furnished by E. Southwick, 
one of Mr. Smith's attorneys in said case; and that we know the fact 
stated in that statement — to wit, that Reynolds, for a considerable 
length of time immediately after his arrival at Dixon, did peremptorily 
refuse to allow Smith a private interview with his counsel; and that 
said Reynolds did expressly state that no conversation could be had with 
Smith by his attorneys, unless he, Reynolds, was present at such con- 
versation. 

The length of time which such refusal to allow said private conversa- 
tion continued, was, in the belief of these deponents, at least one hour; 
and that such private conversation was not permitted by Reynolds, until 
after being informed by at least twe of these deponents (Messrs. Dixon 
and Sanger) that such private interview must be allowed Mr. Smith, as 
that was a right he had guaranteed to him by law. 

John Dixon, J. D. McComsay, 

Isaac Robinson, J. Albert Helfenstein, 

L. P. Sanger. S. G. Patrick, 

E. Southwick. 



68 HISTOKY 01 THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1843 

Sworn and subscribed to before me at Dixon, this 29th day of 

July, 1843. 

Frederick R. Dutcher, 

Justice of the Peace for Lee County, 111. 

We, the undersigned, state under oath that we traveled in company 
with Joseph H. Reynolds, the agent of the State of Missouri, from 
Dixon to Nauvoo, at the time he. had Joseph Smith in custody with the 
intention of taking him to Missouri, between the 26th of June last and 
the 1st instant; and that the Mormons, friends of Mr. Smith, who met 
us on said journey, before we arrived at Nauvoo, conducted themselves, 
so far as we could perceive and were able to judge, with the strictest 
propriety; and to our knowledge made use of no means of intimidation 
towards either H. T. Wilson or said Reynolds; but, on the contrary, 
several of them, and said Smith among that number, pledged them- 
selves that said Wilson and Reynolds should be personally safe; and 
that said Mormons, none of them as we could perceive, were armed, so 
far as was discernible; and further, that the statement made in the 
Old School Democrat of the 12th instant, over the signature of T. H- 
Reynolds, that he and said Wilson were disarmed soon after they were 
arrested on the trespass suit commenced against them by said Smith, 
and that their arms were not returned to them until after the said 
Smith's discharge at Nauvoo, was incorrect. And in relation to this, 
these deponents say that said Wilson and Raynolds were arrested on 
said action of trespass at Dixon, on Saturday morning, the 24th of June 
last. That they were riot disarmed by the sheriff of Lee county, who 
had them in custody, nor by any other person, until the following day, 
at Paw-paw Grove, thirty- two miles distant from Dixon; and that the 
arms of said Wilson and Reynolds were restored to them by the said 
sheriff of Lee county, who had them in custody for default of bail, at 
their (Wilson and Reynolds') own request, while on the journey from 
Dixon to Nauvoo, before the company had arrived within at least eigthy 

miles of Nauvoo. 

J. D. McComsay, 

L. P. Sanger, 

E. Southwtck, 

S. G. Patrick. 

Sworn and subscribed to before my, at Dixon, this 29th day of July, 

A.D. 1843. 

Frederick R. Dutcher, 

Justice of the Peace. 

lo the Editor of the Warsaw Message: 

Gentlemen: — It appears from an article in your paper of the 15th of 
July under the editorial head, that there is a question of veracity therein 



A.D. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 69 

raised, between Mr. H. T. Wilson and myself, relative to the proceed 
ings had after the late arre?t by him of Joseph Smith. Now, in order 
that the public may no longer be deceived in the premises, be pleased 
to publish, together with this note, the above affidavits, that the charge 
of falsehood may attach where it properly belongs. 

Very respectfully yours, 

E. SOUTHWICK. 

Dixon, July 29, i843. 

I wrote to the Times and Seasons : — 

Communication oj President Joseph Smith to the Saints. 
Messrs. laylor and Woodruff: 

It has been so long since I addressed the Saints through the medium 
of the Times and Seasons, that I feel confident that a few words from 
my pen, by way of advice, will be well received, as well as a "way- 
mark" to guide the "faithful" in future. I was sorry to learn, by your 
remarks upon the resolutions of the "Twelve" concerning your papers, 
which appeared not long since, that many of the Saints abroad were 
more apt to patronize the common newspapers of the day than yours, 
for the important reason that the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints has the words of eternal life, and your paper, as it has hitherto 
done, must continue to publish such portions of them for the benefit of 
the Saints and the salvation of mankind as wisdom shall from time to 

time direct. 

Freedom is a sweet blessing. Men have a right to take and read 
what papers they please; "but do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs 
of thistles'?" It certainly is no more than just to suppose that charity 
begins at home; and if so, what must such as profess to be Saints think, 
when they patronize the splendor of Babylon and leave the virtue of 
Zion to linger for want of bread? 

Beside which, if virtue is justified rather than vanity, the best of 
everything calculated to happify man and dignify society will— yea, 
must bo in Nauvoo. And as the new commandment given anciently 
was to love one another, even so tho works of the Saints at home and 
abroad will bear its own testimony whether they love the brethren. 

In all the world the Times and Seasons is the only paper that virtually 
sustains, according to the forms of Scripture and prophecy, "Apostles, 
Prophets, Evangelists," and revelations. And what shall be said of 
him that, like the "Levite," passes on the other side of the way, when 
we behold men who "have borne the heat and the burden of the day" 
struggling against the popular opinions of a vain world, the burlesque 
of a giddy throng, the vulgarity of a self-wise multitude, and tne false- 
hoods of what may justly be termed the "civilized meanness of the 



70 H1STOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1843 

age," and not lending a helping hand? The 25th chapter of Matthew- 
contains the simple answer. 

Now, let me say once for all, like the Psalmist of old, "How good 
and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity." "As 
the precious ointment upon the head that ran down upon Aaron's 
beard, that went down to the skirts of his garments, as the dew of 
Hermon that descended upon the mountains of Zion," is such unity; 
for there the Lord commanded the blessing, even life for evermore! " 
Unity is power; and when the brethren as one man sustain the Times 
and Seasons, they sustain me, by giving a spread to the revelations, 
faith, works, history and progress of the Church. The brethren who 
conduct the paper have been appointed to that important station, 
because they are worthy and well qualified; and what a blessed sign of 
a faithful friend to God and man is it to see the charity of a brother 
support his brethren, as an evidence that he means to pass from death 
into lite? 

Many of the articles which appear in the Times and Seasons are 
extracts of revelations, translations, or are the united voice of con- 
ferences, which, like "apples of gold in pictures of silver,'' are treasures 
more than meat for the called, chosen and faithful among the Saints, 
and should be more than drink to those that hunger and thirst after 
righteousness. As Nauvoo is rising in glory and greatness, so shall I 
expect to see the Times and Seasons increase in circulation by the 
vigilance of the Elders and Saints, so as to be a herald of truth and a 
standard of pure and undefiled religion. Finally, men and brethren, 
when you support my friends, you support me. In the bonds of the 
new and everlasting covenant, 

I am your humble servant, 

Joseph Smith, 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN JAMES ARLINGTON BENNETT AND 
PRESIDENT JOSEPH SMITH— RENEWAL OF PETITIONS TO 
CONGRESS FOR REDRESS OF MISSOURI GRIEVANCES— PRES- 
IDENT JOSEPH SMITH'S APPEAL TO THE "GREEN MOUNTAIN 
BOYS"— VERMONT— STATUS OF THE NAUVOO LEGION IN 
ILLINOIS MILITIA. 

Thursday, November, 9, 1843.— At the office, dictating 
letters and signing deeds. 

The missionaries to the Pacific Islands touched at Cape 
de Verde Islands, and laid in a supply of fruits of various 

kinds. 

Saturday, 11.— A company of Saints arrived from Eng- 
land. The work is still prospering in that prosperity 
pountrv novertv and distress are making of the Work 

^ J ' r : , . ,. - ,, , , in England. 

rapid strides, and the situation of the laboring 
classes is getting every day more deplorable. 

City Council met. Hyrum Smith, president pro tern. 
Albert P. Rockwood assessor and collector for 1st ward; 
Daniel Hendricks for 2nd ward; Jonathan H. Hale, 3rd 
ward; and Henry Gr. Sherwood for 4th ward. 

Sunday, 12.— Prayer-meeting in the evening, in the 
south-east room of my old house. 

Clear, cold. 

Monday 1- 3.— Having received a letter from James 
Arlington Bennett, Esq., I copy it:— 

Letter: James Arlington Bennett to President Joseph Synith. 

Arlington House, Oct. 24, 1843. 
De\r General:— I am happy to know that you have taken possession 
of your new establishment, and presume you will be eminently success- 
ful and happy in it, together with your good lady and family. 

You are no doubt already aware that I have had a most interesting 
visit from your most excellent and worthy friend, President B. Young, 
with whom I have had a glorious frolic in the clear blue ocean ; for 



72 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. [A.D. 1843 

most assuredly a frolic it was, without a moment's reflection or 
consideration. 

Nothing of this kind would in the least attach me to your person or 
cause. I am capable of being a most undeviating friend, without being 
governed by the smallest religious influence. 

As you have proved yourself to be a philosophical divine, you will 
excuse me when I say that we must leave their influence to the mass. 
The boldness of your plans and measures, together with their unpar- 
alleled success so far, are calculated to throw a charm over your whole 
being, and to point you out as the most extraordinary man of the 
present age. 

But my mind is of so mathematical and philosophical a cast, that the 
divinity of Moses makes no impression on me, and you will not be of- 
fended when I say that I rate you higher as a legislator than I do Moses, 
because we have you present with us for examination, whereas Moses 
derives his chief authority from prescription and the lapse of time. 

I cannot, however, say but you are both right, it being out of the 
power of man to prove you wrong. It is no mathematical problem, and 
can therefore get no mathematical solution. I say, therefore Go 
a-head: you have my good wishes. You know Mahomet had his 'Wight 
hand man.'''' 

The celebrated Thomas Brown, at New York, is now engaged in 
cutting your head on a beautiful cornelian stone, as your private seal, 
which will be set in gold to your order, and sent to you. It will be a 
gem, and just what you want. His sister is a member of your Church. 
The expense of this seal, set in gold, will be about $40; and Mr. Brown 
assures me that if he were not so poor a man, he would present it to 
you free. 

You can, however, accept it or not, as he can apply to it another use. 
I am myself short for cash; for although I had sometime since $2,000 
paid me by the Harpers, publishers, as the first instalment on the pur- 
chase of my copyright, yet I had got so much behind during the hard 
times, that it all went to clear up old scores. I expect $38,000 more, 
however, in semi-annual payments, from those gentlemen, within the 
limits of ten years; a large portion of which I intend to use in the 
State of Illinois, in the purchase and conduct of a large tract of land; 
and therefore should I be compelled to announce in this quarter that I 
have no connection with the Nauvoo Legion, you will of course remain 
silent, as I shall do it in such a way as will make all things right. 

I may yet run for a high office in your state, when you would be sure 
of my best services in your behalf; therefore, a known connection with 
you would be against our mutual interest. It can be shown that a 
commission in the Legion was a Herald hoax, coined for the fun of it 



A.D. 1843J HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH. 73 

by me, as it is not believed even now by the public. In short, I expect 
to be yet, through your influence, governor of the State of Illinois. 

My respects to Brothers Young, Eichards, Mrs. Emma, and all 
friends. 

Yours most respectfully, 

James Arlinton Bennett. 

P.S. — As the office of inspector-general confers no command on me. 

being a mere honorary title, — if, therefore, there is any gentleman in 

Nauvoo who would like to fill it in a practical way, I shall with great 

pleasure and good- will resign it to him, by receiving advice from you to 

that effect. It is an office that should be filled by some scientific officer. 

J. A. B. 
I iDsert my reply: — 

Letter: President Joseph Smith to James Arlington Bennett. 

Nauvoo, Illinois, Nov. 13, 1843. 
Dear Sir: — Your letter of the 24th alt. has been regularly received, 
its contents duly appreciated, and its whole tenor candidly considered; 
and, according to my manner of judging all things in righteousness, I 
proceed to answer you, and shall leave you to meditate whether "ma- 
thematical problems," founded upon the truth of revelation, or religion 
as promulgated by me, or by Moses, can be solved by rules and prin- 
ciples existing in the systems of common knowledge. 

How far you are capable of being "a most undeviating friend, 
without being governed by the smallest religious influence," will best 
be decided by your survivors, as all past experience most assuredly 
proves. Without controversy, that friendship which intelligent beings 
would accept as sincere must arise from love, and that love grow out of 
virtue, which is as much a part of religion as light is a part of Jehovah. 
Hence the saying of Jesus, "Greater love hath no man than this, that a 
man lay down his life for his frieuds." 

You observed, "as I have proven myself to be a philosophical divine" 
I must excuse you when you say that we must leave these influences to 
the mass. The meaning of "philosophical divine" may be taken in 
various ways. If, as the learned world apply the term, you infer that 
I have achieved a victory, and been strengthened by a scientific religion, 
as practiced by the popular sects of the age, through the aid of colleges, 
seminaries, Bible societies, missionary boards, financial organizations, 
and gospel money schemes, then you are wrong. Such a combination 
of men and means shows a form of godliness without the power; for is 
it not written, "I will destroy the wisdom of the wise." "Beware lest any 
man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the rudiments 
of the world, and not after the doctrines of Christ." But if the infer- 
ence is that by more love, more lierht, more virtue, and more truth 



74 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. [A. D. 1843 

from the Lord, I have succeeded as a man of God, then you reason 
truly, though the weight of the sentiment is lost, when the "influence is 
left to the mass.'' 1 "Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles'?*' 

Of course you follow out the figure, and say, the boldness of my 
plans and measures, together with their unparalleled success, so far, are 
calculated to throw a charm over my whole being, and to point me out 
as the most extraordinary man of the present age! The boldness of my 
plans and measures can readily be tested by the touchstone of all 
schemes, systems, proiects, and adventures — truth; for truth is a matter 
of fact; and the fact is, that by the power of God I translated the Book 
of Mormon from hieroglyphics, the knowledge of which was lost to the 
world, in which wonderful event I stood alone, an unlearned youth, to 
combat the worldly wisdom and multiplied ignorance of eigtheen cen- 
turies, with a new revelation, which (if they would receive the ever- 
lasting Gospel,) would open the eyes of more than eight hundred 
millions of people, and make "plain the old paths," wherein if a man 
walk in all the ordinances of God blameless, he shall inherit eternal 
life; and Jesus Christ, who was, and is, and is to come, has borne me 
safely over every snare and plan laid in secret or openly, through 
priestly hypocrisy, sectarian prejudice, popular philosophy, executiye 
power, or law-defying mobocracy, to destroy me. 

If, then, the hand of God in all these things that I have accom- 
plished towards the salvation of a priest-ridden generation, in the short 
space of twelve years, through the boldness of the plan of preaching 
the Gospel, and the boldness of the means of declaring repentance and 
baptism for the remission of sins, and a reception of the Holy Ghost 
by laying on of the hands, agreeably to the authority of the Priesthood, 
and the still more bold measures of receiving direct revelation from 
God, through the Comforter, as promised, and by which means all holy 
men from ancient times till now have spoken and revealed the will of 
God to men, with the consequent "success" of the gathering of the 
Saints, throws any "charm'' around my being, and "points me out as the 
most extraordinary man of the age," it demonstrates the fact that truth 
is mighty and must prewail, and that one man empowered from Jehovah 
has more influence with the children of the kingdom than eight hundred 
millions led by the precepts of men. God exalts the humble, and de- 
bases the haughty. 

But let me assure you in the name of Jesus, "who spake as never 
man spake,'' that the "boldness of the plans and measures,'' as you term 
them, but which should be denominated the righteousness of the cause, 
the truth of the system, and power of God, which "so far" has borne me 
and the Church, (in which I glory in having the privilege of being a 
member,) successfully through the storm of reproach, folly, ignorance, 



A.D. 1843.1 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. ?5 

malice, persecution, falsehood, sacerdotal wrath, newspaper satire, 
pamphlet libels, and the combined influence of the powers of earth and 
hell, — I say these powers of righteousness and truth are not the decrees 
or rules of an ambitious and aspiring Nimrod, Pharaoh, Nebuchad- 
nezzar, Alexander, Mahomet, Bonaparte, or other great sounding 
heroes that dazzled forth with a trail of pomp and circumstances for a 
little season, like a comet, and then disappeared, leaving a wide waste 
where such an existence once was, with only a name; nor where the 
glorious results of what you term "boldness of plans and measures," 
with the attendant "success,'' matured by the self-aggrandizing wisdom 
of the priests of Baal, the scribes and Pharisees of thp Jews, popes and 
bishops of Christendom, or pagans of Juggernaut: nor were they ex- 
tended by the divisions and subdivisions of a Luther or Calvin, a 
Wesley, or even a Campbell, supported by a galaxy of clergymen and 
churchmen, of whatever name or nature, bound apart by cast-iron 
creeds, and fastened to set stakes by chain-cable o pinions, without 
revelation. Nor are they the lions of the land, or the leviathans of the 
sea, moving among the elements, as distant chimeras to fatten the 
fancy of the infidel; but they are as the stone cut out of the mountain 
without hands, and will become a great mountain, and fill the whole 
earth.* ***** 

It seems that your mind is of such "a mathematical and phi- 
losophical cast," that the divinity of Moses makes no impression upon 
you, and that I will not be offended when you say that you rate me 
higher as a legislator than you do Moses, because you have me present 
with you for examination; that "Moses derives his chief authority from 
prescription and the lapse of time." You cannot, however, say but we are 
both right, it being out of the power of man to prove us wrong. "It is no 
mathematical problem, and can therefore get no mathematical solution." 

* The omitted part of the letter is a paragraph in which are quoted a number of 
foreign phrases from Egyptian, Hebrew, Greek, German, Portuguese and other 
tongues; which are in no way germane to the subject discussed, but are a mere 
pedantic display, doubtless admitted, in this instance, in a spirit of humor by 
President Smith, as an offset to Bennett's assumption of so lofty an intellect — a 
mind of "so mathematical and philosophical a cast — that the divinity of Moses," etc., 
made no "impression" on him. The display of foreign phrases was doubtless the 
work of W. W. Phelps, who had some smattering knowledge of languages, which 
he was ever fond of displaying. Unfortunately similar displays were injected into 
President Smith's appeal to his native state— Vermont; and his paper, "Views of 
the Powers and Policy of the Government of the United States." These injections 
were also doubtless the work of Elder Phelps, who was one of the Prophet's clerks 
and amenuenses when the documents named above were prepared. Because 
these displavs of pedantry mar these documents, and are in no way germane to 
the subjects of which they treat, and are not really the work of President Smith, 
they arc omitted from the papers referred to as published in this History, the 
omission being indicated by elipses signs. 



76 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

Now, sir, to cut the matter short, and not dally with your learned 
ideas, for fashion's sake you have here given your opinion, without 
reserve, that revelation, the knowledge of God, prophetic vision, the 
truth of eternity, cannot be solved as a mathematical problem. The 
first question then is, What is a mathematical problem? and the natural 
answer is, A statement, proposition or question that can be solved, 
ascertained, unfolded or demonstrated by knowledge, facts or figures; 
for "mathematical'' is an adjective derived from mathesis (Gr.), meaning, 
in English, learning or knowledge. "Problem'' is derived from prob- 
leme (French), or problema (Italian, or Spanish), and in each 
language means a question or proposition, whether true or false. 
"Solve" is derived from the Latin verb "solvo," to explain or answer. 

One thing more in order to prove the work as we proceed. It is 
necessary to have witnesses, two or three of whose testimonies, ac- 
cording to the laws or rules of God and man, are sufficient to establish 
any one point. 

Now for the question. How much are one and one? Two. How 
much is one from two? One. Very well; one question or problem is 
solved by figures. Now, let me ask one for facts: Was there ever 
such a place on the earth as Egypt? Geography says yes; ancient his- 
tory says yes; and the Bible says yes: so three witnesses have solved 
that question. Again: Lived there ever such a man as Moses in Egypt? 
The same witnesses reply, Certainly. And was he a Prophet? The 
same witnesses, or a part, have left on record that Moses predicted in 
Leviticus that if Israel broke the covenant they had made, the Lord 
would scatter them among the nations, till the land enjoyed her Sab- 
baths: and, subsequently, these witnesses have testified of their cap- 
tivity in Babylon and other places, in fulfillment. But to make assu- 
rance doubly sure, Moses prays that the ground might open and swal- 
low up Korah and his company for transgression, and it was so: and 
he endorses the prophecy of Balaam, which said, Out of Jacob shall 
come he that shall have dominion, and shall destroy him that re- 
maineth of the city: and Jesus Christ, as Him that "had dominion," about 
fifteen hundred years after, in accordance with this and the prediction 
of Moses, David, Isaiah, and many others, came, saying, Moses wrote 
of me, declaring the dispersion of the Jews, and the utter destruction 
of the city; and the Apostles were his witnesses, unimpeached, espe- 
cially Jude, who not only endorses the facts of Moses "divinity,'' but 
also the events of Balaam and Korah, with many others, as true. 

Besides these tangible facts, so easily proven and demonstrated by 
simple rules and testimony unimpeached, the art (now lost,) of em- 
balming human bodies, and preserving them in the catacombs of Egypt, 
whereby men, women and children, as mummies, after a lapse of near 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH. 77 

three thousand Ato hundred years, come forth among the living; and 
although dead, the papyrus which has lived in their bosoms, unharmed- 
speaks for them in language like the sound of an earthquake. Ecce 
Veritas! Ecce cadaveros! Behold the truth! Behold the mummies! 

Oh, my dear sir, the sunken Tyre and Sidon, the melancholy dust 
where' the city of Jerusalem once was, and the mourning of the Jews 
among the nations, together with such a cloud of witnesses, if you had 
been as well acquainted with your God and Bible as with your purse 
and pence table, the divinity of Moses would have dispelled the fog of 
five thousand years and filled you with light; for facts, like diamonds, 
not only cut glass, but they are the most precious jewels on earth. The 
spirit of prophecy is the testimony of Jesus. 

The world at large is ever ready to credit the writings of Homer. 
Hesiod, Plutarch, Socrates, Pythagoras, Virgil, Josephus. Mahomet, 
and an hundred others; but where, tell me, where, have they left a 
line— a simple method of solving the truth of the plan of eternal life? 
Says the Savior, "If any man will do his [the Father's] will, he shall 
know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of my- 
self." Here, then, is a method of solving the divinity of men by the 
divinity within yourself, that as far exceeds the calculations of numbers 
as the sun exceeds a candle. Would to God that all men understood it 
and were willing to be governed by it, that when one had filled the 
measure of his days, he could exclaim like Jesus, Veni mori, et 

reviviscere ! ' ' 

Your good wishes to go ahead, coupled with Mahomet and a right 
hand man, are rather more vain than virtuous. Why, sir, Caesar had 
his right hand Brutus, who was his left hand assassin,— not, however, 
applying the allusion to you. 

As to the private seal you mention, if sent to me, I shall receive it 
with the gratitude of a servant of God, and pray that the donor may 
receive a reward in the resurrection of the just. 

The summit of your future fame seems to be hid in the political 
policy of a " mathematical problem' ' for the chief magistracy of this state , 
which I suppose might be solved by "double position," where the 
errors of the supposition are used to produce a true answer. 

But, sir, when I leave the dignity and honor I received from heaven, 
to boost a man into power, through the aid of my friends, where the 
evil and designing, after the object has been accomplished, can lock up 
the clemency intended as a reciprocation for such favors, and where 
the wicked and unprincipled, as a matter of course, would seize the 
opportunitv to flintify the hearts of the nation against me for dabbling 
at a sly game in politics,— verily I say, when I leave the dignity and 
honor of heaven, to gratify the ambition and vanity of man or men, 



78 HISTORY OP THE CHURCH f A.D. 1843 

may my power cease, like the strength of Samson, when he was shorn 
of his locks, while asleep in the lap of Delilah. Truly said the Savior, 
"Cast not your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their 
feet, and turn again and rend you." 

Shall I, who have witnessed the visions of eternity, and beheld the 
glorious mansions of bliss, and the regions and the misery of the 
damned -shall I turn to be a Judas? Shall I, who have heard the 
voice of God, and communed with angels, and spake as moved by the 
Holy Ghost for the renewal of the everlasting covenant, and for the 
gathering of Israel in the last days— shall I worm mvself into a politi- 
cal hypocrite? Shall I, who hold the keys of the last kingdom, in which 
is the dispensation of the fullness of all things spoken by the mouths 
of all the holy Prophets since the world began, under the sealing power 
of the Melchisedec Priesthood —shall I stoop from the sublime authority 
of Almighty God, to be handled as a monkey's cat-paw, and petrify 
myself into a clown to act the farce of political demagoguery? No— 
verily no! The whole earth shall bear me witness that I, like the 
towering rock in the midst of the ocean, which has withstood the 
mighty surges of the warring waves for centuries, am impregnable, and 
am a faithful friend to virtue, and a fearless foe to vice,— no odds 
whether the former was sold as a pearl in Asia or hid as a gem in 
America, and the latter dazzles in palaces or glimmers among the tombs. 

I combat the errors of ages; I meet the violence of mobs; I cope 
with illegal proceedings from executive authority; I cut the gordian 
knot of powers, and I solve mathematical problems of universities, 
with truth— diamond truth; and God is my "right hand man."* 

And to close, let me say in the name of Jesus Christ to you, and to 
presidents, emperors, kings, queens, governors, rulers, nobles, and 
men in authority everywhere, Do the works of righteousness, execute 
justice and judgment in the earth, that God may bless you and her 
inhabitants; and 

The laurel that grows on the top of the mountain 

Shall green for your fame while the sun sheds a ray; 

And the lily that blows by the side of the fountain 
Will bloom for your virtue till earth melts away. 

With due consideration and respect, I have the honor to be 

Your most obedient servant, Joseph Smith. 

P.S. The court-martial will attend to your case in the Nauvco 
Legion. j g_ 

* Not in the blasphemous sense attributed to him by some anti-Mormon writers ; 
namely, that God was subordinate to him— his right hand man (See Riley's "Pound- 
er of Mormonism" ch. x) ; but in the sense of the passage near the close of his ad- 
dress to "The Green Mountain Boys" (this chapter)-"And Jesus Christ, the Son 
of God, is my Great Counselor" — reverently said. 



A.U. 1843] H1ST0BY OF THE CHUKCH, 



79 



Tuesday, 14.— In the evening called at the office with 
Mr. Southwick, of Dixon, and had my letter to James 
Arlington Bennett read. 

Wednesday, 15.— Mayor's court in the office. "Erskine 

versus Pullen." Nonsuit. 

P. M. At the office. Suggested the idea of preparing 
a grammar of the Egyptian language. Grammar for 

Prayer-meeting at the old house. I spoke the Egyptian 
of a petition to Congress, my letter to Bennett, s^IS. 
and intention to write a proclamation to the 
kings of the earth. 

Thursday, 16.— Held a court — "Averett versus 

Bostwick. ' ' 
At home the remainder of the day. Chilly east wind 

and foggy. 

Friday, 17.— Deeded lot 4, block 135, to Sally Phelps, 

wife of W. W. Phelps. 

About ten, a.m., called in the office with Esquire South- 
wick, of Dixon. 

Thunder, lightning and rain last night. Warm and 

foggy morning. 

Saturday, 18.— Bode out on horseback to the prairie, 
accompanied by Mr. Southwick. 

Conference of the church held at Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
Robert Dixon, president; Edward Cook, secretary. Two 
branches were represented, containing 2 Elders, 1 
Teacher, 2 Deacons, and 34 members. 

Sunday, 19.— Eleven a.m. to two p.m., prayer-meeting 
at the old house, and fasting. 

In the evening, prayer-meeting and breaking of bread, 

&c. 

Monday, 20.— Two gentlemen from Vermont put up at 
the Mansion. I rode round with them in the Meetingatthe 
afternoon to show them the improvements in g^ 6 *' 8 
the city. In the evening, several of the Twelve 
and others called to visit me. My family sang hymns, 



80 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

and Elder John Taylor prayed and gave an address, to 
which they paid great attention, and seemed very much 
interested. 

Tuesday, 21.— Council of the Twelve and others at 
my old house all day. Dictated to my clerk an appeal 
to the Green Mountain boys of Vermont, my native 
State. 

Also instructed Elders Eichards, Hyde, Taylor and 
Phelps to write a "Proclamation to the Kings of the 
Earth." 

Wednesday, 22.— Rode out to the prairie with W. Clay- 
ton and Lorenzo D. Wasson, and found Arthur Smith 
cutting timber on my land without my consent, which I 
objected to. 

Prayer-meeting in the evening at the old house. 
Five deaths in the city during the past week. 
Thursday, 23.— Met in council in the old house; then 
walked down to the river to look at the stream, 
t C h a e n Rapids Und rocks, &c, about half-past eleven, a.m. Sug- 
gested the idea of petitioning Congress for a ' 
grant to make a canal over the falls, or a dam to turn the 
water to the city, so that we might erect mills and other 
machinery.* 

Issued a writ of habeas corpus, on application of John 
M. Finch. 

Friday, 24.— Attended Municipal Court "on habeas 
corpus, John M. Finch at suit of Amos Davis." Finch 
discharged, Davis to pay costs, it being a vexatious and 
malicious suit. 

The young men have established a debating society in 
Nauvoo, to discuss topics of various descriptions. 

• The General Government finally constructed a canal around the rapids at a 
coast of $4,582,000, completing the work in 1877. The canal is seven and a half 
miles in length and has in it three locks, overcoming the obstruction in river navi- 
gation which the Des Moines rapids in early days presented. It is called the Des 
Moines Rapids Canal. 



A.D. 1843) HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 81 

Saturday, 25. — Colonel Frierson, United States Sur- 
veyor from Quincy, arrived in Nauvoo. "In ThePropbet , s 
the evening the High Council sat on the case » tand on 

. L . Chastity and 

or Harrison bagers, charged with seduction, General 
and having stated that I had taught it was 
right. Charge not sustained. I was present with several 
of the Twelve, and gave an address tending to do away with 
every evil, and exhorting them to practice virtue and holi- 
ness before the Lord ; told them that the Church had not 
received any permission from me to commit fornication, 
adultery, or any corrupt action; but my every word and 
action has been to the contrary. If a man commit adultery, 
he cannot receive the celestial kingdom of God. Even if 
he is saved in any kingdom, it cannot be the celestial 
kingdom. I did think that the many examples that have 
been made manifest, such as John C. Bennett's and others, 
were sufficient to show the fallacy of such a course of 
conduct. 

I condemned such actions in toto, and warned the people 
present against committing such evils ; for it will surely 
bring a curse upon any person who commits such deeds. 

After adjournment, held a council, and agreed to meet 
Mr. Frierson* at the Mansion to morrow morning. 

I received a letter signed by George B. Wallace and six 
other Elders, requesting permission for Elder John E. 
Page to remain in Boston the ensuing winter. Also a 
letter from John E. Page, giving his assent to the petition, 
to which the Twelve Apostles wrote the following 
reply : — 

Letter: Brigham loung in Behalf of the Tioelve to Elder John E. Page, 
Appointing him, to go to Washington. 

Elder John E. Page': 

Beloved Brother: — Your letter dated at Boston, in connection with 

* This Col. Frierson resided at Quincy, was a political representative of John C 
Calhoun, then an active aspirant for the presidency of the United States. See letter 
of Joseph L. Heywood, pp. 62, 63. 

6 Vol. VI. 






82 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 184a 

some one hundred and fifty of the brethren, is received, and we proceed 
to reply. Your letter is not before us this moment; consequently you 
must excuse a reference to dates and names which have escaped our 
recollection. But the subject is fresh, and the letter was read in a 
council of Presidents Joseph, Hyrutn, and the Twelve, when the word 
of the Lord came through Joseph the Seer thus: — "Let my servant 
John E. Page take his departure speedily from the city of Boston, and 
go directly to the city of Washington, and there labor diligently in 
proclaiming my Gospel to the inhabitants thereof: and if he is humble 
and faithful, lo! I will be with him, and will give him the hearts of the 
people, that he may do them good and build up a church unto my 
name in that city." 

Now, Brother Page, if you wish to follow counsel and do the will of 
the Lord, as we believe you desire to do, call the church at Boston 
together, without delay, and read this letter to them, calling upon 
them to assist you on your mission, and go thy way speedily unto the 
place which is appointed unto you by the voice of the Lord, and build 
up a church in the city of Washington; for it is expedient and ab- 
solutely necessary that we have a foothold in that popular city. Let 
your words be soft unto the people, but full of the spirit and power of 
the Holy Ghost. Do not challenge the sects for debate, but treat them as 
brethren and friends; and the God of heaven will bless you, and we will 
bless you in the name of the Lord Jesus, and the people will rise up 
and bless you, and call you a sweet messenger of peace. You will 
pardon us for giving you such counsel, for we feel to do it in the name 
of the Lord. 

When you have built a church at Washington so as to warrant the 
expense. It will be wisdom for you to send or take your wife to Wash- 
ington; so says President Joseph. 

All things go on smoothly here. As to the reports circulated while 
we were in Boston, there is nothing of them. Brother Joseph has com- 
menced living in his new house, and enjoys himself well. He has raised 
a sign, entitled "Nauvoo Mansion," and has all the best company in the 
city. Many strangers from abroad call on him, feeling perfect liberty 
so to do, since he has made his house public; and it is exerting a bles- 
sed influence on the public mind. 

The Temple has been progressing rapidly until the recent frosts. 
The walls are now above the windows of the first story, and some of 
the circular windows are partly laid. The brethren of the Twelve have 
all arrived home, are tolerably well, and their families, except Sister 
Hyde, who has been very sick, and is yet, though at last report rather 
better. No prospect of any of the Twelve leaving home this winter 



A.D. 18431 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 83 

that we know of. Elder Snow has arrived with his company from 
Boston, generally in good spirits. 

The devil howls some: may be you will hear him as far as Boston, 
for there cannot a blackleg be guilty of any crime in Nauvoo, but 
somebody will lay it to the servants of God. We shall give the sub- 
stance of this communication to your wife same mail. 

We remain your brother in the new and everlasting covenant, in 
behalf of the quorum, 

Brigham YOUNG, President. 

W. Richards, Clerk. 

Sunday, 26. — I met with Hyrum, the Twelve and 
others, in council with Colonel Frierson, at the 

... Renewal of 

Mansion, concerning petitioning Congress tor Petitions to 
redress of grievances. Read to hini the affi- 
davits of Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt, 
Lyman Wight, George W. Pitkin and Sidney Rigdon, 
taken before the municipal court on habeas corpus, and 
conversed with him thereon. 

At eleven, a.m., Elder Orson Pratt preached in the 
Assembly Room. 

In the evening, Elder Parley P. Pratt lectured in the 
Mansion. Rainy, muddy day. 

Monday, 27. — Wet day. Being quite unwell, I stayed 
at home. 

Tuesday, 28. — At home. Colonel Frierson wrote a 
Memorial to Congress.* 

Wednesday , 29. — At home. Clear and cold. Colonel 
Frierson left for home, taking with him a copy of the 
Memorial, to get signers in Quincy. I here insert a 
copy of the — 

*The reason Col. John Frierson interested himself in this matter was that Hon. R. 
B. Rhett a representative in the National Congress from South Carolina, and a polit- 
ical friend of John C. Calhoun, had expressed a willingness to present to Congress 
a memorial for a redress of grievances suffered by the Saints in Missouri; and of 
course all this in the interest of Calhoun as candidate for President. See pp. 62,63; 
also Naavoo Neighbor for the 5th June, 1844. 



84 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

MEMORIAL. 

lo the Honorable the Senate and House of 'Representatives of the United 

States, in Congress Assembled. 

The memorial of the undersigned inhabitants of Hancock county, 
in the State of Illinois, respectfully showeth — 

That they belong to the society of Latter-day Saints, commonly 
called "Mormons;" that a portion of our people commenced settling in 
Jackson county, Missousi, in the summer of 1831, where they purchased 
lands and settled upon them with the intention and expectation of be- 
coming permanent citizens in common with others. 

From a very early period after the settlement began, a very un- 
friendly feeling was manifested by the neighboring people; and as the 
society increased, this unfriendly spirit also increased, until it degen- 
erated into a cruel and unrelenting persecution, and the society was at 
last compelled to leave the county. An account of these unprovoked 
persecutions has been published to the world; yet we deem it not im- 
proper to embody a few of the most prominent items in the memorial, 
and lay them before your honorable body. 

On the 20th July, 1833, a mob collected at Independence, a deputation 
or committee from which called upon a few members of our Church 
there, and stated to them that the store, printing office, and all mechanic 
shops belonging to our people must be closed forthwith, and the society 
leave the county immediately. 

These conditions were so unexpected and so hard, that a short time 
was asked for to consider on the subject before an answer could be 
given, which was refused; and when some of our men answered that 
they could not consent to comply with such propositions, the work of 
destruction commenced. 

The printing office — a valuable two-story brick building, was de- 
stroyed by the mob, and with it much valuable property. They next 
we at to the store for the same purpose; but one of the owners thereof 
agreeing to close it, they abandoned their design. 

A series of outrages was then commenced by the mob upon indi- 
vidual members of our society. Bishop Partridge was dragged from 
his house and family, where he was first partially stripped of his 
clothes, and then tarred and feathered from head to foot. Mr. Charles 
Allen was also tarred at the same time. 

Three days afterwards the mob assembled in great numbers, bearing 
a red flag, and proclaiming that unless the society would leave en masse, 
every man of them should be killed. Being in a defenseless situation, 
to avoid a general massacre, a treaty was entered into and ratified, by 
which it was agreed that one-half of the society should leave the county 
by the 1st of January, and the remainder by the 1st of April following. 



a.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 85 

In October, while our people were gathering: their crops and other- 
wise preparing to fulfil their'part of the treaty, the mob again collected 
without any provocation, shol'at some of our people, whipped others, 
threw down their houses, and committed many other depredations. The 
members of the society were for some time harassed hoth day and night, 
their houses assailed and broken open, and their women and children 
insulted and abused. 

The store-house of A. S. Gilbert and Company was broken open, 
ransacked, and some of the goods strewed in the streets. These repeated 
assaults so aroused the indignant feelings of our people, that a small 
party thereof, on one occasion, when wantonly abused, resisted the 
mob. A conflict ensued, in which "one of our people and some two or 
three of their assailants were killed. 

This unfortunate event raised the whole county in arms, and we 
were required forthwith to surrender our arms and leave the county. 
Fifty-one guns were given up, which have never been returned or paid 
for to this day. 

Parties of the mob, from thirty to seventy in number, then scoured 
the county in every direction, threatening and abusing women and 
children, until they were forced first to take shelter in the woods and 
prairies at a very inclement season of the year, and finally to make 
their escape to Clay county, where the people permitted them to take 
refuge for a time. 

After the society had left Jackson county, their buildings, amounting 
to about two hundred, were either burned or otherwise destroyed, with 
a great portion of their crops, as well as furniture, stock, &c; for which 
they have not as yet received any remuneration. 

The society remained in Clay county nearly three years, when, in 
compliance with the demands of the citizens there, it was determined 
to remove to that section of country known afterwards as Caldwell 
county. 

In order to secure our people from molestation, the members of the 
society bought out most of the former inhabitants of what is now Cald- 
well county, and also entered much of the wild land then belonging to 
the United States in that section of country, fondly hoping that as we 
were American citizens, obeying the laws and assisting to support the 
government, we would be protected in the use of homes which we had 
honestly purchased from the General Government and fully paid for. 

Here we were permitted to enjoy peace for a season; but as oar 
society increased in numbers and settlements were made in Daviess and 
Carrol counties, unfounded jealousies sprang up among our neighbors, 
and the spirit of the mob was soon manifested again. The people of 
our Church who had located themselves at De Witt were compelled by 



86 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. IA.D.1843 

the mob to leave the place, notwithstanding the militia were called out 
for their protection. 

From De Witt the mob went to Daviess, county, and, while on their 
way, took some of our people prisoners, and greatly abused and 
mistreated them. Our people had been driven by force from Jackson 
county; they had been compelled to leave Clay county, and sell their 
lands there, for which they have never been paid: they had finally 
settled in Caldwell county, where they had purchased and paid for 
nearly all the Government land within its limits, in order to secure 
homes where they could live and worship iu peace; but even here they 
were soon followed by the mob. 

The society remained in Caldwell from 1836 until the fall of 1838, 
and during that time had acquired by purchase from the Government, 
the settlers, and preemptiouers, almost all the lands in the county of 
Caldwell, and a portion of those in Daviess and Carrol counties. 

Those counties, when our people first commenced their settlements, 
were for the most part wild and uncultivated, and they had converted 
them into large and well improved farms, well stocked. Lands had 
risen in value, from 10 to 25 dollars per acre, and those counties were 
rapidly advancing in cultivation and wealth. 

In August, 1838, a riot commenced, growing out of the attempt of 
a member of the society to vote, which resulted in creating great 
excitement and many scenes of lawless outrage. A large mob, under 
the conduct of Cornelius Gilliam, came into the vicinity of Far West, 
drove off our stock, and abused our people. Another party came into 
Caldwell county, took away our horses and cattle, burnt our houses, 
and ordered the inhabitents to leave their homes immediately. 

By order of Brigadier-General Doniphan and Colonel Hinkle, a 
company of about sixty men, under the command of David W. Patten f 
went to disperse this mob. A conflict ensued, in which Captain Patten 
and two of his men were killed, and others wounded.* A mob party, 
from two to three hundred in number, many of whom are supposed to 
have come from Chariton county, fell on our people, and, notwith- 
standing they begged for quarters, shot down and killed eighteen, as 
they would so many wild beasts. 

They were finally compelled to flee from those counties; and on th- 
11th October, 1838, they sought safety by that means, with their families, 

* This is an error. Col. Frierson has confounded two incidents— the "Battle" at 
Crooked River, and a movement in Daviess county. General Doniphan gave no 
orders in respect of the skirmish in which David Patten lost his life, usually called 
the "Battle of Crooked River;" but he and also General Park gave some orders 
to Col. Wight and Col. Hinkle in relation to movements of militia in Daviess county* 
against Millport and Gallatin. (See Vol. iii, ch. sii.) 



A.D. 18431 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 87 

leaving many of their effects behind. That they had previously applied 
to the constituted authorities of Missouri for protection, but in vain. 

The society were pursued by the mob, conflicts ensued, deaths 
occurred on each side, and finally a force was organized under the au- 
thority of the Governor of the state of Missouri, with orders to drive 
us from the State, or exterminate us. 

Abandoned and attacked by those to whom we had looked for 
protection, we determined to make no further resistance, but submit to 
the authorities of the State and yield to our fate, however hard it might 
be. Several members of the society were arrested and imprisoned on a 
charge of treason against the State: and the rest, amounting to above 
14,000 souls, fled into the other States, principally into Illinois, where 
they now reside. 

Your memorialists would further state that they have heretofore 
petitioned your honorable body, praying redress for the injuries set forth 
in this memorial; but the committee to whom our petition was referred 
reported, in substance, that the General Government had no power in 
the case, and that we must look for relief to the courts and the legis- 
lature of Missouri. 

In reply, your memorialists would beg leave to state that they have 
repeatedly appealed to the authorities of Missouri in vain; that though 
they are American citizens, at all times ready to obey the laws and 
support the institutions of the country, none of us would dare enter 
Missouri for any such purpose, or for any purposes whatever. 

Our property was seized by the mob or lawlessly confiscated by the 
State; and we were forced, at the point of the bayonet, to sign deeds of 
trust relinquishing our property. But the exterminating order of the 
Governor of Missouri is still in force, and we dare not return to claim 
our just rights. The widows and orphans of those slain, who could 
legally sign no deeds of trust, dare not return to claim the inheritance 
left them by their murdered parents. 

It is true the Constitution of the United States gives to us, in com- 
mon with all other native or adopted citizens, the right to enter and 
settle in Missouri; but an executive order has been issued to exterminate 
us if we enter the State, and a part of the Constitution becomes a nullity, 
so far as we are concerned. 

Had any foreign state or power committed a similar outrage upon 
us, we cannot for a moment doubt that the strong arm of the General 
Government would have been stretched out to redress our wrongs; and 
we flatter ourselver that the same power will either redress our griev- 
ances or shield us from harm in our efforts to regain our lost property, 
which we fairly purchased from the General Government. 

Finally, your memorialists pray your honorable body to take their 



88 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1843 

wrongs into consideration, receive testimony in the case, and grant such 
relief as by the Constitution and laws you may have power to give. 
And your memorialists will ever pray. * 

Eleven copies were also made for circulation and 
signatures by Thomas Bullock, one of my 

Activities in -i -i 

Renewal of CierKS. 

confess* Four > P-ni. A meeting of the citizens in the 

. assmbly room, [over President Smith's store] 
when Brigham Young was chosen chairman of the 
meeting, and Willard Richards, clerk. 

The object of the meeting was briefly explained by the 
clerk, followed by Judge Phelps, which was to petition 
Congress for redress of grievances in relation to the 
Missouri persecutions. 

Voted that the chairmaD appoint a committee to get the 
names of memorialists in this city. 

The chairman appointed the assessors and collectors in 
their several wards. 

Voted that the same committee collect means to pur- 
chase paper. President Sidney Rigdon to go to La Harpe. 
and Elder Heber C. Kimball to Ramus, to procure signers. 

The charmain appointed committees to visit other 
places. 

Joseph Smith, the Mayor, made some remarks, and his 
Appeal to the Green Mountain Boys was read by William 
W. Phelps, as follows: — 

President Smith' 's Appeal to his Native State— Vermont. 
I was born in Sharon, Vermont, in 1805, where the first quarter of 
my life grew with the growtn and strengthened with the strength of 
that "first-born" State of the "United Thirteen." From the old 
"French War" to the final consummation of American Independence, 
my fathers, heart to heart, and shoulder to shoulder, with the noble 
fathers of our liberty, fought and bled; and with the most of that ven- 
erable band of patriots, they have gone to rest, bequeathing a glorious 
country, with all her inherent rights, to millions of posterity. Like 
other honest citizens, I not only (when manhood came,) sought my own 
peace, prosperity, and happiness, but also the peace, prosperity, and 
happiness of my friends; and, with all the rights and realm before me, 



A.D.1843] HISTORY OF THE CHU11CH. 89 

and the revelations of Jesus Christ to guide me into all truth, I had good 
reasons to enter into the blessings and privileges of an American citizen, 
the rights of a Green Mountain Bov, unmolested, and enjoy life and 
religion according to the most virtuous and enlightened customs, rules, 
and etiquette of the nineteenth century. But, to the disgrace of the 
United States, it is not so. These rights aud privileges, together with 
a large amount of property, have been wrested from me, and thousands 
of my friends, by lawless mobs in Missouri, supported by executive 
authority; and the crime of plundering our property, and the unconsti- 
tutional and barbarous act of our expulsion, and even the inhumanity 
of murdering men, women, and children, have received the pass-word 
of "justifiable" by legislative enactments; and the horrid deeds, doleful 
and disgraceful a& they are, have been paid for by Government. 

In vain have we sought for redress of grievances and a restoration 
to our rights in the courts and legislature of Missouri. In vain have 
we sought for our rights and the remuneration for our property in the 
halls of Congress and at the hands of the President. The only con- 
solation yet experienced from these highest tribunals and mercy-seats of 
our bleeding country is that our cause is just, but the Government has no 
power to redress us. 

Our arms were forcibly taken from us by those Missouri marauders; 
and, in spite of every effort to have them returned, the State of Missouri 
still retains them: and the United States militia law, with this fact be 
fore the Government, still compels us to military duty; and, for a lack 
of said arms, the law forces us to pay fines. As Shakespeare would say 
"thereby hangs a tale.'''' 

Several hundred thousand dollars' worth of land in Missouri was 
purchased at the United States Land Offices in that district of country 
and the money, without doubt, has been appropriated to strengthen the 
army and navy, or increase the power and glory of the nation in some 
other way. And notwithstanding Missouri has robbed and mobbed me 
and twelve or fifteen thousand innocent inhabitants, murdered hun- 
dreds, and expelled the residue, at the point of the bayonet, without 
law, contrary to the express language of the Constitution of the United 
States and every State in the Union, and contrary to the custom and 
usage of civilized nations, and especially one holding up the motto, 
"The asylum of the oppressed.''' 1 yet the comfort we receive to raise our 
wounded bodies and invigorate our troubled spirits, on account of such 
immense sacrifices of life, property, patience, and right, and as an 
equivalent for the enormous taxes we are compelled to pay to support 
these functionaries in a dignified manner, after we have petitioned and 
pleaded with tears, and been showed like a caravan of foreign animals, 
for the peculiar gratification of connoiseurs in humanity, that flare 



90 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

along in public life like lamps upon lamp- posts, because they are better 
calculated for the schemes of the night than for the scenes of the day, 
is, as President Van Buren said, Your cause is just, but Government has 
no power to redress you! 

No wonder, after the Pharisee's prayer, the publican smote his breast 
and said, "Lord be merciful to me a sinner!'''' What must the manacled 
nations think of freemen's rights in the land of liberty? * * * 

Now, therefore, having failed in every attempt to obtain satisfaction 
at the tribunals, where all men seek for it, according to the rules of 
right, I am compelled to appeal to the honor and patriotism of my na- 
tive State — to the clemency and valor of "Green Mountain Boys;" for 
throughout the various periods of the world, whenever a nation, king- 
dom, state, family, or individual has received an insult or an injury 
from a superior force, (unless satisaction was made,) it has been 
the custom to call in the aid of friends to assist in obtaining redress. 
For proof we have only to refer to the recovery of Lot and his effects 
bv Abraham in the days of Sodom and Gomorrah, or to turn to the re- 
lief afforded by France and Holland for the achievement of the Inde- 
pendence of these United States, without bringing up the great bulk of 
historical facts, rules, laws, decrees, and treaties, and Bible records, 
by which nations have been governed, to show that mutual alliance 
for the general benefit of mankind to retaliate and repel foreign ag- 
gressions. To punish and prevent home wrongs, when the conserva- 
tors of justice and the laws have failed to afford a remedy, are not only 
common and in the highest sense justifiable and wise, but they are also 
proper expedients to promote the enjoyment of equal rights, the pur- 
suit of happiness, the preservation of life, and the benefit of pos- 
terity. 

With all these facts before me, and a pure desire to ameliorate the 
condition of the poor and unfortunate among men, and, if possible, to 
entice all men from evil to good, and with firm reliance that God will 
reward the just, I have been stimulated to call upon my native State 
for a "union of all honest men," and to appeal to the valor of the 
"Green Mountain Boys" by all honorable methods and means to assist 
me in obtaining justice from Missouri, not only for the property she 
has stolen and confiscated, the murders she has commited among my 
friends, and for our expulsion from the State, but also to humble and 
chastise or abase her for the disgrace she has brought upon constitu- 
tional liberty until she atones for her sins. 

I appeal also to the fraternity of brethren who are bound by kindred 
ties to assist a brother in distress in all cases where it can be done ac- 

* The omission here indicated is the paragraph of foreign phrases not germane to 
the matter as explained in the footnote at page 75. 



A.D. 1843J HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 91 

cording to the rules of order, to extend the boon of benevolence and 
protection in avenging: the Lord of His enemies, as if a Solomon, a 
Hiram, a St. John, or a Washington raised his hands before a wonder- 
ing world, and exclaimed, "My life for his! " Light, liberty, and virtue 
forever! 

I bring this appeal before my native State, for the solemn reason 
that an injury has been done, and crimes have been committed, which 
a sovereign State, of the Federal compact, one of the great family of 
" E pluribus wm<»i," refuses to compensate, by consent of parties, 
rules of law, customs of nations, or in any other way. I bring it also 
because the National Government has fallen short of affording the nec- 
essary relief, as before stated, jor want oj power, leaving a large body 
of her own free citizens, whose wealth went freely into her treasury for 
lands, and whose gold and silver for taxes still fills the pockets of her 
dignitaries "in ermine and lace," defrauded, robbed, plundered, rav- 
i.-hed, driven, exiled, and banished from the "Independent Republic of 
Missouri! "' 

And in the appeal let me say, Raise your towers, pile your monu- 
ments to the skies, build your steam frigates, spread yourselves far 
and wide, and open the iron eyes of your bulwarks by sea and land; 
and let the towering church steeples marshal the country like the 
dreadful splendor of an army with bayonets. But remember the 
flood of Noah; remember the fate of Sodom and Gomorrah; remember 
the dispersion and confusion at the tower of Babel; remember the 
destruction of Pharaoh and his hosts; remember the handwriting upon 
the wall, "31ene, mene, teJcel icpharsin;" remember the angel's visit to 
Sennacherib, and the one hundred and eighty- five thousand Assyrians; 
remember the end of the Jews and Jerusalem, and remember the Lord 
Almighty will avenge the blood of His Saints that now crimsons the 
skirts of Missouri! Shall wisdom cry aloud, and her speech not be 
heard? 

Has the majesty of American liberty sunk into such vile servitude 
and oppression, that justice has fled? Have the glory and influence of 
a Washington, an Adams, a Jefferson, a Lafayette, and a host of oth- 
ers, forever departed; and the wrath of a Cain, a Judas, and a Nero 
whirled forth in the heraldry of hell, to sprinkle our garments with 
blood, and lighten the darkness of midnight with the blaze of our 
dwellings? Where is the patriotism of '76? Where is the virtue of 
our forefathers? and where is the sacred honor of freemen! 

Must we, because we believe in the fulness of the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ, the administration of angels, and the communion of the Holy 
Ghost, like the Prophets and Apostles of old,— must we be mobbed 
with impunity, be exiled from our habitations and property without 



92 HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. [A.D. 1843 

remedy, murdered without mercy, and Government find the weapons 
and pay the vagabonds for doing the jobs, and give them the plunder 
into the bargain? Must we, because we believe in enioying the con- 
stitutional privilege aud right of worshiping Almighty God according 
to the dictates of our own consciences, and because we believe in 
repentance, and baptism for the remission of sins, the gift of the 
Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands, the resurrection of the dead, 
the millennium, the day of judgment, and the Book of Mormon as the 
history of the aborigines of this continent, — must we be expelled from 
the institutions of our country, the rights of citizenship and the graves 
of our friends and brethren, and the Government lock the gate of 
humanity and shut the door of redress against us? If so, farewell free- 
dom! adieu to personal safety! and let the red hot wrath of an offended 
God purify the nation of such sinks of corruption: for that realm is 
hurrying to ruin where vice has the power to expel virtue. 

Mv father, who stood several times in the battles of the American 
Revolution, till his companions in arms had been shot dead at his feet, 
was forced from his home in Far West, Missouri, by those civilized — or 
satanized — savages, in the dreary season of winter, to seek a shelter in 
another State; and the vicissitudes and sufferings consequent to his 
flight brought his honored grey head to the grave a few months after. 
And my youngest brother also, in the vigor and bloom of youth, 
from his great exposure and fatigue in endeavoring to assist his parents 
on their journey, (I and my brother Hyrum being in chains, in dun- 
geons, in Missouri, where they tried to feed us with — human flesh) was 
likewise so debilated that he found a premature grave shortly after my 
father; and my mother, too, though she yet lingers among us, from her 
extreme exposure in that dreadful tragedy, was filled with rheumatic 
affections and other diseases, which leave her no enjovment of health. 
She is sinking in grief and pain, broken-hearted, from Missouri perse- 
cution. 

death! wilt thou not give to every honest man a heated dart to 
sting those wretches while they pollute the land? And Grave! wilt 
thou not open the trap door to the pit of ungodly men, that they may 
stumble in? 

1 appeal to the "Green Mountain Boys" of my native State to rise in 
the majesty of virtuous freemen, and by all honorable means help to 
bring Missouri to the bar of justice. If there is one whisper from the 
spirit of an Ethen Allen, or a gleam from the shade of a General Stark, 
let it mingle with our sense of honor and fire our bosoms for the 
cause of suffering innocence, for the reputation of our disgraced coun- 
try, and for the glory of God; and may all the earth bear me witness, 
if Missouri — blood-stained Missouri, escapes the due merit of her 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 93 

crimes — the vengeance she so justly deserves — that Vermont is a hypo- 
crite, a coward, and this nation the hotbed of political demagogues! 

I make this appeal to the sods of liberty of my native State for help 
to frustrate the wicked designs of sinful men. I make it to hush the 
violence of mobs. I make it to cope with the unhallowed influence of 
wicked men in high places. I make it to resent the insult and injury 
made to an innocent, unoffending people, by a lawless ruffian State. I 
make it to obtain justice where law is put at defiance. I make it to 
wipe off the stain of blood from our nation's escutcheon. I make it 
to show presidents, governors, and rulers prudence. I make it to fill 
honorable men with discretion. I make it to teach senators wisdom. I 
I make it to teach judges justice. I make it to point clergymen 
to the path of virtue. And I make it to turn the hearts of this 
nation to the truth and realities of pure and undefiled religion, 
that they may escape the perdition of ungodly men; and Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, is my Great Counselor. 

Wherefore let the rich and the learned, the wise and the noble, the 
poor and the needy, the bond and the free, both black and white, take 
heed to their ways, and a leave to the knowledge of God, and execute 
justice and judgment upon the earth in righteousness, and prepare to 
meet the judge of the quick and the dead, for the hour of His coming is 
nigh. 

And I must go on as the herald of grace, 
Till the wide-spreading conflict is over. 
And burst through the curtains of tyrannic night; 

Yes, I must go on to gather our race, 
Till the high blazing flame of Jehovah 
Illumines the globe as a triumph of right. 
As a friend of equal rights to all men, and a messenger of the ever- 
lasting Gospel of Jesus Christ, I have the honor to be, 

Your devoted servant, 
Joseph Smith. 

Sidney Rigdon spoke. 

Parley P. Pratt confessed he was wrong in one thing 
in Missouri; that is, he left alive, and left them alive; 
and asked forgiveness, and promised never to do so 
again. 

Parley P. Pratt offered to deliver the President's "Ap- 
peal to the Green Mountain Boys" to all the large towns 
in New York, if he could have a copy. 

The President offered a copy and it was voted that 



94 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

Elder Pratt shall have this mission granted him, and voted 
in addition that he go to all the towns in Vermont. 

The Chairman [Brigham Young] spoke. 

The Mayor [President Smith] spoke. Said he rose 
to make a confession, that he used all his influence to 
prevent the brethren from fighting when mobbed in Mis- 
souri. If I did wrong, I will not do so any more. It was 
a suggestion of the head. He would never do so again; 
but when the mobs come upon you, kill them. I never 
will restrain you again, but will go and help you. 

The Chairman [Brigham Young] spoke again; acknow- 
ledged his wrong; said he would never put his hand on 
Brother Hosea Stout's shoulder again to hold him back 
when he was abused. 

John Taylor spoke of Missouri ; said he would never 
submit to such treatment again. 

Mayor [President Smith] spoke again. If I do not 
stand with those who will stand by me in the hour of 
trouble and danger, without faltering, I give you leave 
to shoot me.* 

Mayor read a letter in reply to one he wrote to 
Henry Clay. 

Parley P. Pratt stated that the history of the perse- 
cution was put into the hand of Henry Clay. 

* Relative to the spirit of this meeting in Nauvoo on the 29th of November, 1843 ; 
and also of many of the articles published as Editorials, and letters that were 
written about this time to public men, the reader should be reminded that these 
leading brethren of the Church were speaking and writing under a great stress of 
feeling— under a sense of outraged justice. Their minds had been refreshed and 
their feelings again wrought up by the detailed recital of the acts of injustice 
endured in Missouri by the Memorial to congress drawn up by Colonel Frierson; 
and under such circumstances it is scarcely to be expected that strong men will 
not give expression to the vehemence they feel. Edmund Burke once said in defense 
of the rashness expressed in both speech and action of some of the patriots of the 
American Revolution, that "It is not fair to judge the temper or the dis2)osition of 
any man or set of men when they are composed and at rest from their conduct or 
there expressions in a state of disturbance and irritation." The justice of Burke's 
assertion has never been questioned, and without any wresting whatsoever it may 
be applied to the prominent Church leaders on the occasion of this meeting at 
Nauvoo; and, moreover, they saw again forming those mobocratic tendencies in 
Illinois from whicb they had suffered in Missouri. 



A.D. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 95 

Moved by Joseph Smith, That every man in the meet- 
ing who could wield a pen write an address to his mother 
country. Carried. 

Mayor read the Memorial to Congress. The State rights 
doctrines are what feed mobs. They are a dead carcass 
— a stink, and they shall ascend up as a stink offering in 
the nose of the Almighty. 

They shall be oppressed as they have oppressed us, not 
by "Mormons," but by others in power. They shall 
drink a drink offering, the bitterest dregs, not from the 
"Mormons," but from a meaner source than themselves. 
God shall curse them. 

Adjourned till next Monday evening, early candle-light. 

At ten, a.m., rode out with Mr. Jackson. At home 
most all day. 

The "Appeal to the Green Mountain Boys" sent 
to press. 

Severe frost, so that the ice is on the water in the house. 

W. L. D. Ewing writes to Major John Bills — 

Letter: W. L. D. Ewing, State Auditor, Illinois, to Major John Bills — 

Legion Affairs. 
The foregoing opinions constitute my reason for refusing to issue 
the warrants in your favor. I am not satisfied myself entirely of the 
correctness of the opinions of the Attorney-General. If you should be 
dissatisfied with the decision, I would advise you. to raise the question 
before the Supreme Court, which will be in session on the 2nd Monday 
of December. I am the more anxious that this should be done because 
I wish to be satisfied whether I was correct or not in issuing warrants 
to you in the spring. Be pleased to advise me on the subject. 

Respectfully, 

W. L. D. Ewing, Auditor. 

Enclosing the opinion of the Attorney- General, Josiah 
Lamborn, as follows: — 

Letter: J. Lamborn, Attorney General of Illinois — Legal Opinion of Above. 

Springfield, Illinois, Nov. 30, 1843. 
I have examined the claim of J. C. Bennett as brigade-inspector of 
the Nauvoo Legion, and it is my opinion that the claim should be 
disallowed. 



96 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. [A.D. 1843. 

The Legislature, in giving authority for the organization of a body 
of "independent military men" at Nauvoo, intended, no doubt, that all 
expenses, &c, except "their proportion of public arms," should be 
defrayed by the city and its privileged Legion. 

They occupy a novel position, disconnected from the military com- 
munities of the whole State, and in no way subject to the regular mili- 
tary officers, possessing an exemption even from subjection to the 
general military laws, with a law-making power invested in their own 
Legion. It is not reasonable to suppose that the Legislature would 
confer so many exclusive favors, and yet pay those who profit by this 
condition of things as much as is paid to regular militia officers. 

Iu the absence of any express provision by law to authorize the 
payment of the claim, 1 can see nothing from which an authority of the 
kind could be derived, and therefore advise accordingly. 

J. Lamborn, Attorney-General. 

And copy of letter from J. N. McDougall to General 
W. L. D. Ewing: — 

Letter: J. N. McDougall to State Auditor. 

Springfield, Illinois, Nov. 30, 1843, 
General W. L. D. Eiving, Auditor, &c. — 

I have examined the claim of John Bills, brigade-major of the 
Nauvoo Legion, for services under the 53rd section of the militia law, 
and have arrived at the conclusion that the Nauvoo Legion are not to 
be considered as a part of the regular militia of this State, and that the 
general law has no further application to them than is expressly pro- 
vided for in the law authorizing their organization. The law providing 
for the organization of the Legion making no provision for the payment 
of its officers by the State, it is my opinion that the above claim ought 
not to be audited. 

The Legion was organized by the City Council, is subject to their 
control for the purpose of enforcing their ordinances. It is entirely 
independent of the general military law, may have a different organ- 
ization, make laws for its own government, and seems evidently 
designed to sustain the municipal authorities of Nauvoo. If there are ex- 
penses to be paid, the municipality of which they form a very important 
element, must meet them. I am, with great respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. N. McDougall. 

Mr. Ewing reported to Major Bills that the returns made 



A.D. 1843| HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 97 

out [for Mr. Bills], and sent to the State Department, 
were the best reports by any brigade-major in the 
State, and did him great credit: the refusal to pay him 
for his services is a mere pretext, as the Nauvoo Charter 
requires that the Nauvoo Legion shall perform the 
same amount of duty as is now or may hereafter be 
required of the regular militia of the State, and shall 
be at the disposal of the Governor for the public defense 
and the execution cf the laws of the State, and be en- 
titled to their proportion of the State arms ; and were it 
not for the prejudice against us on account of our religion, 
his claim would have been paid without a word of 
complaint. 



7 Vol. VI 



98 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. IAD. 1843 



CHAPTER V. 

THE AVERY KIDNAPPING — DEFENSIVE PREPARATIONS AGAINST 
MISSOURI MOBS — APPEALS TO THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT 
FOR PROTECTION — NAUVOO LEGION OFFERED AS UNITED 
STATES TROOPS. 

Friday, December Z, 1843. — At home. In the evening, 
walking out and administering to the sick. 

At noon, Dr. Willard Richards called on me to get a 
petition to Congress for an appropriation to improve the 
Rapids. 

Progress of I continue to receive letters from Elders 

the work. jjj f\ ie different States, giving news of the prog- 
ress of the work. 

Clear and cold day. Some ice floating in the river. 
^Saturday ^.--Prayer-meeting from one to six p. m., 
in the assembly room over the store. Orson Hyde, Par- 
ley P. Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, George A. Smith, and 
Orson Spencer received their endowments and further in- 
structions in the Priesthood. About thirty-five persons 
present. 

A conference was held at Alexander in Genesee coun- 
ty, New York. Ten branches, containing 44 Elders and 
206 members, were represented. Two High Priests, one 
Seventy, 21 Elders and one Deacon present. 

Sunday, 3. — I arrived at the assembly room* about 
„ „ , noon: found all present, except Hyrum 

Hvrum Smith . r / r J 

Meets with an and his wife. He had slipped and turned 
his knee-joint backward, and sprained the 
large muscle of his leg, and I had been ministering unto 
him. Emma had been unwell during the night. Af- 
ter the meeting was organized, William W. Phelps 

* This was the upper room of President Smith's brick store. 



AD - 1843 J HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 99 

read my "Appeal to the Green Mountain Boys," 
which was dedicated by prayer after all had spoken upon 
it. We also prayed for Nathan Pratt, who was very sick, 
Hyrum, and others. 1 afterwards instructed them in the 
things of the Priesthood. 

Monday, 4.— At six in the evening, I attended the ad- 
journed meeting of citizens in the assembly room, which 
was crowded with a select congregation. Many could not 
get admission. There were two Missourians present. 1 
made some observations at the opening of the meeting re- 
quested them to be calm and cool, but let the spirit of '76 
burn in their bosoms, and when occasion requires, say 
little, but act; and when the mob comes, mow a hole 
through them. 

My "Appeal to the Green Mountain Boys" was read bv 
W. W. Phelps. 

Elder Parley P. Pratt read his "Appeal to the State of 
New York." 

My clerk, Willard Richards, read the memorial to 
Congress, when the assembly unanimously Number0 f 
voted their approbation of the memorial, when £ e Pr °P het ' s 

T ' ^j-i \ exatious 

1 spoke two-and-a-half hours, relating many Law suits 
circumstances which transpired in Missouri, not men- 
tioned in the memorial. I have already had thirty-eight 
vexatious lawsuits, and have paid Missouri $150,000 for 
land. I borrowed $500 of Judge Young in Washington, 
to pay the expenses of the party that accompanied me, 
and had to borrow of others. 

Daniel Avery and his son were kidnapped from the 
neighborhood of Warsaw by a company of Missourians, 
assisted by some anti-Mormons of this county, and car- 
ried into Missouri.* 

Tuesday, 5.— Six p. in., met the Twelve, also Phelps, 
Clayton, and Turley, in council, in the office, on import- 
ant business. 

* This occurred on the 2nd of December. See Avery's Affidavit, Chapter VI, 
this volume. 



100 HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH. TA.D. 1843 

Advised the Twelve to raise money to send to Elder 
Hyde, who is east, for him to get paper to print the Doc- 
trine and Covenants, and get new type and metal for 
sterotyping the same. 

Wednesday, 6. — At home and took the following affi- 
davit : — 

Chapman" 1 s Affidavit in the Avery Case. 

State of Illinois, ] 
u City of Nauvoo. j 

On the sixth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and forty-three, came Delmore Chapman before me, 
Joseph Smith, mayor of said city; and after being duly sworn, depos- 
eth and saith that on the nineteenth day of November, 1843, a man 
named Richardson came to one of his neighbors living in Bear Creek 
precinct, in the county of Hancock, named Philander Avery, and en- 
ticed him to the Mississippi at Warsaw, by false pretenses; and from 
thence by a company he was forced over the river and taken to Mon- 
ticello jail; and that on the second day of December, some of the 
same party and others came to the aforesaid Bear Creek and kid- 
napped Daniel Avery, the father of the aforesaid Philander Avery, 
and by force of arms hurried him across the said Mississippi river 
into the State of Missouri, to aforesaid jail at Monticello, Lewis 
countv. where your said affiant verily believes they are both now in- 
carcerated illegally and inhumanly in prison; and further report says 
that, some of them are to come to Nauvoo next, to kidnap Nelson 
Turner; and further your affiant saith not. 

Delmore Chapman. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this sixth day of December, 
1843. Joseph Smith, Mayor. 

Upon which I wrote to his Excellency Thomas Ford: — 

LETTER— PRESIDENT JOSEPH SMITH TO GOVERNOR FORD. 

Nauvoo, December 6, 1843. 
Sir:— The enclosed affidavit is forwarded to your Excellency for in- 
structions to know what shall be done in the premises. I shall act ac 
cording to the best of my judgment, constitutionally, till I receive 
your instructions, and in the meantime shall forward, as soon as they 
can be had, all the facts relative to the case as a suitable person will go 






A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHTJliCH. 101 

immediately to the place and get the necessary affidavits. Send your 
instructions by the bearer. 

Respectfully, I have the honor to be, 

Your obedient servant, 
Joseph Smith, 

Lieutenant-General of N. L. 

P. S. Shall any portion of the Legion be called out \ 
X. B. An express has just reached me that Governor Reynolds will 
make another demand for me. I rely on the honor of Illinois, for no 
writ can legally issue against me. I have suffered from their insatia- 
ble thirst for my blood long enough, and want the peace of my family 
to remain undisturbed. 

Wednesday, (J. — Esquire Goodwin aud others, not mem- 
bers of the Church, petitioned the Governor not to help 
Missouri to persecute the Saints. 

Thursday, 7. — At eleven a. in. a meeting of the citi- 
zens of Xauvoo was held. The minutes of which I ex- 
tract from the Neighbor as follows: — 

PUBLIC MEETING AT XAUVOO. 

At a meeting of the citizens of Xauvoo, held near the Temple, on the 
7th day of December, 1843, Alpheus Cutler was called to the chair, 
and Willard Richards appointed secretary; whereupon, after the ob- 
ject of the meeting was stated, a committee of three — namely, W. W. 
Phelps, Reynolds Cahoon, and Hosea Stout, were appointed to draft a 
preamble and resolutions expressive of the sentiments of the people of 
the city of Xauvoo relative to the repeated unlawful demands by the 
State of Missouri for the body of General Joseph Smith, as well as the 
common, cruel practice of kidnapping citizens of Illinois, and forcing 
them across the Mississippi river, and then incarcerating them in the 
dungeons or prisons of Missouri. And after a few minutes' absence 
they returned with the following : — 

RESOLUTIONS. 

Whereas, the State of Missouri, with the Governor at the head, con- 
tinues to make demands upon the executive of Illinois for the body of 
General Joseph Smith, as we verily believe, to keep up a system of 
persecution against the Church of Latter-day Saints, for the purpose of 
justifying the said State of Missouri in her diabolical, unheard of, cruel 
and unconstitutional warfare against said Church of Latter-day Saints, 
and which she has practiced during the last twelve years, whereby 



102 HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. [A.D. 1843 

many have been murdered, mobbed and ravished, and the whole com- 
munity expelled from the State: 

And also to heave dust in the eyes of the nation and the world, 
while she, as a State, with the Government to back her, continues to 
slip over the river to steal the property of the Latter-day Saints, and 
kidnap the members of said Church to glut her vengeance, malice, re- 
venge, and avarice, and to make slaves of the said captives or murder 
them: Therefore, 

Resolved unanimously: As we do know that Joseph Smith is not 
guilty of any charge made against him by the said State of Missouri, 
but is a good, industrious, well-meaning, and worthy citizen of Illinois, 
and an officer that does faithfully and impartially administer the laws 
of the State, that we as citizens of Illinois, crave the protection of the 
Constitution and laws of the oountry as an cegis to shield him, the said 
General Joseph Smith, from such cruel persecutions, beseeching the 
Governor of Illinois not to issue any more writs against the said Gen- 
eral Joseph Smith, or other Latter-day Saints (unless they are guilty), 
but to let the Latter-day Saints "breathe awhile like other men," and 
enjoy the liberty guaranted to every honest citizen by the Magna 
Charta of our common country. 

Resolved, That as citizens of the State of Illinois, we solicit the at- 
tention of the Governor and officers generally of the State to take some 
lawful means and measures to regain the citizens that have been kid- 
napped by the Missourians, and to prevent the said Missourians and 
government from committing further violence upon the citizens of 
Illinois. 

Resolved, as the sense of this meeting, That, according to the true 
meaning of the law, those citizens of any section of country who do not 
rise up as virtuous freemen (when any portion of inhabitants congre- 
gate or combine to injure, slander, or deprive another portion of their 
rights,) and magnify the law, to clear themselves from such unhallowed 
attempts to subvert order and law, that they by their silence make 
themselves accessories of the crime of such unlawful assemblage or 
outrageous individuals. 

Resolved, unimously, That we solicit the Governor by all honorable 
means to grant us peace, for we will have it. 

Alpheus Cutler, Chairman. 
Willard Richards, Secretary. 

In the afternoon, Lucien Woodworth started with the 
papers to the Governor, and the petition from Goodwin 
and others, and Delmore Chapman's affidavit. 



A.D. 1843J HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 103 

The German brethren met at the assembly room at six 
p. in., and choose Bishop Daniel Garn as 
their Presiding Elder, and organized to have for German 
preaching in their native language. 

Directed copies of my Appeal to the various authorities 
of Vermont and the United States. 

Friday, 8. — At eleven a. m. I went to my office 
and gave instructions to my clerk for the drawing of 
a draft of a dam on the Mississippi river, and p reC autiouary 
directed that the city council be called at steps against 

■ Missouri 

four this afternoon to make preparations for Invasioa 
any invasion from Missouri. 

Willard Richards and Philip B. Lewis made an affi- 
davit, which I insert: — 

Richards' and Leivis' Affidavit. 

State of Illinois, | 

City of Nauvoo. j 

On the 8th day of December, 1S43, came Willard Richards and 
Philip B. Lewis before me, Joseph Smith, Mayor of said city, and af- 
ter being duly sworn, depose and say that they have been informed 
that two men have been kidnapped recently by the Missourians, in 
connection with some of the lawless inhabitants of the county of Han- 
cock, and that rumors are now afloat that it is the intention of said 
lawless persons, in connection with the aforesaid Missourians, to kid- 
nap some of the citizens of this city; and further your affiants would 
state that they are of opinion, to prevent difficulties of such a vexa- 
tious nature, that something should be done to secure the peace of this 
city from being disturbed. And further your affiants say not. 

Willard Richards, 
Philip B. Lewis. 

Subecribed and sworn to before me, this 8th day of December, 1843. 

W. W. Phelps, Clerk. 

Whereupon I issued the following notification : — 

An Order to the City Marshal. 

State of Illinois, \ 
City of Nauvoo. J 
lo the Marshal of said City, Greeting: — 

Whereas complaint has been made to me upon oath, that some per- 
sons have been kiduapped by the Missourians, in connection with 



104 HISTOKY OF THE CHUECH. [AD. 1843 

some of the lawless inhabitants of Hancock county, and that threats 
have been made that some of the citizens of Nauvoo will be kidnapped 
or arrested, and forcibly carried away from said city without being al- 
lowed the benefit of the writ of habeas corpus, according to the or- 
dinance in such case made and provided, you will therefore take the 
necessary measures to have the rights of the citizens of thit city held 
sacred, and the ordinances of said city duly carried into full force and 
effect. To which end, should you judge that the peace and safety of 
the city require it, you are further notified to call for a suitable por- 
tion of the Nauvoo Legion to be in complete readiness to compel obed- 
ience to the ordinances of the said city. 

Given under my hand and seal this 8th day of December, 1843. 

Joseph Smith, Mayor, 

W. W. Phelps, Clerk, M. C. 

In consequence thereof, I received from the City Mar- 
shal: — 

Ihe City MarshaVs Reply. 

City of Nauvoo, December 8, 1843. 
Sir: — Your order to have the ordinances of this city fully 
carried into effect will be duly attended to; but in order so to do, it will 
be necessary for you as Mayor of the city, to issue orders to Major 
General Wilson Law for a suitable portion of the Nauvoo Legion to be 
in readiness to compel obedience to said ordinances, if necessary. 

Respectfully, &c, 

Henry G. Sherwood, City Marshal. 
To Joseph Smith, Mayor. 

And I issued: — 

Mayor's Order to the Commander of the Nauvoo Legion. 

"Headquarters Nauvoo Legion, 
City op Nauvoo, Dec. 8, 1843. 
The Marshal of this city having made a demand of me for a suitable 
portion of the Nauvoo Legion to protect the rights of the citizens and 
carry the ordinances of said city into full effect, you are hereby directed 
and required to hold in readiness such portions of the said Nauvoo Le- 
gion, which you have the honor to command, as may be necessary to 
compel obedience to the ordinances of said city and secure the peace of 
the citizens, and call them out, if occasion require,without further notice. 
With due regard, I have the honor to be 

Your obedient servant 

Joseph Smith, 

Lieuten ant-General, N. L. 
Major-General Wilson Law, 
Commanding Nauvoo Legion. 



A.D. 1843| HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 105 

Four p. in., attended City Council, which passed 
"An extra ordinance for the extra case of Joseph Smith 
and others." 

Special Ordinance in the PropheVs Case, vs. Missouri. 

Whereas, Joseph Smith has been three times arrested and three 
times acquitted upon writs founded upon supposed crimes or charges 
preferred by the State of Missouri, which acquittals were made from 
investigations upon writs of habeas corpus — namely one in the United 
States Court for the district of Illinois, one in the Circuit Court of the 
State of Illinois, and one in the Municipal Court of Nauvoo: 

And whereas, a nolle prosequi has once been entered in the courts of 
Missouri upon all the cases of Missouri against Joseph Smith and oth- 
ers: 

And whereas, there appears to be a determined resolution by the 
State of Missouri to continue these unjust, illegal, and murderous de- 
mands for the body of General Joseph Smith: 

And whereas, it has become intolerable to be thus continually harassed 
and robbed of our money to defray the expenses of these prosecutions: 

And whereas, according to the Constitution of Illinois, "all men are 
born equally free and independent, and have certain inherent and in- 
defeasible rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending 
life and liberty, and of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property 
and reputation, and pursuing their own happiness:" 

And whereas, it is our bounden duty, by all common means, if possi- 
ble, to put a stop to such vexatious lawsuits and save expense: There- 
fore — 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo, 
according to the intent and meaning of the Chaiter for the "benefit and 
convenience" of Nauvoo, that hereafter, if any person or persons shall 
come with process, demand, or requisition, founded upon the aforesaid 
Missouri difficulties, to arrest said Joseph Smith, he or they so offend- 
ing shall be subject to be arrested by any officer of the city, with or 
without process, and tried by the Municipal Court, upon testimony, 
and, if found guilty, sentenced to imprisonment in the city prison for 
life; which convict or convicts can only be pardoned by the Governor, 
with the consent of the Mayor of said city. 

Section 2. And be it further ordained that the preceding section 
shall apply to the case of every and all persons that may be arrested, 
demanded, or required upon any charge founded in the aforesaid Mis- 
souri difficulties. 

Section 3. And be it further ordained that the jury that makes the 
presentment, in any case above specified, shall not, nor either of them, 



106 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1843 

act as jurors on the final trial; but the trial shall be conducted accord- 
ing to the fifth and sixth articles of the amendment to the Constitution 
of the United States. 

Passed December 8, 1843. 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 

Willard Richards, Recorder.* 

The City Council also passed "An ordinance to erect a 
dam in the Mississippi river, and for other purposes." 

Ordinance Providing for the Erection of a Dam in the Mississippi. 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nau- 
voo, that Joseph Smith and his successors for the term of perpetual 
succession are hereby authorized and empowered to erect a dam, of 
suitable height to propel mills and machinery, from any point within 
the limits of said city and below the Nauvoo House, and in a proper 
direction to reach the island this side of Montrose ; but not to interfere 
with the main channel of the Mississippi river. 

Section 2. And be it further ordained that the said Joseph Smith 
and his successors are further authorized to erect north of the aforesaid 
island, a dam, pier, or breakwater to intersect the sandbar above. 

Section 3. Be it farther ordained that said Joseph Smith and his 
successors are also authorized and have full liberty to use the said dam 
and water for the purpose of propelling mills and machinery, and shall 
be governed in their rates of toll and rules of manufactory by ordin- 
ance of said city. 

Section 4, And be it farther ordained that the said Joseph Smith 
and his successors are further authorized and empowered to use the 
space within the limits of the said dam as a harbor or basin for steam- 
boats and other water craft; and for which purpose they may construct 
docks, wharfs, and landings, and receive such fees for wharfage as may 
be regulated by ordinance of said city. 

Section 5. And be it further ordained that said Joseph Smith and 
his successors are further authorized to build an embankment on the 
east side of the aforesaid island, to connect the said dam with the pier 
ou the north, and to use the top of said dam for a public road or high- 
way, receiving for compensation from those who cross upon it such 
rates as m&y be allowed by ordinance of said city. 

Passed December 8, 1843. 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 

Willard Richards, Recorder. 

*The Ordinance was about a month later repealed at the suggestion of President 
Smith. 



A. D. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 107 

I suggested to the Council the idea of petition- 
ing Congress to receive the City of Xauvoo under the pro- 
tection of the United States Government, to 

' Petition for 

acknowledge the Xauvoo Legion as U. S. xauvootoBe 
troops, and to assist in fortifications and oth- the General 1 
er purposes, and that a messenger be sent to 
Congress for this purpose at the expense of the city. 

Messrs. John Taylor, Orson Spencer, and Orson Pratt 
were appointed a committee to draft a memorial according 
to my suggestions. 

Saturday, 9. — At home. 

Praver-meeting in the assembly room. 

I copy from the Neighbor. 

PUBLIC MEETING AT XAUVOO MAKING AN APPEAL TO THE GENERAL GOV- 
ERNMENT ON SUNDRY LOCAL AFFAIRS. 

At a very large meeting of the citizens of Nauvoo, held at the corner 
of Main and Water streets, Mr. Heber C. Kimball was elected chair- 
man, and John M. Bernhisel appointed secretary. Mr. George A. 
Smith having made a few observations, Mr. John Taylor read the pre- 
amble and resolutions of a meeting held at the temple, on the 7th in- 
stant: also an ordinance entitled "An extra ordinance for the extra 
case of Joseph Smith and others," recently passed by the City Council 
of the City of Xauvoo; likewise the fifth and sixth articles of the 
amendments of the Constitution of the United States, and the opinion 
of the Attorney-General of the State of Illinois on the subject of the or- 
ganization of the Nauvoo Legion, he being of the opinion that said Le- 
gion was disconnected from the military communities of the whole 
State, and in no way subject to the regular military officers, possessing 
an exemption even from subjection to the general military laws, with a 
law-making power vested in their own Legion. 

After some pertinent remarks by Mr. Taylor, General Joseph Smith 
briefly addressed the meeting. He dissented entirely from the opinion 
of the Attorney-General, and observed that it was stated in the Charter 
that the Legion was a part of the Militia of Illinois, and that his com- 
mission declared that he (General Smith) was the Lieutenant-General 
of the Nauvoo Legion and of the Militia of the State of Illinois: and 
as such, it was not only his duty to enforce the city ordinance, but the 
laws of the State, when called on by the Governor. He also stated that 
he had been informed that the Chief Magistrate of Missouri had it in 



108 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A. v. 1843 

contemplation to make another requisition on the Governor of Illinois 
for him (Joseph Smith). 

The meeting then adjourned sine die. 

H. C. Kimball, Chairman. 

J. M. Bernhisel, Secretary. 

Received the following: — 

Letter of Wilson Law to Joseph Smith Anent the Legion. 

Nauvoo Legion, Nauvoo City, 

December 9, 1843. 
Lieutenant- General Joseph Smith. 

Iu consequence of the orders I received from you ' to hold in readi- 
ness a sufficient portion of the legion, &c.,— to make said forces effi- 
cient," it will be necessary to supply them with munitions of war, which 
of course must be done at the expense of the city. You will therefore 
please to give orders to the commandants of cohorts on their applica- 
tion to you on the city treasury for whatever amount you may think 
proper on the present occasion. 

Most respectfully your obedient servant, 
Wilson Law, 

Major-General, N. L. 

Sunday, 10. — Rainy day. I stayed at home. 

A prayer-meeting held this evening in the assembly 
room. I was not present. Brigham Yoivng presided. 
Several sick persons were prayed for. 

By letter from J. White, deputy sheriff of Clark coun- 
ty, Missouri, I learn that Mr. Daniel Avery is in Marion 
Avery Case- county prison, without trial. The sheriff re- 
% R ^ min[scence quests several men to go there as witnesses. 

ql ivj.issou.ri -*- 

nays. it is evidently a trap to get some more of our 

people into their power. When I was in prison in Mis- 
souri, my witnesses were arrested before they got into 
court to testify, except one, who was kicked out of the 
court by an officer, Lieutenant Cook, who damned him, 
and ordered some of his company to shoot him. After 
which, the State's attorney, Birch, turned to me taunt- 
ingly, saying, "Why the hell don't you bring on your 
witnesses?" and Judge King laughed at my discomfiture. 
The Saints have had enough of Missouri mob justice. 



kD 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH. 109 

* 

Monday 11. The following affidavit will show that some 
of 'the citizens of Illinois are so far fallen and so much 
governed by mobocratic influence as to assist the Missouri 
wretches in their hellish designs: — 

Affidavit ofSission Chase— The Avery Case. 

State of Illinois, ) gs 
Hancock County. \ 

On the nth day of December, lS43,came Sission A. Chase before me 
Aaron Johnson, a Jnstice of the Peace of said county; and, after being 
duly sworn, deposeth and saith that the crime of kidnapping has been 
committed in Hancock County; and on the 2nd day of this present De- 
cember, 1843, at the house of Schrench Freeman, about four miles and 
a half south of Warsaw, in said county, your said affiant heard a man 
by the name of John Elliot say that he was going a shooting turkeys. 
W.en asked what he was going to shoot them with, he showed a brace 
of pistols and a large hickory cane. Your affiant observed that he 
thought he could not kill turkeys with such weapons; and the said El- 
liot said that there was a certain cock he meant to take before night 
and they would do for that. He, the said Elliot, went off, and your af- 
fiant did not see him till Sunday evening the 3rd, when your affiant 
asked the said Elliot if he had caught his turkey; and he replied yes 
the one he was after-a Mormon Elder. Your affiant then asked him 
who he was; and he said, Daniel Avery. Your affiant then asked the 
said Elliot what had been done with said Avery; and he said we put 
htm on to a horse, tied his legs, and guarded him to the river from 
whence, about ten o'clock at night, we took him into Clark county, 
Missouri, for stealing a horse four years ago, where they would try him 
and if found guilty, they would then take him into ano her county 
where there was a jail, as there was none in Clark county On the 
4th dav of December, I asked him if thev had writs or authority ■* .take 
Mr. Avery. He replied, we all had writs. On the oth, said Elliot 
said he expected to get into difficulty on account of this scrape; but if 
any Mormon makes any business with me, I will shoot him. Andfurth 
er your affiant says not. Sission A. Chase. 

Subscribed and sworn to this 11th day of December 1843, before me 

Aaron Johnson, J. r. 

Which I sent to the Governor, with this letter: — 

Letter— Joseph Smith to Governor Ford. 

Nauvoo, December 11, 1843. 
Sir —I herewith f orwardyour Excellency another affidavit on the sub- 
ject of the late kidnapping, and shall continue [to do] the same as they 



110 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

come to hand, expecting your cordial co-operation in the premises 
that the laws may be magnified and made honorable, and our lives 
Held precious, our friends saved 'from jeopardy, and the captives freed. 
■Respectfully, I have the honor to be 

Your obedient servant, 

Joseph Smith. 

Meetings were held and resolutions passed in all the 
Nauvoo> s wards of the city, requesting the city coun- 

En£ ge Sr rce cil t0 raise a company of forty men to act as 
police. 

Last night, two ruffians, whose names are unknown, 
went to the house of Brother Eichard Badham— a farmer 
living on the prairie, robbed the house of $4.50, threat- 
ened his life, stabbed him in the abdomen, when part of 
his caul gushed out. Dr. John M. Bernhisel dressed 
his wounds today, and he thinks there is a prospect of his 
recovering. 

Tuesday, 12.— In office at nine a. m., and wrote a let- 
ter to my uncle : — 

Letter-Joseph Smith to John Smith— 1 he Latter Appointed a Patriarch. 
President John Smith.— The petition of a special conference at 
Macedonia of last November for your appointment as Patriarch in the 
Church has been received, duly considered, and is granted. You have 
my best wishes in your behalf, as well as my prayers, that you may till 
so honorable and exalted a station with the dignity, sobriety, and 
grace which has hitherto characterized your conduct and communion 
with men, as a man of God. 

.Respectfully yours, 

Joseph Smith. 
At ten, a. m., attended City Council, which passed an 
ordinance exempting all church property from city tax. 

In accordance with the petitions from the several 
wards, the council passed the following:— "An ordin- 
ance for selecting forty policemen and for other purposes. 

Ordinance Enlarging Police Force. 
"Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of Nau 
voo that the Mayor of said city be, and is hereby authorized to select 
and have in readiness for every emergency forty policemen, to be at hi s 



A. D. 1843J HISTORY OF THE CHURCH 111 

disposal in maintaining: the peace and dignity of the citizens, and en- 
forcing the ordinances of the said city, for ferreting out thieves and 
bringing them to justice, and to act as daily and nightly watchmen, 
and be under the pay of said city. 

Passed December 12, 1S-43. , 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 

W. Richards, Recorder. 

The Council also passed "An ordinance for the health 
and convenience of travelers and other persons. ,: 

Ordinance on the Personal Sale of Liquors. 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of Xauvoo, that the 

Mayor of the cit> be and is hereby authorized to sell or give spirits 

of any quantity as he in his wisdom shall judge to be for the health 

and comfort, or convenience of such travelers or other persons as 

shall visit his house from time to time. 

Passed December 12, 1843. 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 

Willard Richards, Recorder. 

Wednesday, 13.— At home. 

I insert an editorial from the Neighbor: — 

PUBLIC MEETING AT XAUVOO— THE AGGRESSIONS OP MISSOURI. 

It will be seen in another column that a public meeting was held in this 
place for the purpose of providing some remedy for the repeated ag- 
gressions of the State of Missouri; since which time an ordinance has 
been passed by the City Council to carry into effect that object, and to 
prevent the citizens of this place from being any longer imposed upon 
by the continued illegal proceedings of the state and citizens of Mis- 
souri. 

We think that it is high time that something should be done to 
screen ourselves from the continued aggressions of the meddling, 
troublesome, bloodthirsty herd; and we know of no means that will be 
more efficient and lawful than the one adopted. 

We have done good for evil long enough, in all conscience. We 
think that we have fulfilled the Scriptures every whit. They have 
smitten us on the one cheek, and we have turned the other, and they 
have smitten that also. 

We have also fulfilled the law, and more than fulfilled it. And for 
sake of peace, when we knew that we had violated no law, nor in any- 
wise subjected ourselves to persecutions, we have endured the wrong 
patiently, without offering violence or in anywise injuring the heartless 
wretches who could be trusted with such a dishonorable document. 



112 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

Those vagabonds have been suffered to prowl at large, and boast of 
their inglorious deeds in our midst; and no man has injured them, or 
said, Why do you so? 

The time, however, is now gone by for this mode of proceeding, and 
those vagabonds must keep within their own borders and let peaceable 
citizens alone, or receive the due merit of their crimes. We think that 
this ordinance passed by the City Council is wise, judicious, and well- 
timed, and is well calculated to protect peaceable citizens in their rights, 
and to prevent those lawless vagabonds from interfering with the rights 
of peaceable citizens. 

To those unaquainted with our relationship to Missouri, and the ac- 
cumulated wrongs and repeated aggressions that we have received from 
the hands of that State, our language may appear harsh and illtimed; 
but those who are in possession ot those facts know better. Thtir mer- 
ciless, unrelenting, inhuman prosecutions and persecutions, from the 
time of our first settlement in that state until the present, have been 
wholly and entirely unprovoked and without the shadow of law. 

Joseph Smith has been suffered to be taken time and again by them; 
we say suffered, because he could not be legally and constitutionally 
taken, Joseph Smith never committed the crimes of which he is 
charged. He is an innocent man. 

But allowing their false, diabolical accusations to be true, what then? 
Does it follow that he is continually to be followed for the same of- 
fense? Verily no. The Constitution of the United States expressly 
says — "Nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be 
twice put in jeopardy of life or limb." And yet we find that the State 
of Missouri has put Joseph Smith in jeopardy no less than four or five 
times. He was tried once by a militarv tribunal in Missouri, and sen- 
tenced to be shot. He was afterwards tried by a pretended civil (mob- 
ocratic) court; and since then he has been several times apprehended, 
tried, and acquitted for the same offense, in this State, by Missouri re- 
quisitions. 

Is he still illegally and unconstitutionally to be held in abeyance by 
these miscreants? or shall we as freeborn American citizens, assert 
our rights, put the law in force upon those lawless, prowling vagabonds 
and say that he shall be free? 

Shall we suffer our pockets to be picked through the influence of 
these scoundrels eternally, by defending ourselves against vexatious 
lawsuits? or shall we take a more summary way, and by a legal course 
punish the aggressors, proclaim our freedom, and shield ourselves un- 
der the broad folds of the Constitution? The latter is the course for 
us to pursue. 

The ordinance passed by the City Council will secure this object; 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 113 

and we are glad to find that the opinion of J. Lamborn, attorney 
general, and J. N. McDougall, correspond so much with our own — 
"That the Nauvoo Legion is an independent military organization, and 
is by law expressly required to sustain the municipal laws of Nauvoo. 

What are we to say about these kidnappers who infest our borders 
and carry away our citizens — those internals in human shape? 

The whole European world has been engaged in a warfare against 
those who traffic in human blood. Negotiations have been made, 
treaties entered into, and fleets have been sent out, through the com- 
bined efforts of the nations, to put a stop to this inhuman traffic. But 
what would those nations think, if they were told the fact that in 
America — Republican America, the boasted cradle of liberty and land 
of freedom, — that those dealers in human flesh and blood, negro deal- 
ers and drivers, are allowed with impunity to steal white men, and 
those sons of liberty can obtain no redress. 

Great God! has it come to this, that freeborn American citizens must 
be kidnapped by negro drivers? What are our authorities doing! Why 
are not these wretches brought to justice? We have heard that one or 
two of the citizens of Illinois have been engaged in assisting these 
wretches. We shall try to find out who they are and their whereabouts 
and make them known; and then, if they are not brought to condign 
punishment, we shall say that justice has fled from Illinois," 

Thursday, 14. — At home. 

Philander Avery arrived in Nauvoo, having made his 
escape from his kidnappers in Missouri. 

I received the following milk-and-water letter from Gov- 
ernor Ford: — 

Letter — Governor Ford to President Smith. 

Springfield, December 12, 1843. 
General Joseph Smith. 

Sir: — I have received your favor of the 6th instant, together with 
the proceedings of a public meeting of the citizens of Nauvoo, on the 
subject of the late kidnapping, by the people of Missouri and others, of 
two citizens of this State. 

You request to know if any portion of the Legion shall be called out. 
My answer is, No. The Militia cann t be called out, except in the 
cases specified by me in my letter to Governor Reynolds, dated in the 
month of August last, in which I took the ground that the Militia can 
only be called out to repel an invasion, suppress an insurrection, or on 
some extreme emergency; and not, to suppress, prevent, or punish in- 
dividual crimes. I still am of the opinion that the ground assumed by 

8 Vol. VI. 



114 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

me on that occasion is the true one. The prevention and punishment 
of individual offenses has been confided by the constitution and laws of 
this State to the judicial power, and not to the executive. 

If a citizen of the State has been kidnapped, or if property has been 
stolen from this State, and carried to the State of Missouri, those who 
have done either are guilty of an indictable offense. But the constitu- 
tion and the laws have provided no means whereby either the person or 
property taken away can be returned, except by an appeal to the laws 
of Missouri. The Governor has no legal right to demand the return of 
either. The only power I would have would be simply this: If any of 
the guilty persons should be charged with larceny or kidnapping, by 
indictment or affidavit, duly certified, and with having fled to Missouri, 
then I would have the power, and it would become my duty to make a 
demand upon the Governor of Missouri for the surrender of the fugi- 
tives, to be tried by the courts of this State. I am fully satisfied that 
in ordinary cases this is all the power I would possess. It would be 
simply a power to be exercised in aid of the judicial power. Any other 
powers to be exercised by the Governor would be to make him a dicta- 
tor and a despot. It is true that an extraordinary case might arise, in 
which the inhabitants of one State might aase in warlike and hostile 
array against those of another; in which case a state of war would ex- 
ist, and then only could I interfere. 

I would advise your citizens to be strictly peaceable towards the peo- 
ple of Missouri. You ought to be aware that in every country individ- 
uals are liable to be visited with wrong, which the law is slow to re- 
dress, and some of which are never redressed in this world. This fact, 
however, has never been held to be a justification for violence, not 
warranted by law. 

If any of the people of Nauvoo should invade Missouri for the pur 
pose of rescuing persons there in jail, the consequenae would be that 
indictments would be presented against them, and demands made upon 
me for their arrest and surrender; which demands I would be com- 
pelled to obey, and thus they would be harassed by interminable de- 
mands and prosecutions; and very likely it would lead to a species of 
border warfare, which would be exceedingly annoying to a peaceable 
city, and, if you could be placed in the wrong, might lead to exceedingly 
unpleasant consequences with reference both to law and public opinion. 

You inform me that you are informed that Governor Reynolds is 
about to make a new demand for you; and you implore my protection 
from what you term this renewed persecution. In the month of Aug- 
ust last, I was furnished by your friends with a very large amount of 
affidavits and evidence, said to be intended to show cause why no 
further writs should be issued against you. As they are very volumin 



A.D. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 115 

ous, [ hare not yet read them, and probably never will, unless a new 
demand should be made; in which case they will receive a careful 
perusal: and you may rest assured that no steps will be taken by me 
but such as the constitution and laws may require. 

I am, very respectfully, &c, 
Thomas Ford. 

It appears |j?om-thts4etter, that Governor Ford has nev- 
er taken pains to examine the evidences placed in his 
hands, "and probably never will," in relation to the Mis- 
souri writs; and evidently as little pains to comment of the 
examine the Constitution of the United States e ™o' r Eoxii's 
or even reflect upon the ordinary principles of attltude - 
human rights, to suppose that a State, after having, by a 
union of executive, judicial and military powers, exter- 
minated 15,000 of its innocent inhabitants, who -were not 
even charged with any crime, robbing them of all they 
possessed on earth, murdering scores of men, women and 
children, and expelling all the others from the State, 
among strangers, in mid- winter, destitute of everything 
upon the face of the earth that could possibly have a tend- 
ency to make life desirable, should be constitutionally 
entitled to demand back from banishment persons who 
have thus suffered its absolute decrees of exile, to satiate 
a yet unsatiated thirst for human blood and torture. 
reason, where art thou fled! O humanity, where hast 
thou hidden thyself? Patriots of '76, has your blood 
been spilt in vain, that in 1843 the Executive of a great 
Republican State can coolly say, "I have not yet read 
them, and probably never will !" Is liberty only a name! 
Is protection of person and property fled from free Amer- 
ica? Let those answer who can. \> 

Friday, 15.— I awoke this morning in good health, but 
was soon suddenly seized with a great dryness of the 
mouth and throat, sickness of the stomach, a Sudden 

7 Illness 

and vomited freely. My wife waited on me, of the Prophet, 
assisted by my scribe, Dr. Willard Richards, and his 
brother .Levi, who administered to me herbs and mild 



116 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1843 

drinks. I was never prostrated so low, in so short a time, 
before; but by evening was considerably revived. 

Very warm for the season. 

Saturday, 16. — This morning I felt considerably better ; 
arose at 10, and sat all day in the City Council, which was 
held in my house for my accommodation. 

The Mayor, Aldermen, and Councilors signed officially 
the Memorial to Congress for redress of losses and griev- 
ances in Missouri. While discussing the peti- 

Corument on . , 

Appeal to the tion to Congress, I prophesied, by virtue ot 
ernmentfor the holy Priesthood vested in me, and in the 
name of the Lord Jesus Christ, that, if Con- 
gress will not hear our petition and grant us protection, 
they shall be broken up as a government.* * 

I informed the Council that it was my wish they should 
ask the privilege of calling on Government for the United 
States troops to protect us in our privileges, which is not 
unconstitutional, but lies in the breast of Congress. 

Heber C. Kimball was duly elected city auctioneer, in 
place of Charles Warner, removed. 

The Council passed ' 'An ordinance regulating merchants 
and grocers;" also "An ordinance concerning the land- 
ing of steamers ; ' ' and Jonathan Dunham was appointed 
wharf-master for one year. 

* This prediction doubtless has reference to the party in power; to the "govern- 
ment" considered as the administration; not to the "government" considered as 
the countrv; hut the administration party, the Democratic Party, which had con- 
trolled the destiny of the country for forty years. It is matter of history that a 
few years later the party then in power lost control of the national government, 
followed by the terrible conflict of the Civil War. The Party against which the 
above prediction was made so far lost its influence that it did not again return 
to power for a quarter of a century; and when it did return to power it was with 
such modified views as to many great questions of government, that it could 
scarcly be regarded as the same party except in name. 

Lest it should be urged that the Whig party was in control of the government in 
1843, I call attention to the fact that while General Harrison, a Whig, was elected 
in 1840, he was President only one month, as he died on the 4th of April, 1841. 
His whole cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, Secretary of State, resigned, and the 
Vice President became President. Though elected by the Whigs Mr. Tyler was a 
Democrat "and the Whig administration had but a month's actual existence. 'j 
(See History of the United States, Morris, pp 311, 312). 






A.D. 1843J HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 117 

Heber C. Kimball and George A. Smith were appointed 
a committee to wait on Mr. Davidson Hibbard, and 
solicit from him a block of land, whereon to erect a city 
prison. 

After Council, conversed with some of the Twelve, 
brother Turley and others, till 8 p. m. Prayer meeting 
in the evening. 

Warm, foggy, and muddy day. 

Sunday, 17. — At home till 4 p. m.; attended prayer 
meeting at the assembly room. Samuel Harrison Smith 
admitted. Returned home at 7. 
River clear of ice as far up as the Stone Tavern. 

Mr. King Pollet, one of the constables of Hancock 
County, started with ten men this afternoon to arrest John 
Elliott for kidnapping Daniel Avery, upon a warrant 
granted by Aaron Johnson, Esq., J. P. 

Monday, 18. — After dinner, Constable Follet returned 
with John Elliott, a schoolmaster, when an examination 
was had before Esq . Johnson, in the assembly room. Elliott 
was found guilty of kidnapping Avery, and bound over in 
the sum of $3,000 to the Circuit court of Carthage for trial. 
I endeavored to have the court reduce those bonds, as Mr. 
Elliott was comparatively a stranger in Nauvoo; but did 
not succeed. 

During the investigation, testimony appeared to show 
that Elliott had threatened my life; and for this I made af- 
fidavit and brought him to > trial before Robert D. Foster, 
J. P., immediately after he had been bound over by Esq. 
Johnson. I extract from the proceedings, in part, from 
the Neighbor: — 

THE TRIAL OF JOHN ELLIOTT. 

The prisoner was brought forward, and the court said it was his 
privilege to plead for a change of ivenue, by paying the costs; but as the 
costs were not forthcoming, the court proceeded. 

Mr. Styles then read the "Act to regulate the apprehension of offend- 
ers and for other purposes," p 219, r. s. The act sets forth that the 
use of threatening language is sufficient to criminate individuals. This 
we are prepared to prove. 



118 HISTOKY OS THE CHUKCH f A.D. 1343 

Sisson Chase sworn. 

The testimony was similar to that before deliverd, [in Chase affidavit 
see p. 109] with the following additional items: — 

I did ask him if he had authority. In the moraine: he said that he 
would not care about shooting some of the Mormons. In conversation 
with him, he carried the idea that a conspiracy was formed against 
Joseph Smith and others, and that some of tbem would be shot. These 
conversations were had at different times. He thought Mr. Smith was a 
bad character. He thought they ought to be taken. Question: Who? 
Joseph Smith and some others. 

I told him he had been taken, but had been acquitted. He did not 
thank the Governor for that. He carried the ide<* that there was a con- 
spiracy against his life, and said we have a plan in operation that will 
pop him over. 

Mr. Elliott sworn. 

By the Court: Is your residence, Mr. Elliott, in this county? Yes. 

Messrs. Marr and Styles, attorneys, resident in Nauvoo, made some 
thrilling remarks pertaining to„the outrageous proceedings of Missouri. 
The diabolical conduct of those wretches who could be engaged in de- 
stroying and kidnapping their f ellowmen was portrayed in glowing colors. 

Judge Phelps and General Smith then followed on the same sub- 
ject: their language was thrillingly eloquent and powerful. If ever 
inhumanity and deeds of blood were depicted in their true colors, it 
was on that occasion: the ir Jthoughts flashed as fire, and they spake 
in "words that burned." We 'never saw the character of General 
Smith so clearly developed; for while he abhorred and depicted the 
fiendish crime that the culprit|stood charged with in its true colors, 
he pitied the poor wretch that then stood before him, and with feel- 
ings of commiseration, benevolence, and philanthrophy, withdrew his 
charge — wished, if it was within the power of the court, that the cul- 
prit might be forgiven, — promised to pay all the charges, and invited 
him and those of his friends who -came along with him, to come to his 
house, and they -^should be taken care of. It would be superfluous 
for us to attempt to give even a faint outline of the remarks made by 
the above-named gentlemen. We hope to have at least a synopsis of 
their speeches for publication, which we are sure would be highly in- 
teresting to our readers. Upon the whole, although a painful, vet 
it was an interesting occasion and will long be remembered; and un- 
less Mr. Elliott's heart and those of his friends were made of adamant, 
it must have made ani indelible impression on their minds, and almost 
made them hate themselves. 

I received fromj AaroD Johnson, Esq., the following 
demand: — 



A.U. 1843.1 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 119 

Legion Aid Applied For. 

City of Nauvoo, December 18, 1843. 
Sir: — Ihave been informed that a writ issued by me for the body 
of Levi Williams, for kidnapping Daniel Avery, will be resisted by an 
armed force: Therefore, according to the provision of the Charter, 
I wish you to order me a detachment of the Nauvoo Legion— say 100 
men, to enforce the law of the State, and bring the said Williams to 
justice. 

Aaron Johnson, J. P. 

Which demand 1 complied with by writing to Major- 
General Wilson Law. 

Detachment oj the Legion Ordered into Service. 

City of Nauvoo, Dec. 18, 1843. 
Sir; — You will detach 100 men, under the direction of Aaron John- 
son, a Justice of the Peace, for the purpose of assisting the constable 
in executing: the law of the State in taking Levi Williams, who is 
charged with kidnapping Daniel Avery. 

Yours, 

Joseph Smith, Lieut-Gen., N. L. 
To Major-Gen. Wilson Law, 
Commanding Nauvoo Legion. 

Gen. Wilson detached Colonel Stephen Markham with 
100 men for that purpose. 

About 10 p. m., two young men arrived as express, 
stating that a mob was collecting at Warsaw, 

° ' Rumors of 

also at Colonel Levi Williams' house; and Mob Rising, 
messengers had gone to the mob in Missouri to reinforce 
their number there. 
Dr. Eichards made the following affidavit: — 

Affidavit of Willard Eichards that Nauvoo Was in Danger. 

State of Illinois, City of Nauvoo, 

December 18, 1843. 
Personally appeared Willard Richards before me, Joseph Smith, 
Mayor of said city, and upon his oath deposeth and saith that from in- 
formation he has received, he verily believes that the peace of said city 
is in danger from a mobocratic assemblage at Warsaw, and a force col- 
lected under the command of Colonel Levi Williams in the lower part 
of the county, and runners having been sent to Missouri to excite the 
Missourians to join the mobbers in this county, for the purpose of mak- 



120 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

ing a descent on said city, or disturbing its peaceable inhabitants; and 
further your deponent saith not. 

Willard Richards. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 18th December, 1843. 

W. W. Phelps, 

Clerk of the Mayor's Court. 

Whereupon I wrote to Major- General Wilson Law: — 

Legion Ordered into Service. 

City of Nauvoo, Dec. 18, 1843. 
Sir:— I am credibly informed that a warlike force is collecting at or 
near Warsaw, for the purpose of some violent move towards this city 
or some of the inhabitants thereof. You will therefore order out such 
a portion of the Nauvoo Legion as may be necessary to repel any such 
• mobocratic or hostile design of the same unlawful force, and also as 
may be sufficient to secure the peace of the citizens, according to law. 

Yours, 

,, n ^ Joseph Smith, Lieut-Gen. N. L. 

Major-Gen. Wilson Law, 

Commanding Nauvoo Legion. 

I returned home to rest about one o'clock in the morn- 
ing of the 19th. 

Tuesday, 19.— At home. About 9 a. m., a part of the 
company who went with Hosea Stout returned, and stated 
Moves and that they went within two miles of Colonel 
M°oves er Williams', when they were informed that a 

of Forces it o 

body ot men, armed with rifles, &c., were 
collected at his house, and he judged it prudent to return 
for weapons and help; also that Brother Chester Love- 
land told them that he had seen thirty armed men follow- 
ing Constable King Follett some miles on his way, when 
he had Elliott in custody. 

Esq. Johnson immediately wrote to Loveland to have 
him come to Nauvoo and make affidavit of the warlike 
movements of the mob, that he might send to the Governor. 

I directed my clerks to make copies of the affidavits re- 
specting the kidnapping of the Averys to send to Gover- 
nor Ford, that he might be left without excuse, although 
he may probably not read them. 



A.D. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 121 

Elder William Martindale writes from Washington, 
Wayne county, Iowa: — 

STRANGE CELESTIAL PHENOMENON — 1860. 

A singular phenomenon was seen in this neighborhood. Jesse Fox, 
William and Lorenzo Fox, David Bale, James Wilson, and William 
Cole, with some others, retired to the house of Solomon Mendenhall, at 
which place they stayed a short time. While there they discovered a 
ball rising from the east in an oblique line; and as it ascended it moved 
towards the west with great rapidity until it was high in the heavens, 
leaving a streak of light behind it, which to the natural eye, had the ap- 
pearance of being thirty or forty feet in length. This light remained 
stationary for about one minute. Both ends then coming round, 
formed a figure 8, which figure also retained its position for the same 
space of time. It then was transformed into a figure 6, which also re- 
mained for about a minute. It then was formed into a cypher or 0, 
which remained for about three minutes. The figures put together 
made I860 in large figures in the heavens. The phenomenon was in- 
deed singular, and has been a matter of great speculation with us. 

At one p. m. I was present when the Legion paraded 
near the Temple, were inspected by the officers, and in- 
structed to prepare themselves with arms and ammunition 
and to hold themselves in readiness, for a 
moment's notice. Brother Henrv Bolev was 
shot severely under the arm by the accidental discharge 
of his gun. 

Amos S. Chase made the following affidavit: — 

Affidavit of Amos Chase. 
State of Illinois, 



City of Nauvoo. J 
On the 19th day of December, 1843, came Amos S. Chase before me 
Joseph Smith, Mayor of said city; and after being duly sworn, depos- 
eth and saith that on the 18th day of Decemher, 1843, he was about 
four miles below Warsaw, in Hancock County, shortly after the con- 
stable arrested John Elliott for being concerned in kidnapping Daniel 
Avery, not long since, and saw the men of the neighborhood gather- 
ering with arms to retake the said John Elliott; and when asked what 
they would do, if the Governor did not sanction such an unlawful 
course, several of them replied, "Damn the Governor! If he opens his 
head, we will punch a hole through him! He dare not open his head! 
We will serve him the same sauce we will the Mormons." The said 



122 HISTOKY 01 THE CHUECH. [A. D. 1843 

mob then went to Warsaw, where your affiant saw them with their arms; 

and further your affiant saith not. 

Amos S. Chase, 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 19th day of December, 

1843. 

W. W. Phelps, Clerk, M. C. 

Wednesday, 20. — At home, in good health and spirits, 
counseling and attending to business in general. 

The Clerk of the Municipal Court took the following af- 
fidavits : — 

affidavits of philander avery — missouri kidnapping. 
State of Illinois, 



ss 
City of Nauvoo. j 

On the 20th day of December, 1843, personally appeared before me, 
Willard Richards, clerk of the Municipal Court of said city Philander 
Avery, of Bear Creek precinct, in said county, and after being duly 
sworn, deposeth and saith that on the 19th day of November, 1843, at 
his house, in the precinct aforesaid, Ebenezer Richardson, of Lee 
county, Territory of Iowa, by false pretenses, persuaded your affiant to 
accompany said Richardson to the Missisippi river at Warsaw, where 
your affiant was seized by one Joseph C. McCoy, of Clark county, Mis- 
souri, in connection with the said Richardson, and about one dozen of 
other individuals, whose names are unknown to your affiant, and by 
them forced across said Mississippi River, where they bound your affi- 
ant; and Mark Childs swore that your affiant had stolen said McCoy's 
horse and colt, and that his father Daniel Avery had secreted said 
horse and colt, and said Richardson threatened your affiant with death 
or seven years 1 imprisonment, in order to persuade him to make false 
statements, and testify that his father, Dauiel Avery, had stolen said 
McCoy's horse and colt, which statements your affiaut made, and swore 
to the same, while in duress, with a bowie knife presented to intimidate. 
And your affiant further saith that the testimony he gave concerning 
his father's guilt, was extorted from him through fear, while in duress, 
and said testirnouy was absolutely false, and your affiant fully believes 
that his father is innocent of the crime of stealing said McCoy's horse 
and colt; and further your deponent saith not. 

Philander Avery. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me; in testimony whereof 
[L. S.] I have set my hand and affixed the seal of said court at Nau- 
voo aforesaid, this 20th day of December, A. D. 1843. 

Willard Richards, 
Clerk of the Municipal Court of the City of Nauvoo, 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 123 

Affidavit of the Hamiltons. 

State of Illinois, 1 
County op Hancock, j 

On the 20th day of December, 1843, personally appeared before me 
Aaron Johnson, a Justice of the Peace in and for said county, Andrew 
H. Hamilton, and James B. Hamilton, of Bear Creek precinct, in said 
county, and, after being duly sworn, depose and say that on the even- 
ing of the 2nd day of December, 1843, at Vernon Doty's 
mill, in said precinct, Colonel Levi Williams, of said Hancock county, 
as principal, and his son, John Williams, with William Middleton, of 
the county of Clark and State of Missouri, Captain McCoy, of the sai(j 
county of Clark and State of Missouri, John Fox of Green Plains pre 
cinct, and about a dozen other men, armed with pistols, dirks and bowie 
kuives came forcibly upon Daniel Avery at said Doty's mill, and 
seized and bound him. The said Avery told them to stand off. They 
said they had a writ. He observed, he would not resist legal authority. 
They said they would take said Avery to Warsaw, and there to try him. 
The said Avery replied, "I understand yon: you will take me to War- 
saw, and there pass me over the river to Missouri." Some of said 
gang then shouted, "Lay hold of him; G — d d — n him, lay hold of him: 
there's no use of parleying;" at which Colonel Levi Williams, with a 
large bowie-knife in his hand, and others, then forced the said Daniel 
Avery to submit, telling him (without a writ,) that his life would be 
taken if he did not submit. They then tied him with silk handker- 
chiefs. Colonel Levi Williams and another person then led the said 
Daniel Avery away: and as they passed your affiants within the dis- 
tance of about four rods, the said Daniel Avery cried out to one of your 
said affiants, "tell my friends where I am gone." Colonel Williams told 
said Avery to hold his peace, for it was of no use. William Middleton 
then got a horse; and after tying him upon said horse, as sworn to be- 
fore by another witness, they then conveyed him to Missouri without a 
writ or trial, as vour affiants verily believe; and further they say not. 

Andrew M. Hamilton. 
James B. Hamilton. 

Subscribed and sworn to this 20th day of December, 1843, before 
me. 

Aaron Johnson, J. P. 



124 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. lA.I). 1843 



CHAPTER VI. 

memorial of city council to congress anent missouri 
affairs — Rockwell's return to nauvoo — recital of 
his adventures — avery's acquittal by Missouri's 
courts — nauvoo 's police force increased — publica- 
tions on mormonism, pro et con — 1843. 

Thursday, December 21, 1843. — About one o'clock in the 
morning I was alarmed by the firing of a gun, got up, and 
went down to the river bank to see the guard, and in- 
quire the cause of it. To my surprise, they had not 
heard it, although I felt sure it was fired in Montrose. 
The morning proved it to be correct, some rowdies in 
Montrose had been firing in the night. 

At noon met with the City Council which voted that 
Councilor Orson Pratt present the Memorial and Ordin- 
ance to Congress. 

Passed "An ordinance to prevent unlawful search or 
seizure of person or property by foreign [i.e. outside] 
process in the city of Nauvoo." 

Heber C. Kimball resigned his office as city auctioneer 
and Charles Warner was re-elected. 

John P. Greene was duly elected city marshal, in the 
room of Henry G. Sherwood, who expects to leave soon. 

I gave instructions to the marshal and policemen to 
see that all carrion is removed out of the city, 
for a clean, and all houses kept in order, — to stop the 
buys when fighting in the streets, and prevent 
children from floating off on the ice, and correct anything 
out of order, like fathers; and I offered to build the city 
jail, if it was left to my dictation, which the Council 
authorized me to do. 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 125 

I insert the Memorial from the City Council to the Con- 
gress of the United States for redress of grievances and 
protection from further persecution, which was signed by 
them: — 

MEMORIAL OF THE CITY COUNCIL TO CONGRESS. 

"To the Honorable Senators and Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, 

We, the undersigned members of the City Council of the City of 
Nauvoo, citizens of Hancock County, Illinois, and exiles from the State 
of Missouri, being in council assembled, unanimously and respectfully, 
for ourselves, and in behalf of many thousands of other exiles, memor- 
ialize the honorable Senators and Representatives of our nation upon 
the subject of the unparalleled persecutions and cruelties inflicted upon 
us and upon our constituents by the constituted authorities of the State 
of Missouri, and likewise upon the subject of the present unfortunate 
circumstances in which we are placed in the land of our exile. As a 
history of the Missouri outrages has been extensively published, both 
in this country and in Europe, it is deemed unnecessary to particular- 
ize all of the wrongs and grievances inflicted upon us in this memorial. 
As there is an abundance of well-attested documents to which your 
honorable body can at any time refer, hence we only embody the fol- 
lowing important items for your consideration. 

First: — Your memorialists, as freeborn citizens of this great repub- 
lic, relying with the utmost confidence upon the sacred "articles of the 
Constitution," by which the several States are bound together, and con- 
sidering ourselves entitled to all the privileges and immunities of free 
citizens in what State soever we desired to locate ourselves, com- 
menced a settlement in the county of Jackson, on the western frontiers 
of the State of Missouri, in the summer of 1831. 

There we purchased lands from the Government, erected several 
hundred houses, made extensive improvements, and shortly the wild 
and lonely prairies and stately forests were converted into well cul- 
tivated and fruitful fields. There we expected to spend our days in the 
enjoyment of all the rights and liberties bequeathed to us by the suf- 
ferings and blood of our noble ancestors. But alas! our expectations 
were vain. 

Two years had scarcely elapsed before we were unlawfully and un- 
constitutionally assaulted by an organized mob, consisting of the high- 
est officers in the county, both civil and military, who openly and bold- 
ly avowed their determination in a written circular to drive us from 
said county. 

As a specimen of their treasonable and cruel designs, your honor- 



126 HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH. |A.D. 1843 

able body are referred to said circular, of which the following is but a 
short extract, — namely: "We the undersigned citizens of Jackson 
county, believing that an important crisis is at hand, as regards our 
civil society, in consequence of a pretended religious sect of people 
tbat have settled and are still settling in our county, styling themselves 
Mormons, and iutending as we do to rid our society, 'peaceably if we 
can, forcibly if we must;' and believing as we do that the arm of the 
civil law does not afford us a guarantee, or at least a sufficient one, 
against the evils which are now inflicted upon us, and seem to be in- 
creasing by the said religious sect, deem it expedient and of the high- 
est importance to form ourselves into a company for the better and 
easier accomplishment of our purpose." 

This document was closed in the following words: — "We therefore 
agree that, after timely warning, and receiving an adequate compensa- 
tion for what little property they cannot take with them, they refuse to 
leave us in peace, as they found us, we agree to use such means as may 
be sufficient to remove them; and to that end we each pledge to each 
other our bodily powers, our lives, fortunes, and sacred honors." 

To this unconstitutional document were attached the names of near- 
ly every officer in the county, together with the names of hundreds of 
others. 

It was by this band of murderers that your memorialists, in the year 
1833, were plundered of their property and robbed of their peaceable 
homes. It was by them that their fields were laid waste, their houses 
burned, and their men, women, and children, to the number of about 
twelve hundred persons, banished as exiles from the county, while 
others were cruelly murdered by their hands. • 

Second: After our expulsion from Jackson county, we settled in 
Clay county, on the opposite side of the Missouri river, where we pur- 
chased lands both from the old settlers and from the [U. S.] Land Of- 
fice: but soon we were again violeutly threatened by mobs, and 
obliged to leave our homes, and seek out a new location. 

Third: Our next settlement was in Caldwell county, where we pur- 
chased the most of the land in said countv, beside a part of the lands 
in Daviess and Carroll counties. These counties were almost entirely in 
a wild and uncultivated state ; but, by the persevering industry of our cit- 
izens, large and extensive farms were opened in every direction, well 
stocked with numerous flocks and herds. We also commenced settle- 
ments in several other counties of the state, and once more confidently 
hoped to enjoy the hard-earned fruits of our labor unmolested. 

But our hopes were soon blasted. The cruel and murderous spirit 
which first began to manifest itself in the constituted authorities and 
inhabitants of Jackson county, and afterwards in Clay and the sur- 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 127 

rounding counties, receiving no check either from the civil or military 
power of the state, had in the meantime taken courage, and boldly and 
fearlessly spread its contaminating and treasonable influence into every 
department of the government of said state. Lieutenant-Governor Boggs, 
a resident of Jackson county, who acted a conspicuous part in our ex- 
pulsion from said county, instead of being tried for treason and rebel- 
lion against the Constitution, aud suffering the just penalty of his 
crimes, was actually elected governor; and placed in the executive chair. 

Thus the inhabitants of the State were greatly encouraged to renew 
with redoubled fury, their unlawful attacks upon our defenseless set- 
tlements. Men, women, and children were driven away in every direc- 
tion before their merciless persecutors, robbed of their possessions, 
their property, their provisions, and their all, cast forth upon the bleak, 
snowy prairies, houseless and unprotected. Many sank down and 
expired under their accumulated sufferings, while others, after endur- 
ing hurger and the severities of the season, suffering all but death, 
arrived in Caldwell county, to which place they were driven from all 
the surrounding counties, only to witness a still more heart-rending 
scene. 

In vain had we appealed to the constituted authorities of Missouri 
for protection and redress of our former grievances. In vain we now 
stretched out our hands and appealed as the citizens of this creat 
republic to the svmpathies, to the justice, and magnanimity of those in 
power. In vain we implored again and again at the feet of Governor 
Boggs, our former persecutor, for aid and protection against the rav 
ages and murders now inflicted upon our defenseless and unoffending 
citizens. The cry of American citizens, already twice driven and 
deprived of liberty, could not penetrate their adamantine hearts. 

The Governor, instead of sending us aid, issued a proclamation for 
our extermination and banishment, ordered out the forces of the State, 
placed them under the command of General Clark, who, to execute 
these exterminating orders, marched several thousand troops into our 
settlements in Caldwell county, where, unrestrained by fear of law or 
justice, and urged on by the highest authority of the state, they laid 
waste our fields of corn, shot down our cattle and hogs for sport, 
burned our dwellings, inhumanly butchered some eighteen or twenty 
defenseless citizens, dragged from their hiding-places little children, 
and placing the muzzles of their guns to their heads, shot them [such 
acts being accompanied] with the most horrid oaths and imprecations- 

An aged hero and patriot of the Revolution, who served under Gen- 
eral Washington, while in the act of pleading for quarter, was cruelly 
murdered and hewed in pieces with an old corn eutter; and in addition 
to all these savage acts of barbarity, they forcibly dragged virtuous and 



128 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

inoffensive females from their dwellings, bound them upon benches 
used for public worship, where they in great numbers ravished them 
in the most brutal manner. 

Some fifty or sixty of the citizens were thrust into prisons and dun- 
geons, where, bound in chains, they were fed on human flesh, while 
their families and some fifteen thousand others were at the point of the 
bayonet, forcibly expelled from the State. 

In the meantime, to pay the expenses of these horrid outrages, 
they confiscated our property, and robbed us of all our posses- 
sions. 

Before our final expulsion, with a faint and lingering hope we peti- 
tioned the State legislature then in session, unwilling to believe that the 
virtue and patriotism of the venerable fathers of the Revolution had 
fled from the bosoms of their illustrious descendants — unwilling to be- 
lieve that American citizens could appeal in vain for a restoration of 
liberty cruelly wrested from them by cruel tyrants. But in the language 
of our noble ancestors, "our repeated petitions were only answered 
by repeated injuries." 

The legislature, instead of hearing the cries of 15,000 suffering, 
bleeding, unoffending citizens, sanctioned and sealed the unconstitu- 
tional acts of the governor and his troops, by appropriating 200,000 
dollars to defray the expenses of exterminating us from the State. No 
friendly arm was stretched out to protect us. The last ray of hope for 
redress in that State was now entirelv extinguished. We saw no other 
alternative but to bow down our necks and wear the cruel yoke of op- 
pression, and quietly and submissively suffer ourselves to be banished 
as exiles from our possessions, our property, and our sacred homes, or 
otherwise see our wives and children coldly butchered and murdered 
by tyrants in power. 

Fourth. Our next permanent settlement was in the land of our 
exile, the State of Illinois, in the spring of 1839; but even here we are 
not secure from our relentless persecutor, the State of Missouri. Not 
satisfied in having drenched her soil in the blood of innocence, and 
expelling us from her borders, she pursues her unfortunate victims into 
banishment, seizing upon and kidnapping them in their defenseless 
moments, dragging them across the Mississippi river, upon their inhos- 
pitable shores, there they are tortured, whipped, immured in dun- 
geons, and finally hung [as a means of torture, but not unto death] by 
the neck without any legal process what ever. 

We have memorialized the former Executive of this State, Governor 
Carlin, upon these lawless outrages committed upon our citizens; but 
he renderd us no protection. Missouri, receiving no check in her mur 
derous career, continues her depredation?, again and again kidnapping 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH. 129 

our citizens and robbing us of our property; while others, who fortun- 
ately survived the execution of her bloody edicts, are again and again 
demanded by the Executive of that State, on pretense of some crime 
said to have been committed by them during the exterminating expedi- 
tion against our people. 

As an instance, General Joseph Smith, one of your memorialists, has 
been three times demanded, tried, and acquitted by the courts of this 
State, upon investigation under writs of habeas corpus, once by the 
United States Court for the District of Illinois, again by the Circuit 
Court of the State of Illinois, and lastly by the Municipal Court of the 
City of Xauvoo, when at the same time a nolle prosequi had been entered 
by the courts of Missouri upon all the cases of that State against Jos- 
eph Smith and others. 

Thus the said Joseph Smith has been several times tried for the same 
alleged offense, put in jeopardy of life and limb, contrary to the fifth 
article of the amendments to the Constitution of the United States; and 
thus we have been continually harassed and robbed of our money to 
defray the expenses of these vexatious prosecutions. And what at the 
present time seems to be still more alarming, is the hostility manifested 
by some of the authorities and citizens of this State [Illinois.] 
Conventions have been called, inflammatory speeches made, and many 
unlawful and unconstitutional resolutions adopted to deprive us of 
our rights, our liberties, and the peaceable enjoyment of our posses- 
sions. 

From the present hostile aspect, and from bitter experience in the 
State of Missouri, it is greatly feared lest the barbarous scenes act- 
ed in that State will be re-acted in this. If Missouri goes un- 
punished, others will be greatly encouraged to follow her murder- 
ous examples. 

The afflictions of your memorialists have already been overwhelm- 
ing — too much for humanitv, too much for American citizens to en- 
dure without complaint. We have groaned under the iron hand of 
tyranny and oppression these many vears. We have been robbed 
of our property to the amount of two millions of dollars. We have 
been hunted as wild beasts of the forest. We have seen our aged fath- 
ers who fought in the Revolution and our innocent children alike 
slaughtered by our persecutors; we have seen the fair daughters of 
American citizens insulted and abused in the most inhuman manner; 
and finally we have seen fifteen thousand souls — men, women and chil- 
dren, driven by force of arms during the severities of the winter from 
their sacred homes and firesides, penniless and unprotected, to a land 
Of strangers. 

Under all these afflicting circumstances, we imploringly stretch forth 

9 Vol. VI. 



130 HiSlOKY OF THE CHUKOH. l^.l>. lb4o 

our hands towards the highest councils of our nation, and humbly 
appeal to the illustrious Senators and Representatives of a great and 
free people for redress and protection. 

Hear, hear the petitioning voice of many thousands of American 
citizens, who now groan in exile on Columbia's free soil! Hear, hear 
the weeping and bitter lamentations of widows and orphans, whose 
husbands and fathers have been cruelly martyred in the land where 
the proud eagle exulting soars! Let it not be recorded in the archives 
of the nations that Columbia's exiles sought protection and redress at 
jour hands, but sought it in vain. It is in your power to save us, our 
wives, and our children fiom ajgpetitio nof th ebloodthirsty. scenes of 
Missouri, and greatly relieve theTears^of"' a 'persecuted and injured 
people, by ordaining for their protection the following ordinance, 
namely— 

AN ORDINANCE 

For the protection oj the people styled the Church of Jesus Christ 

oj Latter-day Saints, residing on the western borders of the 

State of Illinois. 

PREAMBLE. 

Whereas the State of Missouri at sundry times has unconstitutionally 
deprived a certain portion of her citizens (called "Mormons,") of their 
rights, property, lands, and even of their lives: 

And whereas, in the years 1838 and 1839 the said State of Missouri 
with impunity did illegally and inhumanly exile and banish for ever 
from her limits and jurisdiction all the said citizens (called "Mormons,") 
that remained alive. 

And whereas, after being hospitably received by the citizens of 
Illinois, the said State of Illinois did grant, enact, and charter for 
the benefit and convenience of the said exiled "Mormons" as fol- 
lows: — 

[Here in the original document is inserted the city charter of 
Nauvoo already published, Vol. IV, pp 239-249.] 

And whereas, by the 10th article of the Constitution of the United 
States as amended— "Art. 10. The powers not delegated to the United 
States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are re- 
served to the States respectively, or to the people;'' and whereas, ac- 
cording to the fourth article and section second, "The citizens of each 
state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the 
several States:" and whereas, according to the second paragraph of the 



A..D. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 131 

third section of said Conscitution, "The Congress shall have power to 
dispose of and make the needful rules and regulations respecting 
territory;" and whereas the said Congress has the power to protect 
each state against invasion and insurrection: and whereas most of the 
inhabitants of the city of Nauvoo are exiles from the State of Missouri: 
and whereas most of the lands owned in the State of Missouri were 
purchased from the United States, and patented by the United States 
to the amount of more than $200,000 worth: and whereas the United 
States are bound to clear the title and protect it: and whereas the said 
exiles or expelled "Mormons" have lost in property and damages about 
two millions of dollars: and whereas the said State of Missouri con- 
tinues her ravages, persecutions, and pluaderings, by kidnapping said 
exiles from Illinois, and by other depredations: 

Now, therefore, to show the fatherly care of the United States, to 
ratify the said charter, to protect the said exiles from mob violence, 
and shield them in their rights: — 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that all 
the rights, powers, privileges, and immuniti esbelonging to Territories, 
and not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States, are hereby 
granted aud secured to t he inhabitantsof t he city of N auvoo, in addition 
toTEe spirit, letter, meaning, and provisions of the afore-mentioned 
charter, or act of incorporation from the State of Illinois, until the 
State of Missouri restores to those exiled citizens the lands, rights, 
privileges, property, and damage for all losses. 

Section 2. And be it further ordained, in order to effect the object 
and further intention of this ordinance, and for the peace, security, 
happiness, convenience, benefit, and prosperity of the said city of Nau- 
voo, and for the common weal and honor of our country, that the mayor 
of Nauvoo be, and he is hereby empowered by this consent of the Pres- 
ident of the United States; whenever the actual necessity of the case 
and the public safety shall require it, to call _to his aid a ^sufficie nt nu m- 
ber o f United States forces, in connection wi th the Nauvoo Legion, to 
repel the invasion of mobs, keep the public peace, and protect the 
innocent from the unhallowed ravages of lawless banditti that escape 
justice on the western frontier; and also to preserve the power and 
dignity of the Union. 

Section 3. And be it further ordained that the officers of the United 
States army are hereby required to obey the requisitions of this 
ordinance. 

Section 4. And be it further ordained that, for all services rendered 
in quelling mobs and preserving the puhlic peace the said Nauvoo 



132 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

Legion shall be under the same regulations, rules, and laws of pay as 
the troops of the United States. 

City of Nauvoo, Illinois, December 21st, 1843. 

Hyrum Smith, Benjamin Warrington, 

John Taylor, Daniel Spencer, 

Orson Pratt, Brigham Young, 

W. W. Phelps, Orson Hyde, 



Councilors; 



Heber C. Kimball, 

Orson Spencer, 

Daniel H. Wells, 

Samuel Bennett, 

Geo. A. Smith, 

Geo. W. Harris, 

Aldermen; 

Joseph Smith, Mayor; 
Willard Richards, Recorder; 
John P. Greene, Marshal. * 

Two letters came into the post-office from the sheriff of 
Clark County, Missouri. From them it appears that that 
State wishes to continue the old game of seizing witnesses 
and making prisoners of them, to cover up her mobocracy 
and kidnapping under a legal form. The following answer 
was written: — 

Letter: W. W. Phelps to J. White, Esq., Anent Avery Affair. 

City of Nauvoo, III., Dec. 21, 1843. 

Sir, — Two letters were put into my hands this morning relative to 
the witnesses of Mr. Avery's innocence as to being accessory to horse 
stealing some four years since. In the first place, Mr. Avery was 
abducted from this State without process, contrary to law. In the 
second place, the principal for felony by the law of Missouri should be 
indicted within three years, &e. Again, the revised statutes of 
Missouri have a wise provision in such cases as Mr. Avery's. If Mr. 
Avery, therefore, will sue out a commission according to the law ccn 

* There was also a Memorial prepared by the Prophet from the inhabitants of 
Hancock county generally to the same effect as the above, but it wa3 never 
extensively signed or presented to Congress. 



A.D. 18431 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 133 

cerning depositions, (R. S., page 219 to 222,) directed to Alderman 
Geo. W. Harris, an acting justice of the peace for the city of Nauvoo, 
and count3' of Hancock, the necessary testimony to establish Mr. Avery's 
innocence will be taken according to law, and forwarded to the proper 
officer in due time. 

Respectfully, &c. 

W. W. Phelps. 

J. White, Esq., Dep. Sheriff, 
Clark Co., Waterloo, Mo. 

P.S. You will have the politeness to show this to Mr. Avery. 

In the evening I was visited by several strangers, and 
had considerable conversation with them. 

Friday, 22. — At home at nine o'clock, a. m., reading a 
magazine to inv children. 

A little after twelve went into the store-room occupied 
by Butler and Lewis, and commenced a con- 
versation with Dr. John F. Charles, to convince prophet on 
him that mobocracy is not justifiable, and that J n °d pontics. 
I did not deal in politics. 

David Bolman, living about two miles from Ramus, 
went out in the evening with his family visiting. About 
ten o'clock he discovered his house on fire. The neigbors 
had inquired how long he would be gone. A man rode to 
Carthage. A company went up, secured the provisions 
to themselves, and fired the house. 

Warm and pleasant weather. 

Saturday, 23. — At home, counseling the brethren who 
called on me, and attending to my domestic duties, 
making preparations for a Christmas dinner party. 

Prayer meeting in the Assembly Room. 

Sunday, 24. — At home. Received a visit from Mr. 
Richardson, one of the men who assisted in kidnapping 
Avery. He manifested some repentance and sorrow for 
his part in that transaction, and promised to use what 
influence he had with the Missourians to have Avery set 
at liberty. 



134 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

Monday, 25. — This morning, about one o'clock, I was 
aroused by an English sister, Lettice Rushton, 
serenld™ as widow of Richard Rushton, Senior, (who, ten 
years ago, lost her sight,) accompanied by 
three of her sons, with their wives, and her two daughters, 
with their husbands, and several of her neighbors, singing, 
"Mortals, awake! with angels join," &c, which caused a 
thrill of pleasure to run through my soul. All of my 
family and boarders arose to hear the serenade, and I felt 
to thank my Heavenly Father for their visit, and blessed 
them in the name of the Lord. They also visited my 
brother Hyrum, who was awakened from his sleep. He 
arose and went out of doors. He shook hands with and 
blessed each one of them in the name of the Lord, and 
said that he thought at first that a cohort of angels 
had come to visit him, it was such heavenly music to 
him. 

At home all day. About noon, gave counsel to some 
brethren who called on me from Morley Settlement, and 
told them to keep law on their sids, and they would come 
out well enough. 

<^At two o'clock, about fifty couples sat down at my table 
to dine. While I was eating, my scribe called, requesting 
me to solemnize the marriage of his brother, Dr. Levi 
Richards, and Sara Griffiths: but as I could not leave, I 
referred him to President Brigham Young, who married 
them. 

A large party supped at my house, and spent the 
evening in music, dancing, &c, in a most 
Return to' cheerful and friendly manner. During the 
festivities, a man with his hair long and falling 
over his shoulders, and apparently drunk, came in and 
acted like a Missourian. I requested the captain of the 
police to put him out of doors. A scuffle ensued, and I 
had an opportunity to look him full in the face, when, to 
my great surprise and joy untold, I discovered it was my 
long- tried, warm, but cruelly persecuted friend, Orrin 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 135 

Porter Rockwell, just arrived from nearly a year's im- 
prisonment, without conviction, in MissouriN^. 

The following is his statement of his experience and 
sufferings by that people : — 

ROCKWELL'S EXPERIENCE IN MISSOURI. 

I, Orrin Porter Rockwell, was on my way from New Jersey to 
Nauvoo; and while at St. Louis, on the 4th March, 1S43, was arrested 
by a Mr. Fox, on oath of Elias Parker, who swore I was the 0. P. Rock- 
well advertised in the papers as having: attempted to assassinate Lilburn 
W. Boggs. and was taken before a magistrate in St. Louis. 

I was then put into the St. Louis county jail, and kept two days 
with a pair of iron hobbles on my ankles. About midnight, was taken 
into the stage coach in charge of Fox, and started for Jefferson City. 
There were niue passengers, two of them women. I sat on the middle 
seat. One of the men behind me commenced gouging me in the back. 
I spoke to him, and told him that it was dark, and I could not see him, 
but that he was no gentleman. One of the ladies whispered to him, 
and he ceased the operation. 

The next night, the driver, being drunk, ran against a tree, ami 
broke the king bolt; and not knowing what to do, ironed as I was, I 
crawled into the boot, and found an extra bolt, and in the dark fixed 
the coach, got it off the ti'ee. and we started on. Soon after, ran against 
a bank, and could not move. I was asleep at the time, but the bustle 
awoke me. when I told them, if they would take off my irons, I would 
get off and drive, as the driver was too drunk to manage the horses. 
They refused. I, however, got hold of the lines, and, by the help of 
other passensrers lifting at the wheels 1 , got it righted, and I drove to the 
next stand, near the Osaare river. The roads were very bad, and the 
load heavy; so we got along slowly. 

There was an officer of the U. S. army in the coach. We were two 
days and two nights from St. Louis in reaching Jefferson City, where I 
was lodged in the jail two days and two nights. The U. S. officer 
went on. 

Started on for Independence, still in charge of Fox. At Boonville, 
overtook the U. S. officer. We three were all that were in the coach 
all the way from Boonville to Independence. Sheriff Reynolds told me 
afterwards that when he looked into the stage he took me for the guard, 
and the officer for the prisoner, for he looked like the guilty one. 

Was about four days going to Independence: arrived there just at 
night. A large crowd gathered around, making many remarks Some 



136 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

were for hanging me at once. I was then placed in the jail. In two 
or three days, underwent a sham trial before a justice of the peace. 
The courthouse was crowded, and the men were armed with hickory 
clubs. They set on boys from ten to twelve years of age to kick and 
punch me, which they did repeatedly. While in court, Fox was the 
main witness introduced, and he swore falsely. 

Fox swore that I had stated to him that I had not been in the county 
for five years. I informed the court that Fox swore falsely, in proof 
thereof that the people of Independence knew that I had traveled 
through Independence several times during that time, for the people 
were all well aware of my having visited this place, which fact alone 
should satisfy them that Fox was swearing for money, which I after- 
wards karned that he obtained and divided with Parker. 

The magistrate committed me to prison for my safe preservation, as 
he was afraid the people would kill me; but he could find no crime 
against me. This I was told by the officer who conveyed me to prison. 

I was re-committed to jail, still wearing the iron hobbles, and was 
kept in the upper part in the day-time, and in the dungeon at night, 
with a little dirty straw for a bed. without any bedding, no fire, and 
very cold weather. For eighteen days I was not free from shaking with 
cold. I then got permission to buy 1 J bushels of charcoal, which I put 
into an old kettle, and kept a little fire. When that was gone, I could 
not obtain any more. 

After I was arrested at St. Louis, I was visited by Joseph Wood, an 
apostate "Mormon," who professed to be a lawyer. He was accom- 
panied by Mr. Blanerhasset, who told me that everything I had would 
be taken from me, and proposed to take charge, keep, and return to me 
any property I might have with me. I let him have a pair of pistols, a 
bowie knife, and watch, which he never returned to me. 

After the weather got a little warmer, they furnished me with a 
few old newspapers to read. A family lived at the corner of the jail. 
The women once in a while used to send out a little negro girl with a 
small basket of victuals. She handed up to the grate a big Missouri 
whip-stock, with a piece of twine, which I tied to the pole and drew up 
the basket, and let it down again. 

I made a pin-hook and tied to the twine, and baited with a chunk of 
corn-dodger hard enough to knock a negro down with, and stuck it out 
of the grated window and fished for pukes. When passers-by came 
along, they would stop and gawk at me awhile, and pass on. 

A preacher who had a family of girls lived on the opposite side of the 
street. The girls would watch and laugh at them, and call out and ask 
me if I got any bites. I replied, No, but some glorious nibbles. 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 137 

Numbers were put into the jail with me at different times, and taken 
out again. One of them, who was charged with a fraudulent issue of 
U. S. Treasury notes, was allowed to have his saddle-baes with him 
They contained some fire-steels, gun-flints, and articles of Indian trade. 
I sawed the irons nearly off with one of the fire-steels. He got the 
negro girl to get him a knife, and I finished cutting the fetters with it. 
He would frequently call for a good supper and pay for it, which was 
allowed him, but not allowed me. He was very anxious to escape, and 
urged me to undertake it with him. He ordered a good supper, and he 
ate very heartily. I would not eat, telling him that he could not run if 
he ate so much. Nearly dusk, as the jailer came in to get the dishes, 
we sprang to the door, and I locked him in, and threw the key into the 
garden. In coming down stairs, we met the jailer's wife. I told her 
that her husband was unharmed; I had only locked him up. We had a 
board fence to climb over, which was about twelve feet high. I climbed 
it, and ran about twenty rods, when he called me to come and help him 
over, which I did. If I had not, I should have escaped. The pure air 
had so great an effect upon me, that I gave out and slacked my pace, 
The populace of the place came up, and I told them to run; they would 
soon catch him; and that I had given out and could not run. They soon 
returned with him. I fell into the crowd and walked back to the 
jail yard. 

Sheriff J. H. Reynolds laid his hand upon my shoulder, he being the 
first to approach me. Asked where the key was. I told him, In the 
garden. 

Smallwood Nowlin was the first who propospd to hang me on the 
spot, when Reynolds gave me a push towards the crowd, and said, 
"There he is, G — d-nhim! Do what you damn please with him." 
Nowlin 's son in-law (by marrying one of his mulatto wenches), a 
Mexican, stepped up to me to lay hold of me, when I told him to stand 
off, or I would mash his face. He stepped back. 

I then walked up stairs into the jail. Was followed by Reynolds and 
others, until the room and stairs were full. Reynolds asked me what 
I had cut my irons off with. I went to the saddle-bags and handed him 
the knife and fire-steel. While feeling for them. I got hold of a piece 
of buckskin that had some three or four pounds of bullets tied up in 
it. which I intended to use in mashing in the head of any one that should 
attempt to put a rope on my neck. A r<<pe was passed along over the 
heads of the people into the room to a bald-headed man. About this 
time pistols could be heard cocking in every part of the room, and 
bowie-knives were produced as if for fight. In a few minutes the room 
was clear of all but three or four persons. 



138 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

I was then put into the dungeon, my feet ironed together, my right 
hand to my left foot, so close that I could not half straighten myself. 
The irons, when put on my wrists, were so small that they would 
hardly go on, and swelled them; but in eighteen days I could slip them 
up and turn them around my arm at the elbow. I was fed on cold 
corndodger and meat of the poorest description; and if I did not eat it 
all up, it was returned the next time. 

About a month after the court sat, my irons were taken off, and I 
was so weak that I had to be led to the court-room by the officer. I was 
notified that a bill was found against me for breaking jail, and that the 
grand jury had failed to find a bill against me on the charge of shooting 
Boggs, as charged in the advertisement offering a reward for my 
apprehension. 

I was taken into court, and was asked by the judge if I had any 
counsel. I told him I had not. He asked if I had any means to employ 
a counsel. I answered that I had none with me that I could control. 
He then said, Here are a number of counselors: if I was acquainted 
with any of them, I could take my choice. I told him I would make 
choice of Mr. Doniphan, who arose and made a speech, saying he was 
crowded with business, but that here are plenty of young lawyers who 
could plead for me as well as he could. The judge heard his plea, and 
then told me he did not consider that a sufficient excuse, and I could 
consider Mr. Doniphan my counsel. 

I was then ordered back to jail, and ironed again in the same way. 
Mr. Doniphan asked for and obtained a change of venue to Clay County, 
which is in another district. 

When the officers came to Independence jail for me, they requested 
me to get ready in a hurry, as they feared the mob would kill me. I 
told them I wanted to put on a clean shirt, if it cost me my life, as I 
had not been permitted to enjoy the luxury of a change of linen since I 
had boarded at the expense of Jackson County. While I was changing 
my shirt, the officers several times told me to hurry, or the mob would 
be on me and kill me. 

When I got ready to start, the officers furnished me a very hard- 
trotting horse, with a miserable poor saddle, tied my feet under the 
horse with ropes, and my hands behind my back, and started off at a 
good round trot, in charge of two officers. In a short time a strange 
gentleman fell into our company, who was also on horseback. It was 
six miles to the ferry, where we could cross the Missouri river. When 
we got there, we saw the boat land on the opposite side, when several 
men got off the boat, and took a course to the woods, through which 
the road ran. The boat returned. This stranger asked — "Where are 



A.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 139 

those men going?" and was answered — "They are going to the woods 
to hew timber." 

We then crossed, and took our way for Liberty. When we left the 
boat, we saw no signs of people, nor heard any sound of axes. After 
traveling some two or three miles, the woods became dense and brushy: 
we heard the crackling of brush, and the noise of men traveling through 
it. The officers and stranger appeared frightened, and urged speed 
keeping close watch. We came to an opening in the woods, when the 
noise of crackling of brush ceased. We traveled safely to Liberty, 
where this stranger told his friends that he overheard several men in 
Independence planning to waylay me in the thick timber on the Missouri 
bottom, at the place where we heard the noises; but his being in com- 
pany counteracted their plot. I was then lodged in Liberty jail. In a 
few days afterwards I learned that the men who went into the brush 
told it, that they went into the woods according to agreement to waylay 
me; but when they saw this stranger, it frustrated their plans. 

In about ten days, on pretext of informality 1 in the papers, I was 
remanded back to Independence jail. It was rumored that I was 
again going to be waylaid, when the two officers from Clay county took 
me by a different road, and so I escaped the second time. 

When I was put in Independence jail, 1 was again ironed hand and 
foot, and put in the dungeon, in which condition I remained about two 
months. During this time, Joseph H. Reynolds, the sheriff, told me he 
was going to arrest Joseph Smith, and they had received letters from 
Nauvoo which satisfied theni that Joseph Smith had unlimited con- 
fidence in me, that I was capable of toting him in a carriage or on 
horseback anywhere that I pleased; and if I would only tote him out 
by riding or any other way, so that they could apprehend him, I might 
please mvself whether I stayed in Illinois or came back to Missouri; 
they would protect me, and any pile that I would name the citizens of 
Jackson county would donate, club together, and raise, and that I 
should never suffer for want afterwards: "you only deliver Joe Smith 
into our hands, and name jour pile." I replied — "I will see you all 
damned first, and then I won't." 

About the time that Joseph was arrested by Reynolds at Dixon, I 
knew that they were after him, and [yet had] no means under heaven of 
giving him any information. My anxiety became so intense upon the 
subject, knowing their determination to kill him, that my flesh twitched 
on my bones. I could not help it; twitch it would. While undergoing 
this sensation, I heard a dove alight on the window in the upper room 
of the jail, and commence cooing, and then went off. In a short time, 
he came back to the window, where a pane was broken: he crept through 
between the bars of iron, which were about two and-a-half inches apart. 



140 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

I saw it fly round the trap-door several times: it did not alight, but 
continued cooing until it crept through the bars again, and flew out 
through the broken window. 

I relate this, as it was the only occurrence of the kind that happened 
during my long and weary imprisonment; but it proved a comfort to 
me: the twitching of my flesh ceased, and I was fully satisfied from 
that moment that they would not get Joseph into Missouri, and that I 
should regain my freedom. From the best estimates that can be made, 
this incident occurred about the time when Joseph was in the custody of 
Reynolds. 

In a few days afterwards, Sheriff Reynolds came into the jail and 
told me that he had made a failure in the arrest of Joseph. 

After the lawyers had been about two months making out fresh 
papers. I was again conveyed to Liberty jail on a miserable horse, 
with feet and hands tied as before, but [by] a different road. 

In a few days afterwards, my mother found where I was, and she 
came to see me and brought me $100, whereby I was enabled to fee 
Mr. Doniphan for his services as counsel. 

The time of trial being continually delayed, I began to be uneasy. I 
was handcuffed in the dungeon, which is the basement story of the 
prison, and is about nine feet high. I took down the stove-pipe, pushed 
my clothes up through the stove-pipe hole, and then crawled through 
the hole in the floor, which was made of logs about fourteen inches 
thick, into the upper room. The hole was so small that it scratched my 
flesh, and made me bleed from many wounds. I then examined the 
inside door, and with the bail of the water pail I unbolted it; but finding 
I could not get through the outside door, I returned to my dungeon 
through the same narrow pass. 

The following night I made another attempt through the same way; 
but, failing to get through the outside door, 1 lay down on the upper 
floor, where the boys who were bringing my food next morning found 
me. They made an alarm, when five or six men came and again con- 
veyed me down into the dungeon. It caused quite an excitement. 

My mother, learning that Mr. Doniphan had returned home, went to 
him, and^prevailed on him to come and speak to me at the dungeon 
grate.x While he was talking to me, a little boy, the son of a poor 
widow, about five or six years old, who had previously been to see me, 
finding I had no fire, had run home and brought some fire and chips to 
the grate. Mr. Doniphan said — "You little devil you, what are you 
doing here with this fire?" He replied, "I am going to give it to Mr. 
Rockwell, so that he can warm him." Doniphan then said — "You little 
devil you, take this fire and leave;" when the little urchin replied 



A. D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHTJKCH. 141 

(looking him in the face) — "Mr. Doniphan, you go to hell: I am going 1 
to give Mr. Rockwell this fire, so that he can warm him;" and he 
pushed it through the grate, gave me the chips, and continued to supply 
my daily wants of chips and fire while I continued in the dungeon. 

From Mr. Doniphan I learned that a special term of court was called, 
and my trial would come on in about fifteen days. The night following 
this visit, some men came to the grates of my dungeon, and asked if 
I wanted to get out. I told them, No, as I had been informed that day 
that I should have a trial in a fortnight. They replied — "Honor bright: 
if you wish to get out, we'll let you out in a few minutes." I replied 
that I would rather remain, as my trial would come on so soon. Next 
morning one of the men came, put some money in the cleft of a stick, 
and put it through the hole to me. He refused to tell his name; but I 
knew by his voice that he was one of the men who came to me in 
the night. 

The trial came on according to my last notification. I was tried for 
breaking Independence jail; and although the law of Missouri reads 
that, in order to break jail, a man must break a lock, a door, or a wall, 
still Judge King ruled that it was breaking jail to walk out when the 
door is open; and under this ruling the jury brought in a verdict of 
"five minutes' imprisonment in the county jail; " but I was kept there 
four or five hours, during which time several attempts were made to 
get up some other charge against me. 

About 8 p.m. on December 13th. General Doniphan took me out and 
told me I must take across the country on foot, and not walk on any 
traveled road, unless it was during the night, as they would be apt to 
follow and again take me, as they did not care on what grounds, so 
they could make me trouble. 

I accordingly started, accompanied by my mother, and went to the 
house of a widow, where I obtained my first supper in freedom for more 
than nine months. We then traveled two miles and obtained $4. 

I then took through the woods to the road, where I heard two men 
riding on horseback. I hid behind a shady tree, and overheard one of 
them say, "He has not been gone many minutes: we shall soon over- 
take him." 

I went round the houses and traveled in the fields by the side of the 
road. The moon was in its first quarter, and I traveled during the 
night about twenty-five miles. I carried a little food with me, and next 
day traveled on the road, and walked past Crooked River to a Mr. 
Taylor's, with all the skin off my feet. 

A neighbor offered to take me in for the night, if I would go back 



142 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. [A.D. 1843 

two miles. I did so, found his wife very cross with her husband, who 
said, "Stranger, you see my wife is very cross. I have got some 
whisky; let's drink: my wife will soon have something to eat." When 
supper was eaten, she became good tempered. I stayed in peace through 
the night. Next morning I ate breakfast with them, and gave them 
fifty cents, when the man brought out a horse, and sent a little boy 
with me fourteen miles, which was a very great relief to my weary feet. 

The next night I stopped near where the Haun's Mill massacre 
took place. 

The third day I walked till noon, and then hired a man to carry me 
the remainder of the day for seventy-five cents. Stayed at a house 
where I was well acquainted; but the people did not recognize me, and 
I did not make myself known. Paid fifty cents for supper, lodging, 
breakfast, and being sent twelve miles on horseback the next morning. 

I then continued my journey about thirty miles, where I rested three 
days to recruit my feet. I was then carried twenty- five miles on horse- 
back, and walked the same day twenty-five miles. The day following 
I walked forty miles, and then waited another day and engaged a man 
to carry me to Montrose, to which place I was three days in going. I 
immediately crossed the river to Nauvoo in a small boat, and came 
straight to the Mansion. 

Daniel Avery was liberated from his imprisonment in 
Release of Missouri by habeas corpus. This was, no 
Daniel Avery, doubt, on account of our vigilance in commu- 
nicating with the Governor, and endeavoring to prose- 
cute the kidnappers, and continually making public the 
conduct of Missouri. 

Warm day; rain in the evening. 

A PLAN FOR WOMEN'S SUBSCRIPTIONS TO THE TEMPLE. 
(From the Millenial Star.) 

We have much pleasure in publishing and recommending the fol- 
lowing plan to be adopted amongst the sisters of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints in England. We believe that the comple- 
tion of the Temple is as near the hearts of the sisters as to the hearts 
of the brethren, and that the following proposed [plan] will be re- 
sponded to on the part of the English sisters in a manner that shall 
reflect honor upon themselves, and be materially instrumental in for- 
warding the great work. 



A.D. 1843| HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 143 

yS Nauvoo, Dee. 25, 1843. 

s n2o the Sisters of the Church of Jesus Christ in England, Greeting: — 

i)ear Sisters: — This is to inform you that we have here entered into 

a small weekly subscription for the benefit of the Temple funds. One 

thousand have alreadj- joined it, while many more are expected, by 

which we trust to help forward the great work very much. The 

amount is only one cent or a halfpenny per week. 

As Brother Amos Fielding is waiting for this, I cannot enlarge more 

than to say that myself and Sister Thompson are engaged in collecting 

the same. 

We remain, 

Your affectionate sisters in Christ, 

Mary Smith, */&**%**!>&'£*■ 
M. R. Thompson. /^**W- T^^^s/w 

US; ft 
Nauvoo, Dec. 25, 1843. 
The ladies' subscription for the Temple, of one cent per week, is 
fully sanctioned by the First Presidency. 

Hyrum Smith. 




We feel much to encourage this plan, and trust that the sisters in 
England will manifest that thev will not be behind the sisters in Nauvoo 
in this laudable work. One thing in connection with this work we 
would mention, and request that it be attended to with the strictest accu- 
racy; that is, that the name of each individual be recorded, and the 
amount which they subscribe, in order that such names may be trans- 
mitted to Nauvoo, where they will have to be entered in the books of 
the Lord's House. The sisters or others who may collect the subscrip- 
tions will please to be very particular on this point. 

Tuesday, 26. — At home. I rejoiced that Kockwell had 
returned from the clutches of Missouri, and that God had 
delivered him out of their hands. Brother p rophe t's joy 
Daniel Avery also arrived about dusk this ofRock^eu™ 
evening; and the Missourians have no longer and Avery, 
the pleasure of exulting over any Mormon victims for the 
present; but their blood-thirstiness will not long be satis- 
fied unless they seek out another victim on whom to glut 
their malice and vengeance. 

Wednesday , 27. — Cold: a little ice in the river, which 
has been clear for some time past. 



144 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D.1843 

I received letters from General Lewis Cass, of Michi- 
gan, and Hon. John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, in 
answer to mine of Nov. 4. 

Mr. Keith gave a lecture and concert of music in the 
assembly room this evening. 

MR. ROCKWELL. 
(Editorial From the Neighbor.) 

The name of this individual is, no doubt, familiar to most of our 
readers. He has obtained some celebrity in the world also, not for his 
reputed virtue, but for his supposed crimes. 

It will be recollected that he is the person who was basely and falsely 
implicated, along with Joseph Smith, as the reputed [would be] mur- 
derer of ex-Governor Boggs, while Mr. Smith was charged with being 
accessory before the fact. A vexatious lawsuit was instituted against 
Joseph Smith, wherein he was charged with the above-named crime; 
and finally, after many attempts of the governor of Missouri to get him 
into his power, was acquitted by the United States Court for the dis- 
trict of Illinois, 

Stories of murder and blood were circulated from Maine to Missouri; 
they were iterated and reiterated by the newspapers of the whole 
Union, and painted in the most glowing colors that human ingenuity 
could invent. Mr. Rockwell was branded as a murderer, and Joseph 
Smith as accessory before the fact, without any other evidence than a 
story fabricated by some of our grenerous politicians, engendered in 
falsehood by hearts as dark as Erebus for religious and political effect. 

This demagoguery and political corruption has caused an innocent 
man to be immolated in a Missouri dungeon for upwards of eight 
months, without the slightest evidence of his guilt, or even the most 
remote evidence of crime leading to his committal. He was taken 
without process, and committed to jail upon mere supposition, and 
finally acquitted without any shadow of proof having been adduced 
from beginning to end. This is the way that Missouri treats free-born 
American citizens, and they can obtain no redress. 

Mr. Rockwell arrived here on Monday night, and has given us some 
of the details of his history since he was first taken in Missouri to the 
present time; and we can assure our readers that it will "a tale un- 
fold" relative to that state, which even many of those who have been 
driven therefrom will find it difficult to believe that there did exist 
such monsters in human shape. 

Thursday , 28. — At home. Elder Orson Hyde returned 



A D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 145 

from Adams county, having obtained quite a number of 
signatures to the Memorial to Congress, and made an affi- 
davit of what he learned in Warsaw concerning the mob . 




^Affidavit of Orson Hyde — Disclosing Plan To Drive the Saints. 
State of Illinois, 



City of Nauvoo. j 

On the 28th day of December, 1843, came Orson Hyde before me, Jo- 
seph Smith, mayor of said city; and after being duly sworn, deposeth and 
saith that on the 26th instant, as he was passing from Lima to Nauvoo, 
through that part of Hancock county where Colonel Levi Williams re- 
sides, he was credibly informed that on Saturday previous the anti- 
Mormons held a meeting, drew up an article, and passed several resolu- 
tions, among which were these: — "We will revere and hold sacred and 
inviolate the Constitution of the United States, and also the Constitu- 
tion of this State. We will visit the Mormons residing in our vicinity 
and require them to give up their guns; and such as do ii shall dwell 
here in peace; but those who will not do it may have thirteen days to 
leave in; and if they are not off in that time, we will drive them." The 
above is the substance, but perhaps not the very words. They also 
swear that the Mormons shall never raise another crop in that region, 
&c; &c, and further this deponent saith not. 

Orson Hyde. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 28th of December, 1843, 

W. W. Phelps, Clerk, M. C 

Daniel Avery having made affidavit of the cruel treat- 
ment he had recently received at the hands of Missou- 
rians, I here insert it:- 

Affidavit of Daniel Avery— His Treatment in Missouri. 

State of Illinois, { sg 
City of Nauvoo. ] 

On the 28th day of December, 1843, came Daniel Avery before me, 
Joseph Smith, mayor of the city aforesaid, and after being duly sworn, 
deposeth and saith that on the second day of December, 1843, he was 
unlawfully arrested by force and arms, and kidnapped at Doty's Mill 
in Bear Creek precinct, Hancock county, and State aforesaid, by Col- 
onel Levi Williams, his son John Williams, of Hancock county; John 
Elliott, a schoolmaster, from four-and-a-half miles below Warsaw; Wil- 
liam Middleton and Joseph McCoy, of Clark county, Missouri, and four 

10 Vol. VI. 




146 • HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. |A.D. 1843 

others. Colonel Williams held his bowie-knife to his breast. Six of 
the others stood with their pistols cocked and their fingers upon the 
triggers, muzzles presented at his body, ready to fire; and two stood 
with clubs, and amidst the most horrid oaths and imprecations, took 
and bound with silk handkerchiefs your said affiant, and led him away 
between two men, one holding a savage bowie-knife on one side, and 
the other a cocked pistol on the other side, (having taken away your 
said affiant's weapons while binding him in the mill,) and led your 
affiant about a mile. Your affiant refused to walk any further, and they 
put him upon a horse, and tied his legs under the horse; and John 
Elliott, the aforesaid schoolmaster, led the horse as fast as he could 
make his way, through a thicket and by-way to the house of the afore- 
said Colonel Williams. Here the kidnappers ate and drank; and after 
they had unbound me, (for they had bound me so tight that I was in 
great pain,) I was also suffered to partake. 

They then put me upon the horse again, and bound me, and started 
for the river, the said schoolmaster Elliott leading the horse. When 
we came near a schoolhouse where there was a meeting, they came to 
a halt, sent messengers to the meeting, and in the course of half an 
hour they returned with an armed mob, with rifles and other weapons, 
sufficient to make the whole company number about twenty. Being 
all on horseback, they formed a circle, with your affiant in the center, 
(who up to that, lime had acquainted every man he saw that they were 
kidnapping him, and marched in that order to a house on a point be- 
low Warsaw; and as I was very cold from being bound, they took me 
into the house to warm. I now called for a trial, as I had told them all 
the way that I never resisted legal authority. They said they were 
hunting a magistrate. Said I, "I understand you; you mean to force 
me into Missouri." McCoy returned, and said, "We are ready." It 
was about midnight. We went about three hundred yards up the river 
to a skiff. I refused to cross as they had promised me a trial. They 
forced me into a skiff and bound me, and five men put me across. 
Their names, so far as I could ascertain, are William Middleton, Wil- 
liam Clark, Joseph McCoy, John Elliott, and Charles Coolidge. They 
landed at the tavern on the south side of the Des Moines, and took me 
into a back room, threw down a buffalo robe for my bed; but as my 
arms were bound so tight that I could not rest, I complained; told 
Middleton that was not the way he was used at my house. They felt 
at my arms and exclaimed, "By God, they are not too tight!" I 
begged to have one arm liberated, and finally they untied both, and I 
slept (under guard) on the buffalo robe before the fire. 

About noon they got ready and started wich me, guarded upon a 
horse, for McCoy's in Clark county, Missouri, about twelve miles dis- 



a.D. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 147 

tant. It being night when we arrived, and I unwell through fatigue 
and confinement and the abuses before received, I went to bed. They 
had sent runners ahead; and after I had been in bed awhile, the sheriff 
came up from Waterloo, the county seat, a distance of about two 
miles, to arrest me and take me before a magistrate that night; but 
Middleton and McCoy objected, as I was sick. The sheriff, however, 
executed his writ, and left me in their care till morning. It being late 
before we breakfasted, he came in the morning and made the second 
scope of his authority and took me. He quizzed me the night before, 
to draw something out for testimony; but as innocence cannot be 
affected by truth, he was as wise at one end of the story as the 
other. 

At Waterloo I was examined by a magistrate, who committed me 
upon the substance of an affidavit made by my son in duress with a 
bowie-knife at his breast, and upon a promise that he should be liber- 
ated from Montieello jail, where he was confined after being kidnapped 
some three or four weeks previous. My bonds were fixed at $1000; 
and as I had no bail in such a strange place, I was started for Palmyra 
jail, in Marion county. The deputy sheriff took me to Musgrove, the 
sheriff, a distance of ten miles. Here I sued out a writ of habeas cor- 
pus, but the judge remanded me to prison. 

At Montieello my chains were taken off, and I was at liberty in the 
midst of a strong guard to view the town. Here a lawyer agreed to 
take me and my son through court (as the Missourians say,) for a 
horse. Saw my son in the prison; said he was forced at the point of a 
bowie-knife to make an affidavit against me; but he knew I was inno- 
cent. 

I tried to be left with him in jail; but no, I was compelled to go to 
Palmyra, where I arrived the next evening. The sheriff thrust me 
into the dungeon without waiting to eat, warm, or anything else. The 
next morning the blacksmith came into the jail and ironed me to the 
middle of a great chain that was fast to the floor, where I remained in 
the horrid gloom of a Missouri prison two weeks. 

From thence the deputy sheriff started, with me chained upon the 
horse in this wise. He then chained my right leg, and then passed the 
chain up to my left hand. In this way I traveled nine miles, when we 
stopped, and he changed the chain from my hand to the horse's neck. 
We arrived at Montieello, and I was chained all night. 

The next day I was conveyed to Waterloo, and delivered into the 
custody of the sheriff of Clark county. I was kept under a strong 
guard by day, and at night chained to one of the guards or to the bed- 
post. 



148 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A D. 1843 

I was informed that Middleton and McCoy procured an indictment 
against me, by giving b-mds to the amount of some two or three hun- 
dred dollars, that they would hunt up testimony to the point for next 
court, there being nothing against me but the affidavit of my son be- 
fore alluded to; and so the grand jury found a bill. 

Ellison, my lawyer, deceived me, and put over my case for six 
months, because, as I suppose, I, being kidnapped, had no fees for 
him. I objected to having my trial put off for six months. I did not 
fancy the dungeon of Palmyra prison. The court concluded to let me 
to bail under bonds of $1000, but this I could not obtain. Subse- 
quently it was reduced to $500, but all in vain, for I was unaquainted 
with the people. 

This was on Saturday, r and I was thus left to meditate on the mis- 
chief that may be made out of a little matter by meddlesome men. 

On Monday I sued out a writ of habeas corpus; and after a fair 
hearing of the matter, I received the following order: — 

State of Missouri, I 
County of Clark, j 

December, 25, 1843. 

Ordered by the Clark County Court that Samuel Musgrove, sheriff of 
Clark county, discharge Daniel Avery from imprisonment, on an in- 
dictment found against him for the alleged crime of stealing a mare of 

Joseph McCoy. 

By order of Court. 

rT q -t Witness— Willis Curd, Clerk of said court, and seal of office 
L J this 25th of December, 1843. 



Done at office in Waterloo, date above. 



Willis Curd, Clerk. 



Hons. John W Dewellin, { Jud 
Henry Snively, ) 

Very early on Tuesday morning your affiant started for Nauvoo 
and arrived the same evening about sundown, a distance of nearly 
twenty miles, so crippled from the iron bondage and hard usage of 
Missouri, that he is hardly able to walk. To those who assisted 
your said affiant to obtain his release from bondage, he tenders his 
grateful acknowledgements; and further your affiant saith not. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 28th day of December, 

1843. 

Daniel Avery. 

W. W. Phelps, Clerk, M. C. 



A.D. 1843] HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 149 

Friday, 29. — At home. In the forenoon, W. W. 
Phelps called and gave us a lesson on eloquence, and read 
my Appeal to the Green Mountain Boys, and j 0S ephH. 
also a New Year's hymn without rhyme. proSt'I in- 
Three p. m., I related to Dr. Bernhisel and terviewwith. 
Joseph H. Jackson* my commencement in receiving rev- 
elations. Mr. Jackson said he was almost persuaded to 
be one with me. I replied, I would that he were not only 
almost, but altogether. 

At four p. m. , I met with the City Council. 

Having selected forty men to act as city policemen, 
they met with the Council, and were sworn Police Force 
into office to support the Constitution of the increased! 
United States and the State of Illinois, and obey the or- 
dinances of this city and the instructions of the Mayor, 
according to the best of their ability. 

Names of police called by Captain Jonathan Dunham : 

Jonathan Dunham, High Policeman, Charles C. Rich, 1st Lieutenant, 

Hosea Stout, 2nd Lieutenant, Shadrach Roundy. 3rd Lieut., 

John Pack, Ensign, Jesse P. Harmon, Orderly Sergt. 

John D. Lee, 2nd Sergeant Daniel Cam, 3rd Sergeant, 

Josiah Arnold, 4th Sergeant James Emmett, 1st Corporal, 

Alexander Mills, 2nd Corporal, Steven H. Goddard, 3rd Corporal, 

William Pace, -ith Corporal, Abraham C. Hodge, Pioneer, 

Levi W. Hancock, Fifer, Daniel M. Repsher, Fifer. 

Richard D. Sprague, Drummer, Samuel Billings, Drummer, 

» This man afterwards was discovered to be an adventurer and a most desperate 
character. Gregg, in his Prophet of Palmyra, chapter XXX, speaks of|him as "an 
adventurer of fine appearance and gentlemanly manners, who appeared in the 
county (Hancock) during the troubles; went to Nauvoo. and became intimate 
with Smith and the leaders; afterwards turned against them — went to Warsaw 
and issued a pamphlet— claiming to be an expose of Mormonism and the evil pur- 
poses and practices of the Prophet * * * He was an entire stranger to the county 
and its people; no one knew whence he came, or what became of him afterwards, 
when the excitement was all over. Hence it is just to say, that the equivocal posi- 
tion in which he stood very justly tended to lessen confidence of the public in his 
statements, and his little book made slight impression. The Mormons charged 
that he was an adventurer of the worst class— himself a counterfeiter, etc., and 
that he quarreled with the Prophet and the authorities because he was detected 
and exposed." Gregg also says that this "Expose was much of the same charac- 
ter as that of General Bennett's." (Ibid). 



150 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. [A. D. 1843 

Abraham 0. Smoot, Dwight Harding, 

John Lytle, Simeon A. Dunn, 

Andrew Lytle, Appleton M. Harmon. 

Howard Egan, James Pace, 

Benjamin Boyce, Francfs M. Edwards, 

Lorenzo Clark, William H. Edwards, 

Davies McOlney, . Moses M. Sanders, 

Abram Palmer, Warren A. Smith, 

Isaac C. Haight, George W. Clyde, 

John L. Butler, Vernon H. Bruce, 

Elbridge Tufts, Armstead Moffett, 

Truman R. Barlow, Azra Adams. 

The Mayor said: — 

Address of the Mayor to the Nauvoo Police. 

It is expected that a part will be on duty while others rest. It might 
be expected that thieves had crept into the Church for the purpose of 
concealing their wickedness under the garb of sanctity. 

It is an abominable thing to set a thief to catch a thief: and I would 
look with the utmost contempt upon men who do this as guilty of a 
mean and cowardly act. 

Some city councils have taken thieves out of their prisons, and 
employed them as policemen, under the old and foolish adage — "Set a 
rogue to catch a rogue," which is decidedly wrong, and is corrupt in 

policy. 

You will act under the direction of Jonathan Dunham— we will call 
him High Policeman. In reality he is the captain of the police: but as 
men are apt to be frightened at a military title, we will use a civil title, 
as these policemen are all civil officers of the city. 

Captain Dunham is the man to send after a thief. He will not come 
back, after following him a mile, to ask if he may shoot him if he 
resists. Some men have strange ears and changeable hearts: they 
become transformed from their original purity and integrity, and 
become altogether different from what they were. 

If the bloodthirsty hell-hounds of Missouri continue their persecution, 
we will be forbearing, until we are compelled to strike; then do it 
decently and in good order, and break the yoke effectually, so that it 
cannot be mended. The mob have been so repulsed in their last attempt 
at kidnapping, they may stand in fear, at least for a short time. 

We will be in peace with all men, so long as they will mind their own 
business and let us alone. Even "Peace with Missouri" shall be the 
motto of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, from this 



A.D. 1843] HISTOKY OF THE GHUKCH. 151 

time forth, if they will stop their persecution and oppressive warfare 
against us. Let them alone, for they stink in the nostrils of the 
Almighty: let them alone. Porter Rockwell has come home clear. A 
Missouri grand jury could not find a bill against him even in Jackson 
county; and that proves me clear of the charge of being accessory of 
shooting Lilburn W. Bogscs. Many of our difficulties from the State of 
Missouri are hurled upon us through the influence of some of our near 
neighbors. 

Governor Ford has boasted of being a law-abiding man. A goyernor 
certainly should be law-abiding. It is therefore our best policy to 
acquaint the Executive, by affidavits, of every violation of our rights, 
so that when the onset comes, he will be obliged by law ro send the 
militia to our support. Let us keep cool as a cucumber on a frosty 
morning. Do not be excited. Say nothing about Missouri's oppresion. 
"A soft answer turns away wrath but grievous words stir up anger," 
therefore we 'poor pussy" this generation. 

Keep a strict account of the time you serve as policemen. Have the 
ordinances of the city always in your possession, and study them, 
and ferret out all grogshops, gambling-houses, brothels, and disorderly 
conduct; and if a transgressor resists, cuff his ears. If anyone lifts a 
weapon or presents a pistol at you, take his life, if need be, to preserve 
your own; but enforce the ordinances, and preserve the peace of the 
city, and take care of your own lives. Let no horses be taken away 
out of the city, or anything else stolen, if you can help it. 

Let Missouri alone. Keep out of her territory. Don't go over there 
on any business whatever. Any of this people would be subject to 
cruel abuse, if found in that State, in the same manner that Porter 
Rockwell has been. He was seized in St. Louis while attending to his 
lawful business, picked up and ironed, and thrown in jail without any 
form of law, conveyed to Independence in the custody of a ruffian who 
swore falsely in the hope of getting a reward, kept in irons all the way, 
lodged in Independence jail without even the form of an inquiry, 
chained double in a filthy, damp, unventilated dungeon, — chained hand 
and foot, so that he could not straighten for months, till his body was 
reduced to a mere skeleton, and he unable to walk when the irons were 
taken off, and he had to be led, — half fed on the refuse of what dogs 
would not eat: his case presented to a Jackson county grand jury, and 
not evidence enough to warrant them in even finding an indictment. 
After which, the Missouri court, in the plenitude of their justice, trans- 
mitted the innocent and unindicted man back to the dungeon, without 
fire, provisions, or any other comfort, — hoping by this torture, no doubt, 
to produce death, or force him to accede to an infamous proposition, 
"that whether JoJSmith was guilty or innocent, only come out against 



152 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. LA. D. 1843 

him, you shall have your liberty, and receive a liberal reward.'' After 
months have passed away, without any shadow of law, the door is 
opened, and he is told to "slip off privatelv, or the people will hang 
you." Keep out of Missouri, if you don't want such treatment as this; 
for the Averys, Rockwell, and many others have been thankful to get 
away with their lives. 

If any man attempts to bribe you in any way whatever, or persuade 
you to neglect your duty, tell the same to me. Let us have a 
reformation. 

There are speculators in this State who are wanting to sell revolving 
pistols to us, in order to fight the Missourians, and at the same time 
inciting the Missourians to fight us. Don't buy: it would be better to 
buy ploughshares and raise corn with them. 

My life is more in danger from some little dough-head of a fool in 
this city than from all my numerous and inveterate enemies abroad. I 
am exposed to far greater danger from traitors among ourselves than 
from enemies without, although my life has been sought for many years 
by the civil and military authorities, priests, and people of Missouri; 
and if I can escape from the ungrateful treachery of assassins, I can 
live as Ca?sar might have lived, were it not for a right-hand Brutus. I 
have had pretended friends betray me. All the enemies upon the face 
of the earth may roar and exert all their power to bring about my death, 
but they can accomplish nothing, unless some who are among us and enjoy 
our society, have been with us in our councils, participated in our con- 
fidence, taken us by the hand, called us brother, saluted us with a kiss, 
join with our enemies, turn our virtues into faults, and, by falsehood 
and deceit, stir up their wrath and indignation against us, and bring 
their united vengeance upon our heads. All the hue-and-cry of the 
chief priests and elders against the Savior, could not bring down the 
wrath of the Jewish nation upon His head, and thereby cause the cruci- 
fixion of the Son of God, until Judas said unto them, "Whomsoever I 
shall kiss, he is the man; hold him fast." Judas was one of the Twelve 
Apostles, even their treasurer, and dipt with their Master in the dish, 
and through his treachery, the crucifixion was brought about; and 
we have a Judas in our midst. 

The Mayor blesses the Police. 

It shall be said in time to come, Where are our old policemen 1 ? Let 
us have one of the old policemen, to stand at our window, guard our 
interest, and protect our families, and we shall be safe. 

If you will magnify vour office, the full confidence of Israel shall be 
the blessing that shall be conferred on you in time to come. 



A. U. 1843] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 153 

Counselor Hyrum Smith spoke of the importance of the 
police office. 

The Mayor said that if any one offered a bribe to a 
policeman, the city will pay that policeman twice the 
amount effered for the information, when reported to 
the Mayor. 

Friday, 29. — My clerk made copies of five affidavits 
made yesterday by Elder Orson Hyde, Mr. Daniel Avery, 
.and others, and sent the same to the Governor, with the 
following letter : — 

Letter to Governor Ford — Accompanying Affidavits. 

Nauvoo, December 30, 1843. 

Sir: — I forward to your Excellency a nunioer of affidavits relative to 
the late kidnapping' of the Averys, and upon other matters. When the 
mob made efforts to resist the laws, Joseph Smith, as Mayor, gave 
notice to Major-General Law to hold a portion of the Nauvoo Legion in 
readiness; and Aaron Johnson, Esq., called for some troops to maintain 
the laws: but I am happy to say, none were ordered to march, as it was 
deemed most advisable to let Colonel Levi Williams and his mob flourish 
until indictments could be made at the Circuit Court of Hancock county. 

We shall continue to keep vour Excellency informed upon all matters 
of moment touching the premises. 

Saturday, 30. — At nine, a.m., held Mayor's court. Two 
boys, Eoswell and Evander White, were brought up for 
stealing six hens and a rooster. They were sentenced to 
pay for the fowls, and to ten days' hard labor each on 
the streets. 

In the afternoon, met in the assembly room with the 
quorum. William Law and wife were not present. Warm 
and rainy. 

Sunday, 31st. — At home. 

In the afternoon, called with Elder Parley P. Pratt to see 
his wife. 

At early candle-light, went to prayer-meeting; admin- 
istered the sacrament; after which I retired. At midnight, 
about fifty musicians and singers sang Phelps' New 
Year's Hymn under my window. 



154 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1843 

Warm and rainy. No ice to be seen. 
The subjoined list shows a few of the publications for 
and against the Saints during the year. 

Pro et con Mormonism, publications for the year 1843. 

The Alton Telegraph published several very severe articles against 
the Church. 

Edward Brotherton published a scurrilous pamphlet at Manchester, 
England, entitled "Mormonism — its Rise and Progress, and the Prophet 
Joseph Smith." 

The Bichmond Palladium published an amusing and fovorable article 
on "Mormonism." 

The Boston Bee published a series of articles favorable to the Saints, 
which had a beneficial effect in putting down prejudice and mis- 
representation. 

A favorable account of a visit to Nauvoo was published by Samuel 
A. Prior, Methodist minister. 

The Morning Star, a Freewill Baptist paper, published a long and 
bitter article against the Latter-day Saints, entitled "Mormon 
Perversion." 

A favorable article, entitled "Nauvoo and Mormonism," was 
published by a Traveler. 

The Quincy Whig published several bitter articles against me. 

The Warsaw Message, and subsequently the Warsaw Signal, published 
a continual tirade of abuse, misrepresentation, and lies against the 
Saints. 

The Neiv Haven (Con.) Herald published a favorable account of the 
"Mormons" in Nauvoo. 



A. D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 155 



CHAPTER VII. 

PRESIDENT SMITH'S CORRESPONDENCE WITH JOHN C. CAL- 
HOUN— CARTWRIGHT DROWNING CASE, ENGLAND — CITY 
GUARDS INCREASED— PEARS OF LAW AND MARKS — INVES- 
TIGATION BY THE CITY COUNCIL — RESISTANCE OF OFFI- 
CERS AT CARTHAGE — ANTI- MORMON OBJECTIONS TO CITY 
ORDINANCES —THE PROPHET'S DIFFICULTIES WITH FRAN- 
CIS M. HIGBEE — REGULATIONS FOR THE SALE OF SPIR- 
ITUOUS LIQUORS. 

Monday, January 1, 1844. — A cold, blustering rainstorm 
ushered in the new year. 

At sunrise, Thomas Miller, James Leach, James 
Bridges, and John Frodsham were brought before me by 
the police, charged with disorderly conduct. Fined Mil- 
ler S5: the others were discharged. 

A large party took a new year's supper at my house, and 
had music and dancing till morning. I was in New Vear , s at 
my private room with my family, Elder John the Mansion- 
Taylor and other friends. 

Tuesday, 2. — Two p. m., Hyruni Dayton was brought 
before Mayor's court for disorderly conduct in resisting 
and abusing the police: fined $25 and costs. His son, 
Lysander Dayton, for the same offense, was sentenced to 
ten days' hard labor, on the public streets; and subse- 
quently, for contempt of court, ten days more. 

Snow one inch deep. 

I here insert Mr. Calhoun's answer to my letter of 
inquiry, dated November 4, 1843: — 

^Lettir: John C. Calhoun to Joseph Smith — Defining What Former's Pol- 
icy Would Be Towards the Saints if Elected President. 

Fort Hill, December 2, 1843. 
Sir: — You ask me what would be my rule of action relative the Mor- 



156 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

mons or Latter-day Saints should I be elected President; to which I 
answer, that if I should be elected, I would strive to administer the 
government according to the Constitution and the laws of the union; 
and that as they make no distinction between citizens of different relig- 
ious creeds I should make none. As far as it depends on the Execu- 
tive department, all should have the full benefit of both, and none 
should be exempt from their operation. 

But as you refer to the case of Missouri, candor compels me to repeat 
what I said to you at Washington, that, according to my views, the case 
does not come within the jurisdiction of the Federal Government, 
which is one of limited and specific powers. 

With respect, I am, &c, &c, 
J. C. Calhoun. 

Mr. Joseph Smith. 

To which I wrote the following reply: — 

Letter: Joseph Smith to John C. Calhoun — The Latter's Policy lowardt 
the Latter-day Saints, if Elected President of the U. S. Considered. 

Nauvoo, Illinois, January 2, 1844. 

Sir: — Your reply to my letter of last November, concerning your 
rule of action towards the Latter-day Saints, if elected President, is at 
hand; and that you and your friends of the same opinion relative to the 
matter in question may not be disappointed as to me or my mind upon 
so grave a subject, permit me, as a law-abiding man, as a well-wisher 
to the perpetuity of constitutional rights and liberty, and as a friend to 
the free worship of Almighty God by all, according to the dictates of 
every person's own conscience, to say that I am surprised that a manor 
men in the highest stations of public life should have made up such a 
fragile "view" of a case, than which there is not one on the face of the 
globe fraught with so much consequence to the happiness of men in 
this world or the world to come. 

To be sure, the first paragraph of your letter appears very complac- 
ent and fair on a white sheet of paper. And who, that is ambitious for 
greatness and power, would not have said the same thing? Your oath 
binds you to support the Constitution and laws; and as all creeds 
and religions are alike tolerated, they must of course, all be justified or 
condemned according to merit or demerit. But why — tell me why art 
all the principal men held up for public stations so cautiously careful, 
not to publish to the world that they will judge a righteous judgment, law 
or no law? for laws and opinions, like the vanes of steeples, change with 
the wind. 

One Congress passes a law, another repeals it; and one statesman 
says that the Constitution means this, and another that; and who does 



A.D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 157 

not know that all may be wrong! the opinion and pledge, therefore, in 
the first paragraph of your reply to my question, like the forced steam 
from the engine of a steam-boat, makes the show of a bright cloud at 
first; but when it comes in contact with a purer atmosphere, dissolves 
to common air again. 

Your second pargraph leaves you naked before yourself, like a like- 
ness in a mirror, when you say, that according to your view, the Federal 
Government is "one of limited and specific powers," and has no juris- 
diction in the case of the "Mormons.'' So then a State can at any 
time expel any portion of her citizens with impunity: and, in the lan- 
guage of Mr. Van Buren, frosted over with your gracious "views oj the 
case," 1 " 1 though the cause is ever so just, Government can do nothing for 
them, because it has no power. 

Go on, then, Missouri, after another set of inhabitants (as the Latter- 
day Saints did,) have entered some two or three hundred thousand 
dollars' worth of land, and made extensive improvements thereon ; go 
on, then, I say; banish the occupants or owners, or kill them, a? the 
mobbers did many of the Latter- day Saints, and take their land aud 
property as spoil; and let the Legislature, as in the case of the "Mor- 
mons/' appropriate a couple of hundred thousand dollars to pay the 
mob for doing that job; for the renowned Senator from South Carolina, 
Mr. J. C. Calhoun, says the powers of the Federal Government are so 
specific and limited that it has no jurisdiction oj the case! ye people 
who groan under the oppression of tyrants! — ye exiled Poles, who have 
felt the iron hand of Russian grasp! — ye poor and unfortunate among 
all nations! come to the asylum of the oppressed; buy ye lands of the 
General Government; pay in your money to the treasury to strenghten 
the army and the navy; worship God according to the dictatts of your 
own consciences; pay in your taxes to support the great heads of a 
glorious nation: but remember a "sovereign State" is so much more 
powerful than the United States, the parent Government, that it can 
exile you at pleasure, mob you with impunity, confiscate your lands and 
property, have the Legislaturr sanction it, — yea, even murder you as 
an edict of an emperor, and it does no wrong; for the noble Senator of 
South Carolina says the power of the federal Government is so limited 
and specific, that it has no jurisdiction of the case! What think ye of 
imperium in imperiof 

Ye spirits of the blessed of all ages, hark! Ye shades of departed 
statesmen, listen! Abraham, Moses, Homer, Socrates, Solon, Solomon, 
and all that ever thought of right and wrong, look down from your 
exaltations, if you have any; for it is said, "In the midst of counselors 
there is safety;'''' and when you have learned that fifteen thousand inno- 
cent citizens, after having purchased their lands of the United States 






158 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 1A-.D. 1844 

and paid for them, were expelled from a "sovereign State," by order 
of the Governor, at the point of the bayonet, their arms taken from 
them by the same authority, and their right of migration into said 
State denied, under pain of imprisonment, whipping, robbing, mobbing, 
and even death, and no justice or recompense allowed; and, from the 
Legislature with the Governor at the head, down to the Justice of the 
Peace, with a bottle of whisky in one hand and a bowie-knife in the 
other, hear them all declare that there is no justice for a "Mormon" in 
that State; and judge ye a righteous judgment, and tell me when the 
virtue of the States was stolen, where the honor of the General 
Government lies hid, and what clothes a senator with wisdom. nulli- 
fying Carolina! little tempestuous Rhode Island! Would it not be 
well for the great men of the nation to read the fable of the partial 
judge; and when part of the free citizens of a State had been expelled 
contrary to the Constitution, mobbed, robbed, plundered, and many 
murdered, instead of searching into the course taken with Joanna 
Southcott, Ann Lee, the French Prophets, the Quakers of New Eng- 
land, and rebellious negroes in the slave States, to hear both sides and 
then judge, rather than have the mortification to say, "Oh, it is my bull 
that has killed your ox! That alters the case! I must inquire into it; 
and if, and if — ! 

If the Genpral Government has no power to reinstate expelled citizens 
to their rights, there is a monstrous hypocrite fed and fostered from the 
hard earnings of the people! A real "bull beggar" upheld by sy- 
cophants. And although you may wink to the priests to stigmatize^ 
wheedle the drunkards to swear, and raise the hue-and-cry of — "Im- 
postor! false prophet! G — d — n old Joe Smith!" yet remember, if the 
Latter-day Saints are not restored to all their rights and paid for 
all their losses, according to the known rules of justice and judgment, 
reciprocation and common honesty among men, that God will come out 
of His hiding place, and vex this nation with a sore vexation: yea, the 
consuming wrath of an offended God shall smoke through the nation 
with as much distress and woe as independence has blazed through with 
pleasure and delight. Where is the strength of Government? Where 
is the patriotism of a Washington, a Warren, and Adams? And where 
is a spark from the watch-fire of '76, by which one candle might be lit 
that would glimmer upon the confines of Democracy? Well may it be 
said that one man is not a state, nor one state the nation. 

In the days of General Jackson, when France refused the first instal- 
ment for spoliations, there was power, force, and honor enough to 
resent injustice and insult, and the money came; and shall Missouri, 
filled with negro- drivers and white men stealers, go "unwhipped of 
justice" for tenfold greater sins than France? No! verily, no! While 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHLKCH. 159 

I have powers of body and mind— while water runs and grass grows — 
while virtue is lovely and vice hateful; and while a stone points out a 
sacred spot where a fragment of American liberty once was, I or my 
posterity will plead the cause of injured innocence, until Missouri makes 
atonement for all her sins, or sinks disgraced, degraded, and damned 
to hell, "where the worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched." 

Why, sir,the powers not delegated to the United States and the States 
belong to the people, and Congress sent to do the people's business 
have all power; and shall fifteen thousand citizens groan in exile? 
vain men! will ye not, if ye do not restore them to their rights and 
$2,000,000 worth of property, relinquish to them, (the Latter-day Saints,) 
as a body, their portion of power that belongs to them according to the 
Constitution? Power has its convenience as well as inconvenience. 
"The world was not made for Caesar alone, but for Cassius too." 

I will give you a parable. A certain lord had a vineyard in a goodly 
land, which men labored in at their pleasure. A few meek men also 
went and purchased with money from some of these cnief men that 
labored at pleasure a portion of land in the vineyard, at a very remote 
part of it, and began to improve it, and to eat and drink the fruit 
thereof, — when some vile persons, who regarded not man, neither feared 
the lord of the vineyard, rose up suddenly and robbed these meek men, 
and drove them from their possessions, killing many. 

This barbarous act made no small stir among the men in the vineyard ; 
and all that portion who were attached to that part of the vineyard 
where the men were robbed rose up in grand council, with their chief 
man, who had firstly ordered the deed to be done, and made a covenant 
not to pay for the cruel deed, but to keep the spoil, and never let those 
meek men set their feet on that soil again, neither recompense ihem 
for it. 

Now, these meek men, in their distress, wisely sought redress of 
those wicked men in every possible manner, and got none. They then 
supplicated the chief men, who held the vineyard at pleasure, and who 
had the power to sell and defend it, for redress and redemption; and 
those men, loving the fame and favor of the multitude more than the 
glory of the lord of the \ineyard, answered— "Your cause is just, but 
we can do nothing for you, because we have no power." 

Now, when the lord of the vineyard saw that virtue and innocence 
were not regarded, and his vineyard occupied by wicked men, he sent 
men and took the possession of it to himself, and destroyed those un- 
faithful servants, and appointed them their portion among hypocrites. 

And let me say that all men who say that Congress has no power to 
restore and defend the rights of her citizens have not the love of the 
truth abiding in them. Congress has power to protect the nation against 



160 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

foreign invasion and internal broil; and whenever that body passes an 
act to maintain right with any power, or to restore right to any portion 
of her citizens, it is the supreme law oj the land; and should a State re 
fuse submission, that State is guilty of insurrection or rebellion, and the 
President has as much power to repel it as Washington had to march 
against the "whisky boys at Pittsburg," or General Jackson had to 
send an armed force to suppress the rebellion of South Carolina. 

To close, I would admonish you, before you let your "candor compel" 
3 T ou again to write upon a subject great as the salvation of man, con- 
sequential as the life of the Savior, broad as the principles of eternal 
truth, and valuable as the jewels of eternity, to read in the 8th section 
and 1st article of the Costitution of the United States, the first, four- 
teenth and seventeenth "specific" and not very "limited powers" of the 
Federal Government, what can be done to protect the lives, property, 
and rights of a virtuous people, when the administrators of the law and 
law-makers are unbought by bribes, uncorrupted by patronage, un- 
tempted by gold, unawed by fear, and uncontaminated tangling alli- 
ances — even like Caesar's wife, not onlv unspotted, but unsuspected! 
And God, who cooled the heat of a Nebuchadnezzar's furnace or shut 
the mouths of lions for the honor of a Daniel, will raise your mind 
above the narrow notion that the General Government has no power, 
to the sublime idea that Congress, with the President as Executor, is as 
almighty in its sphere as Jehovah is in his. 

With great respect, I have the honour to be 

Your obedient servant, 

Joseph Smith. 
Hon. ("Mr") J. C. Calhoun, 
Fort Hill, S. C. 

Jonathan Pugmire, Senior, and Thomas Cartwright 
Release of discharged by Jndge Whitehead, at Chester, 
Pugmire and England. The iudge would not allow the 

Cartwright ° .jo 

from Prison, costs of prosecution or witnesses to be paid by 
the Crown. It was very evident that the 
Church of England ministers were at the bottom of the 
machinations, and were sorely discomfited at the result. 
I insert the statement of the unfortunate occurrence given 
by Jonathan Pugmire, Junior: — 

Cartwright Drowning — Accident at a Baptism in England. 

Thomas Cartwright was baptized November 6, 1843, unknown to his 
wife, by Elder Jonathan Pugmire, Senior; but she had mistrusted he 




A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 161 

had gone to the water, and went to Pugmire's house the same evening, 
and inquired where Tom was, (meaning her husband). Mrs. Pugmire 
answered she did not know. 

After this, Mrs. Cartwright went out and met them returning from 
the waters of baptism, and shouted— "Damn you, I'll dip ye! " and ex- 
pressing her determination to have revenge on Pugmire's family, she 
used a great deal of very bad language. 

Some of the neighbors (not belonging to the Church) advised her 
not to speak too much against the Latter-day Saints, as she might yet 
become convinced of the truth of their doctrines and be baptized her- 
self. She replied, "I hope to God, if ever I am such a fool, that I'll be 
drowned in the attempt! '' 

A short time afterwards, in consequence of her husband talking to 
her about the truths of the Gospel, she consented to go to Pugmire's 
house and hear for herself. 

After attending a few times. she told her husband she had a dream, in 
which she saw it was a fearful thing to fall in the hands of the living 
God, and requested to be baptized. 

Mrs. Pugmire talked with her,reminding her of her harsh expression. 
She confessed all. and said, "I am very sorry; and as my conduct is 
known to all this neighborhood, I do not wish to have my baptism pub- 
lic, but to have it done privately; and I wi&h no female to accompany 
me to the water but you. ; ' 

On the night of her baptism (November 23, 1843), she was conducted 
to the water by her husband and Elder Pugmire, witnessed by Mrs. 
Pugmire and James Moore. Previous to this time, Elder Pugmire had 
baptized eight or ten persons in the same place. 

On arriving at the water, they found the creek had overflowed its 
banks, in consequence of a heavy rain which had fallen that day. Elder 
Pugmire examined its banks, and concluded he could attend to the or- 
dinance without going into the regular bed of the creek. 

This was done; but on raising Mrs. Cartwright, and as they were 
walking out, they both went under the water. 

It was afterwards discovered that the water had uudermined the 
bank, and it gave way under their feet. Meantime, Thomas Cart- 
wright leaped into the creek and seized hold of his wife's petticoat; 
but the water carried her off, and left the garment in his hand. 

James Moore got hold of Elder Pugtnire by the hair of his head, 
Mrs. Pugmire holding Moore's hand, and thus they dragged 
him out. 

Moore then ran to the village to give the alarm. On his return, he 
found Cartwright about one hundred yards from where he leaped in, 

11 Vol. VI. 



162 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

with' his head above water, holding on to the stump of a tree. He said 
he could not have remained in that situation one minute longer. 

George Knowlen swam the stream and got him out; but his wife was 
not found until the day following, when she was found about two hun- 
dred yards from where the accident occurred, standing upon her feet, 
with her head above water, the stream having fallen about two feet. 

On Pugmire reaching home, a Church of England minister had bim 
arrested and dragged from his family the same evening, and kept in 
custody of a constable until a coroner's inquest was held on the body of 
the deceased. 

After she was buried, Cartwright was arrested, and both wore sent to 
Chester jail, to wait their trial befor the judge of assize. They were 
in confinement six weeks and three days before their trial came on. 

The judge (Whitehead) remarked to the jury that baptism was an 
ordinance of our religion, and that it was a mere accident which had 
occurred. He advised the jurymen to be very careful how they examined 
the case before them — that it was an ordinance instituted by God (at 
that moment the Lord spoke by the voice of thunder, which shook the 
court house,) and advised the prisoners to be very careful in the fu- 
ture to select a proper place for the performance of that rite. They 
were then set free. 

During their imprisonment, Pugmire had a vision, in which he was 
informed that they would be liberated; and he told Cartwright to be of 
good cheer, for they certainly would be acquitted. 

Wednesday 3. — At home. 

At noon, met with the City Council. The following is 
a copy of the minutes : — 

Difficulty of Wm. Law et al. With the Police. 

Special City Council, Jan. 3, 1844, 12 o'clock. 

Names of members called. All present. 

The mayor directed the marshal to notify William Law and John 
Snyder that the counc'l was in session, and informed the council that 
William Law had said to his brother Hyrum that the police had been 
sworn by him (the Prophet) secretly to put Law out of the way. [The 
Prophet said] "I have had no private conversion with any of the 
police but the high policeman, Jonathan Dunham, and that was to re- 
quest him to have especial care of my personal safety, as I appre- 
hended attempts to kidnap me by the Missourians.'' He called on the 
policemen to say if they had received any private oath from him, when 
they all said, "No." 

Councilor Hyrum Smith said that William Law told him the police 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 163 

had sworn him (Law) to keep the secret, which was that he was to be 
put out of the way in three months. 

The mayor said he wished policemen to understand forever that all 
lie wanted was that they should execute the ordinances of the city and 
his orders according to law. 

Several of the police called for the individual to be named who made 
the statement to William Law. 

The mayor said he thought proper that William Law should come 
and make his statement to the council on oath. 

The mayor then said to the police, "If you see a man stealing, and 
you have told him three times to stand, and warned him that he is a 
dead man if he does not stand, and he runs shoot off his legs. The 
design of the office of the police is to stop thieving; but an ene- 
my should not be harmed until he draws weapons upon you." 

William Law came in, and was sworn to tell the whole truth touch- 
ing the case before the council. 

William Law said he had been informed that some of the policemen 
had had another oath administered besides the one administered to 
them publicly: that one of them said there was a Judas in General 
Smith's cabinet, — one who stood next to him; and he must be taken 
care of, and that he must not be allowed to go into the world, but must 
be taken care of; and he was not only a dough- head and a traitor like 
Judas, but an assassin like Brutus: that the idea had been advanced 
that the scriptures support such a doctrine. 

Alderman Harris. Who is the person? and who told you? 
Low. am under obligations not to tell. 

Alderman Harris. That is immaterial. You are bound to disclose 
the whole truth here by virtue of your oath. 

Law. I am afraid to tell. One oath is as good as another. 

The Mayor said he would prote^ ^1. He was bound to tell. 

Laic. Eli Norton told me. 

Alderman Harris. Was Eli Norton of the police? 

Law. No; but he got his information from Daniel Cam, who is a 
policeman. 

The marshal was sent to bring Eli Norton. 

The mayor said to the police — "On conditions I have had no private 
conversation with any of you, rise up and change the breech of your 
gun upwards," when all arose and changed the positions of their guns 
as indicated, 

Counselor Byrum Smith considered the matter very alarming when 
he heard it. He referred to Dr. Sampson Avard's and John Carl's 
treachery and false swearing in Missouri, and rehearsed what was said 
by the mayor to the police in the former council. 



164 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

The mayor said, "The reason why I made the remarks I did was on 
account of the reports brought from Missouri jail by 0. P. Rockwell, 
that my enemies were determined to get me into their power and take 
my life, and thereby thought they would accomplish the overthrow of 
'Mormonism.' And to enable them to effect this, they had secured 
the services of some of my most confidential friends, whom I did not 
suspect, and who were living in Nauvoo, to deliver me into their hands 
so that their religious organizations upon their own principles might 
stand; for they feared that 'Mormonism' would destroy their present 
religious creeds, organizations, and orthodox systems. They did not 
design to try me, but hang me, or take my life anyhow: that they had 
a man in our midst who would fix me out, if they could not get me 
into their power without." He then referred to his remarks at the 
previous council. 

Minutes of last council being called for, were then read. 

Eli Norton sworn. 

Question by the Mayor Did Cam say I had administered a private 
oath? 

Norton. No. Did not say much about Law. Did not say you had ever 
administered any private oath. Carn never intimated to me that Law 
must be put out of the way. Did not call William Law's name, nor 
any other name. Did not say the policemen had received a private 
oath. Understood Carn to say they had received private instructions; 
and if a man could not keep a secret, he was not worthy of a place in 
the Church. Did not say the mayor had given him a private charge. 
Did not tell where the danger was expected to come from. Told me 
there were dough-heads about. Did not say the dough-heads were in 
danger, but the mayor was in danger from the dough-heads. 

Question by William Lata: Did you not understand from Brother 
Carn that he was suspicious of some person near Joseph being a dough- 
head, and that that person was myself? 

Answer: He mentioned a dough-head as being very near Joseph, 
and he guessed you was the man; and I thought it might be that Dan- 
iteism was not done with. 

Mayor: Tell what you know that made you so alarmed about 
Brother Law. 

Ansiver: There was no chain to the conversation; but I drew the 
inference that Brother Law was the dough-head from Cam's conversa- 
tion; but Carn did not name Law. 

Daniel Carn was sworn: Said, ''I told Brother Norton that certain 
men had been counseled by the Prophet to invest their means in 
publishing the new translation of the Bible; and they instead of obey- 
ing that counsel, had used their property for the purpose of building a 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 165 

steam- mill and raising a hundred acres of hemp; and the Lord had not 
blessed them in the business, but sunk their hemp in the Mississippi 
river. I told him it was my opinion that Brother Law was the dough- 
head referred to. 

I have had no secret conversation whatever with the mayor, and 
never received any charge except the one, with the rest of the police, 
before the city council. 

The mayor suggested the propriety, since Rockwell and others are 
clear, and we have the promise of protection from the governor; and 
as the police are now well organized, that they put up their guns and 
that the council pass such an order. The Danite system alluded to by 
Norton never had any existence. It was a term made use of by some 
of the brethren in Far West, and grew out of an expression I made use 
of when the brethren were preparing to defend themselves from the 
Missouri mob, in reference to the stealing of Macaiah's images (Judges 
chapter IS)— If the enemy comes, the Danites will be after them, 
meaningthe brethren in self-defense. 

The mayor instructed the police to lay up their arms till further 
orders. 

At half past four p. m. council adjourned. 

The council spent nearly the whole day in investigating 
the subject and examining these two witnesses. The 
police were all sworn and cross-examined by Reconciliation 
William Law and the aldermen, and the re- andw£™Law! 
suit showed nothing but imagination, having grown out of 
the surmises of Daniel Carn; upon which Law became 
satisfied, shook hands with me, declaring he did not be- 
lieve a word of the story, and said he would stand by me 
to the death, and called the whole council and the police 
to witness his declaration. 

Thursday 4. — At home. 

I took dinner in the north room, and was remarking to 
Brother Phelps what a kind, provident wife I had, — that 
when I wanted a little bread and milk, she would load the 
table with so many good things, it would destroy my ap- 
petite. At this moment Emma came in, Repartee of 
while Phelps, in continuation of the conversa- Emm a h s^ith 
tion said, "You must do as Bonaparte did — have a little 
table, just large enough for the victuals you want your- 






166 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. lA.I). 1844 

self." Mrs. Smith replied, "Mr. Smith is a bigger man 
than Bonaparte: he can never eat without his friends." I 
remarked, "That is the wisest thing I ever heard you 
say." 

Friday 5. — At home. 

Last night I dreamed I saw two serpents swallowing 
each other tail foremost. 

Another tempest in a tea-pot, or big fuss about nothing 
at all. In consequence of the night being severely cold, 
Alarm of wii- some persons built a fire on the bank of the 
nam Marks. river, nearly opposit William Marks' house. 
He then became afraid, and concluded he must either be 
the Brutus or the dough-head, and lay awake all night, 
thinking the police had built the fire to kill him by! In 
the morning he called on me, reported the circumstances 
and expressed his fears, when another session of inquiry 
was held by the city council at his request, and the police 
sworn and questioned. The following is a synopsis of 
the minutes: — 

Special Session o the City Council — Fears oj Wm. Law and Marks. 

Friday, January 5, 1844, 11 a. m. 

Names of members called. 

Prayer by 0. Spencer. 

Minutes of the last two councils read and approved. 

Object of the council stated by the mayor, similar to the last council 
as William Law and William Marks had considered themselves in dan- 
ger. When he heard the report he was unwilling to believe anything 
about it, from the course the thing took in the last council; but, for the 
sake of others, he had called this council. 

As Leonard Soby was going home night before last, he was hailed by 
a supposed policeman with a gun, which frightened him. Soby says 
that a policeman had told him that Marks and Law must not cross his 
tracks; that Warren Smith said at another time that William Marks 
and William Law were enemies to Joseph. 

I have never thought even to dream of doing anything against the 
peace of the inhabitants of this city. Did not know I had any ene- 
mies in this city: have stayed at home and heard but little: 
did not know that there was so much evil surmising among 
tho people. My long forbearance to my enemies ought to be 



A .u. 1844] HISTOEY OF THE CHTJECH. 167 

sufficient testimony of my peaceful disposition toward all men. 
It occurred to my mind that it was not fear, but got up for effect; 
but I do not know it. I want the council to investigate this matter. 
William Marks sworn. Testified that on Monday evening Brother 
Sobycame up and said, "Are you aware of the danger you are ml 

Marks replied, "No." 

Soby "Your life is threatened; a policeman stopped me in 
the dark last night as I was going home; I was alarmed. I 
supposed the threats were from that policeman, but I was mistaken. 
Another policeman, Warren Smith, said last Sunday that Joseph had 
enemies-that Law and myself were Joseph's enemies, and if they 
came in his way they might be popped over. A fire was kindled in the- 
street near my house, and I thought I was watched. Francis H.gbee 
told me, and a man in the east part of the town told me; and a man 
came from the other side of the river and told the story to that man, as 
he said. Yesterday morning, Hyrum Smith, Wilson Law, and William 
Law met in the street, and I told the story as before related. 

Mayor. Did ever anybody tell you I directed you to be watched ? / 
William Marks. No. 

Marshal went for Francis M. Higbee and George W. Crouse. 
Leonard Soby sivorn. On Sunday, 31st December last, I met War- 
ren Smith in Crouse's store; asked him if he knew who the Brutus 
was. Warren Smith said he believed William Law was one, and 
Marks anther; thev had better not come in his way. Did not say he 
would shoot them, or endanger their life in any way. Did not know 
whether there were any private instructions, or not. Believed Brother 
Marks was in danger. Did not think Marks in any danger 
from Joseph. Thought Warren Smith was under a ^ wrong im- 
pression with regard to Marks. Warren Smith said, "He, Marks, 
had better not cross my path when I am on duty." I gathered 
the idea there was something wrong with Brother Warren Smith. Do 
not recollect any person present. 

Mayor. Did Warren Smith or any other policeman give you to un- 
derstand that I had authorized him to believe there was any difficulty 
between me and Brother Law or Marks? 

Soby No. He did not think Warren Smith would transcend his 
official duties towards Law or Marks. Felt at the time Marks and 
Law were in danger. Did not think they were in danger, if they did 
not rise up against the authorities. 

Did not say he had any instruction. Said to Mr. Marks, "You haye 
enemies." My impression was that somebody had been to Joseph to 
make a bad impression on his mind. Warren Smith did mention 
brother Marks' name, I think. 



lt{ 8 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. [A. D. 1844 

Thirty policemen, all who were present, sworn. Testified that 
General Smith had never given them any private instruction concern- 
ing 1 the case before the council. 

Warren Smith said Soby asked his opinion who was the Judas. I 
said, from rumor, I would suspect William Law. Does not believe he 
mentioned Marks' name. My opinion was founded on rumor. Brother 
Isaac Hill said Brother Law was in a bad situation— was kicking, 
aud if he did not mind, he wonld go over the board. If he had 
his property in available means and was away, he would feel better. 
Have heard it talked of that Brother Law was not going to stand. Hil 
did not tell what he was kicking at. I understand a Brutus to 
mean a treacherous man, 

George W. Crouse sworn. Does not recollect any conversation be- 
tween Warren Smith and Leonard Soby, at his store, relative to the 
case in question. Had a discussion about the duties of policemen. 

Councilor John Taylor said it was customary in all cities for police- 
men to go armed in time of danger. 

Councilor Orson Hyde confirmed Councilor Taylor's observation. 

Councilor Hyrum Smith spoke. Told a story of the old Dutchman 
and the ox. Soby makes me think of an old Dutchman that had an 
ox— the first animal he ever owned in his life, and he broke him to 
ride; then he filled a sack with rocks and laid it on the ox's back, and 
got on himself, and told his son to hide by the roadside, and when he 
came along, to jump out and hollo boo, as he wanted to know how 
well his ox was broke. The son did accordingly. The ox was fright- 
ened, and threw the old man off. "Father," said the son, "I did as 
you told me." "Yes," said the old man; "but you made too big a 
boo." 

Francis M. Higbee sworn. Have received the impression from 
rumor that Mr. Law, Mr. Marks and probably one or two others, could 
not subscribe to all things in the Church, and there were some private 
matters that might make trouble. Don't know of anyone being in dan- 
ger. No one told me the police had received any private instruction. 
Could not tell who he had received these rumors from. 

William Law spoke. Said he had no personal feeling against War- 
ren Smith. Some two or three years since, he sued Brother Warren 
and stayed the suit, &c. Was suspicious Warren Smith's feelings 
might have risen from that source. 

Councilor Hyrum' Smith, Daniel Carn, Warren Smith, Leonard 
Soby, and William Marks addressed the council. 

The mayor spoke. Said no one had come to him with tales 
about William Marks, to prejudice his mind against him. Was totally 
ignorant of it. I said to Brother Dunham,— If any man approach 



A. D. 1844] HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH 169 

my house with arms, or attempted to disturb my house, I wanted 
the police to take care of that individual, whoever he might be. I 
repeat the instruction, and am perfectly astonished that Brother Law, 
Marks, or auy other man should entertain such an idea [that they were 
in danger.] I live above suspicion on this subject from any source 
whatever. I never could bring my feelings to take revenge on my 
enemies. The City Council did not concoct the idea of having a police. 
The several wards petitioned for a police to protect them against in- 
vasion—wanted citizens to pass the streets at any time of night without 
molestation; but if the police see a man breaking in to my house or 
barn, or anybody's house or barn, tell him to stand, and inquire his 
business. I think it possible that some person has been nracticing 
fraud on Brother Soby and the police and upon individuals, as the 
police, according to their instructions, had laid away their guns. 

Don't guard Brother Marks' house any more. Men must not pervert 
the power entrusted to them like ex-Governor Boggs, whose executive 
oath required him to protect the Saints in Missouri, but perverted his 
power to enforce their extermination from the State, 

Brother Soby does not know that it was a policeman who stopped 
him. Brother Marks does not know that the police kindled the fire be- 
fore his house. Let the police have canes. Let the citizens pass and 
repass at all times of night. 

Councilor Taylor spoke. Thought the conclusion drawn up by 
Brother Soby, that Joseph or somebody was going to get revenged by 
setting the guard to kill Marks, was the most contemptible that could 
be imagined; and if Brother Soby had had the respect for Brother 
Joseph he ought to have had, he could not have formed such a con- 
clusion. 

Mayor referred to Francis Higbee's testimony. Thought Francis 
Higbee had better stay at home and hold his tongue, lest rumor turn 
upon him and disclose some private matters which he would prefer ke D t 
hid. Did not believe there was any rumor of the kind afloat, or he 
could have told some of the names of his informants. Thought the 
young men of the city had better withdraw from his society, and let 
him stand on his own merits. I by no means consider him the standard 
of the city. 

There has been a system of corruption and debauchery, which these 
rumors have grown out of; and the individuals who are the authors of 
them are those who do not want a police: they want to prowl in the 
streets at pleasure without interruption. 

Alderman Orson Spencer spoke, approving the conduct of the police 
General Wilson Law said. "lam Joseph's friend: he has no better 



170 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. LA.D. 1844 

friend in the world: lam ready to lay down my life for him;" and 
upon that the mayor and General Wilson Law shook hands. 

The ordinance concerniDg the forty policemen read twice. 

The mayor objected to assuming the entire disposal of the police 
beyond the definition of the ordinance. 

Alderman George A. Smith said he could sleep with a fire near his 
house, if there were some of the police warming themselves by it; and 
he believed any honest man could do the same. 

The police received the thanks of the council. 

The cross-examination and speeches are generally omitted. 
^Couucil adjourned at dusk for the want of candles. 

What can be the matter with these men? Is it that the 
wicked flee when no man pursueth, that hit 
ttfe fl pro i0 hlt of pigeons always nutter, that drowning men 
as to Traitors ca t c h at straws, or that Presidents Law and 

inllighFlaces ' — -zr. , 

Marks are absolutely traitors to the Church, 
that my remarks should produce such an excitement in 
their minds. Can it be possible that the traitor whom 
Porter Rockwell reports to me as being in correspondence 
with my Missouri enemies, is one of my quorum? The 
people in the town were astonished, almost every man 
saying to his neighbor, "Is it possible that Brother Law 
or Brother Marks is a traitor, and would deliver Brother 
Joseph into the hands of his enemies in Missouri?" If 
not, what can be the meaning of all this? "The righteous 
are as bold as a lion/*"^ 

A number of gentle^ien boarding at my house conversed 
with me on national affairs. I sent for Brother Phelps, 
who came and read my letter to John C. Calhoun, with 
which they were highly edified. 

Elder Brigham Young went to La Harpe for the purpose 
of instructing the Saints. 

Commenced snowing a little before sunset, and con- 
tinued all night. 

Saturday, 6.— Snow about four inches deep. I rode 
out with Emma in a sleigh. 

The Bishops and lesser Priesthood met at Henry W. 
Miller's hall. 



A.D. 1844] HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 171 

Sunday, 7. — At home in the morning. In the after- 
noon, rode out to my farm, and preached in Brother 
Cornelius P. Lott's house. 

The Twelve Apostles attended meetings and preached 
in different parts of the city. 

At six p.m. attended prayer- meeting with the quorum 
in the assembly room. Law and Marks absent. 

Monday, S. — At home in the morniDg. 

At eleven went to my office to investigate a difficulty 
between John D. Parker and his wife. After laboring 
with them about two hours, brought about a recon- 
ciliation . 

I also had an interview with William Law in the streets. 

My uncle, John Smith, from Macedonia, visited me. 

Amos Fielding arrived from Liverpool. 

Tuesday, 9. — At home. 

I insert the following from the Neighbor, as a specimen 
of the respect which the Carthage mob has for law or 
justice : 

DISGRACEFUL AFFAIR AT CARTHAGE — OFFICERS RESISTED. 

On Tuesday last Horace S. Eldredge, one of our county officers, 
went to Carthage for the purpose of arresting Milton Cook, on the 
charge of bastardy, and bringing him before R. D. Foster, justice of 
the peace of this county, before whom affidavit had been made to that 
effect. He found the accused in Bartlett's grocery, (Carthage,) and 
arrested him. 

Cook had a guu that he said he had loaded for the purpose, and would 
make a hole through the constable if he molested him, and swore he 
would not be taken. 

Harmon T. Wilson and others then stepped forward to his assistance, 
and said that they had sworn to stand by him, and that he should not 
go. He [Eldredge] then returned with his process to the justice of the 
peace, and told him what had occurred. 

Mr. R. D. Foster then summoned eleven men to go along with the 
constable and assist him in bringing the delinquent. They went out 
and drove to the grocery, where they expected to find him; but he was 
not there. They then went out for a short time, without making 
known their business, when they saw an armed force gathering. 



172 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.. D. 1844 

They shortly afterwards returned to the grocery, and saw him there 
where he swore he would not be taken. There was also an armed force 
standing in the door, who also swore he should not be taken. 

The officer having the process, Mr, Markham and Mr. Eagle stepped 
forward and wished to reason the case with them, the officer at the 
same time demanding their assistance. They were met with an armed 
force of about twenty, four of whom stood in the doorway, two with 
guns and bayonets, and two with pistols. 

The two having the bayonets charged directly at Mr. Markham, and 
swore they would run him through, and rushed upon him with their 
bayonets. He, however, warded off their blows with his arm, and the 
bavonet glanced and struck Mr. John Eagle in the abdomen. The 
bayonet went through his clothes, scratched his body, and glanced off 
without doing any further injury, other than giving him a slight cut in 
the hand. 

Those having the pistols then attempted to shoot, when Mr.Markham 
seized the hand of one of them that held the pistol, and prevented him 
from firing. The other put his pistol to Mr. Eagle's breast, and swore 
he would shoot him. 

The company at that time used all their force, and crowded the offi- 
cers and their assistants some distance back, and carried off and se- 
creted the prisoner. The officer and his company then went to the 
tavern to stay all night. 

The next morning, about eight o'clock, the constable an Mr. Mark- 
ham went to the grocery and searched, and Bartlett said that he was 
gone — that he had taken his horse and gone out of town. 

They then saw a company of men gathered at Harmon T. Wilson's 
store, armed with guns, bayonets, pistols, clubs, and other missiles. 
Mr. Markham went to the store, where he found the constable and the 
prisoner. There were fifty in and about the store, all armed. 

Mr. Eldredge then told the company present who he was, and de- 
manded all in the house to assist in taking the prisoner, and then 
seized him. As soon as he laid hold of the prisoner, about six or eight 
men laid hold of the constable. Mr. Markham assisted the constable. 
When Mr. Markham had nearly succeeded in liberating the constable, 
a man who was called Dr. Morrison, drew his pistol and shot at Mark- 
ham. The ball missed Markham, but came so near Mr. Coltrin's head, 
who was one of the assistants, as to graze his forehead. 

As there were only four of the assistants in the store, they were over- 
powered by superior numbers, and the prisoner was taken away from 

them. 

They saw that it would be impossible to take him without bloodshed^ 
and consequently returned home. The parties engaged in this affray 



A. D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 173 

swore that, regardless of all law, they would defend the prisoner, and 
he should not be taken. 

We have received the above particulars from Mr. Markham, and can 
consequently rely upon the correctness of the statement, as he is one of 
the parties mentioned. The woman who was enciente, who made the 
affidavit, is not in the Church, neither is Mr. Eagle — the person who 
wa» struck with the bayonet. Mr. Eagle has gone to the governor to 
make complaint. 

We think that it is high time that prompt measures be taken to put a 
stop to such abominable outrages. If officers can be insulted in this 
manner and the law violated with impunity, we think that we shall 
speedily slide back into the barbarous ages. 

Some of our mobocratic friends who assembled at a mob- 
ocratic meeting some time ago in Carthage, were considerably 
chagrined at our terming them mobocrats. We wonder whether 
they now believe that they are, or not? If such proceedings as those 
are cherished, fare well to our Republican institutions! farewell to law, 
equity, and justice ! and farewell to all those sacred ties that bind men 
to their f ellowmen ! 

We would here ask where the sheriff was. Why was he not applied 
to? We merely ask for information. We don't know that he was 
present or applied to. If he was, it certainly was his duty to see the 
law magnified. 

Wednesday 10. — At home. 

Ordained Uncle John Smith a patriarch. Enjoyed my- 
self well in an interview with the brethren, uJJ^^the 
and concluded to take a ride part way with Prophet, or- 

L m " darned a Pa- 

my uncle on his return to Macedonia. triarch. 

In consequence of a visit from some gentlemen from 
Carthage, I called the City Council together at seven p. 
m. I copy the minutes: — 

Special Session of City Council; Complaints of Carthage Citizens Con- 
sidered. 

January 10, 1844, 7. p. m. 

Names of members called. 

The mayor said: — "Messrs. Backman, Hamilton, and Sherman, 
lawyers from Carthage, have called on me and told me that the occa- 
sion of the excitement at Carthage and the resistance to the law, in the 
case of the arrest of Cook, was the late ordinance of this council to 
prevent unlawful search or seizure of person or property by foreign 



174 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D .184 

process in the city of Nauvoo; that they considered said ordinance was 
designed to hinder the execution of the statutes of Illinois within this 
city; consequently, they, the old citizens, felt disposed to stop the exe- 
cution of processes issuing from the city precincts. They also raised 
objections against the process by Justice Foster for the apprehension of 
Cook, because it was made returnable to him alone, whereas they said 
the statute required it to be made returnable before himself or some 
other justice. 

I explained to them the nature and reason of the ordinance — that was 
to prevent kidnapping under the pretense of law or process, and to fa- 
cilitate the apprehension of thieves, &c, in this city, by throwing all 
foreign processes into the hands of the marshal, who would be most 
likely to know the hiding-places of fugitives from justice, who might 
secrete themselves in our city; and said that if any wrong impression 
had gone abroad with regard to the motives of the council in passing 
said ordinance, I would call the council immediately, that they might 
have the opportunity of giving any explanation necessary, so that the 
public might understand the ordinance in its true light. I have there- 
fore called the council accordingly. I also referred the lawyers from 
* lorthage to the statute which requires all processes issued in cases of 
bastardy to be returnable alone to the justice issuing the same, which 
they doubted until I showed them the law, when they looked a little 
crest-fallen and foolish." 

After deliberation, an additional section relative to the foregoing or- 
dinance was read three times, and passed, by way of amendment: — 

''Secttion 3. Be it ordained by the city council of the city of 
Nauvoo, that nothing in the foreging ordinance shall be so construed 
as to prevent, hinder, or thwart the designs of justice, or to retard the 
civil officers of the state or county in the discharge of their official du- 
ties, but to aid and assist them within the limits of this city. 

"Passed January 10, 1844. 

"Joseph Smith, Mayor. 

"Willard Richards, Recorder.'' 
Council adiourned. 

Wrote a letter to Esquire Backman to inform him what 
the City Council had done. 

I received a long equivocating letter from Francis M. 
Higbee, charging me with having slandered his character 
complaints of and demanding a public trial before the 
Tgainsfth? 6 Church. It contains no denial of the charges 
Prophet. which he accuses me of having spoken against 

him. but is full of bombast. 



A.U. 1844] HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 175 

Thursday 11. — At home. 

Rode oat, ten a. in., and returned at half-past one 
p. in. 

This morning William Jones, who had stayed all night 
at Wilson's Tavern in Carthage, was arrested without 
process by Colonel Levi W T illiams and his company, who 
kept him in custody until noon without rations. 

The Twelve Apostles gave an invitation to the Saints 
in Xauvoo to cut and draw for mo seventy-five or one 
hundred cords of wood on the 15th and 16th instant. 

Friday 12. — Thaw: snow nearly gone. 

A conference was held in Brownstown, Main county, 
Michigan. Elder Mephibosheth Sirrine, president; and 
Gehiel Savage, clerk. Nine branches were conference in 
represented, containing 6 elders, 9 priests, Mlch, s an 
7 teachers, 1 deacon, 136 members, and 15 scattered mem- 
bers ; one hundred members having removed from that 
state to Xauvoo since the conference in July last. 

Saturday 13. — At home in the morning. 

At ten o'clock, attended City Council, where a bill for 
an ordinance concerning the recording of deeds in this 
city was taken under consideration, and read twice. It 
elicited much discussion. 

The ten policemen who were not present at the meeting 
of the City Council on the 5th instant were sworn in the 
matter of William Law and William Marks, and testified 
they had received no private instructions whatever from 
me. 

A discussion took place on the subject of granting 
licenses for the sale of spirits. 

I signed resolutions passed at a court martial held this 
morning. 

Stephen M. Farns worth was chosen president of the 
priests' quorum, and William Carmichael and William 
Box his counselors. 

Sunday 14. — At home all day. 



176 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

A prayer -meeting was held at the assembly room. I did 
not attend. 

Warm and rainy towards evening. 

The Twelve Apostles preached at private houses in 
various parts of the city. 

A branch of the Church was organized in New Orleans, 
with 34 members. T. B. Jackaway, president, and E. 
L. Brown, clerk. 

Monday 15. — At home. Wrote to Sister Maria L. 
Campbell, Elmira, N. Y. 

At nine, a. m., teams began to arrive with wood, ac- 
cording to the appointment of the Twelve Apostles, there 
being about 200 of the brethren chopp ing; in 

A Wood Bee. .. , , . .. . „ 

the woods, and from thirty to forty teams 
engaged in drawing the wood to my house. About 100 
loads were drawn, and as many more chopped, and left to 
be drawn another day. 

At ten, a. m. , Dr. Richards called, and told me it was 
reported that Francis M. Higbee was going to put me un- 

o? Francis m ^ er $10,000 bonds for speaking against him. 
mgbee. At the same time, Constable Eldredge sum- 

moned me to attend a court as witness before Esquire 
Johnson; and I went accordingly, to give my testimony. 
The Twelve Apostles wrote the following letter: — 

Litter: The Twelve Apostles to the Saints at Morley Settlement — 
Material Help Asked for. 

Nauvoo, January 15, 1844. 

To President Isaac Morley and the Saints at Morley Settlement, the 
Twelve send greeting: — 

Beloved Brethren — While the work of the Lord is great and sought 
out by all them that have pleasure therein, the Lord of the vineyard has 
laid special charges upon some of His servants to execute; and while we 
are striving by all means to raise funds to hasten the Temple the ap- 
proaching spring, we are not unmindful of the "History of the Church," 
the "Great Proclamation to the Kings of the Earth," and the "Memorials 
to Congress,'' &c, all of which are now before the Church .though their 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE. CHURCH. 177 

progress is retarded for the want of the necessaries of life, in the fa- 
milies of those who are employed in this business. 

Two or three clerks are necessarily employed, and that continually, 
by our Prophet, who cheerfully devote their time — not a tenth, but the 
whole, to roll on these desirable objects; buttheir hands are palsied and 
their pens stayed, more or less. Therefore, with the approbation of 
our President, we again call on you, as those who have ever been ready 
to listen to the wants of the Church, that you would raise such collec- 
tions of provisions as you may have at your disposal, and forward the 
same without delay to us, for the special benefit of the clerks of Pres- 
ident Smith or the Church. Asking no more, it is right they should 
not go hungry or naked. 

Do you ask what is wanting? We answer, Look to your own house- 
holds, and say what it requires to make them comfortable, and you will 
know just what is wanting by these men. Eatables 0/ every kind, and 
even soap to keep their hands clean, is scarce at Nauvoo, and it takes 
many lights to keep the pen in motion these long evenings. 

The President has plenty to do without supporting a number of 
clerks, whose business as deeply concerns every other individual in 
the Church as himself, although he has done it to a great extent and 
with great inconvenience; and we are confident that when you are made 
acquainted with the facts, you will be unwilling that Joseph should 
do all, and get all the blessing. And as you shall continue your liber- 
ality in temporal things, God shall pour out upon your heads blessings 
spiritual and temporal; and now is the time for action. 

All is peace at Nauvoo, and the last report from the Carthagenians 
was, they were beginning to think it was time to throw down their 
arms and attempt a compromise. But the "Mormons ,r can truly say 
they have had no quarrel with them. It has all been between the 
citizens and the law, their own officers being the executors thereof; and 
we feel disposed to let them fight it out among themselves, while we 
live in peace and laugh at their folly. 

With our prayers and blessings, we subscribe ourselves 
Your brethren in Christ Jesus. 

In behalf of the quorum, 

B. Young, President. 
W. Richards, Clerk. 

The Municipal Court issued a warrant for the arrest of 
Francis M. Higbee, on affidavit of Orson Pratt. 

East wind in forenoon, and some rain. Brisk wind 
from N.W. in afternoon. 

12 VOL. VI 



178 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. A.D.1844 



Benjamin Andrews published in the Times and Seasons 
"An Appeal to the people of the State of 

Andrews' . 

Appeal to the Maine, ' setting forth the persecutions, mur- 

State of Maine , tit- i 1 1 n ■ 

ders, and robberies committed upon the Saints 
by the people of the State of Missouri, and soliciting the 
assistance of his native State in procuring redress. 
Tuesday, 16. — Cold and windy. 

At ten, a.m., Francis M. Higbee was brought up before 

the Municipal Court, on complaint of Orson 

Higbee on Pratt, for absenting himself from City Council 

Trial— Recon- .,, , , , -■ .. 

dilation with without leave, when summoned as a witness, 
prophet. an( j £ or s } an( j erous an( j abusive language to- 

wards one of the members of the Council. 

The court adjourned, and the City Council commenced 
their session, continuing till two o'clock, during which 
time a reconciliation took place with Francis M. Higbee, 
who had written a slanderous letter concerning me, and 
said many hard things, which he acknowledged; and I 
forgave him. 1 went before the Council and stated that 
all difficulties between me and F. M. Higbee were eter- 
nally buried, and I was to be his friend for ever. To which 
F. M. Higbee replied, "I will be his friend for ever, and 
his right-hand man." 

A number of the brethren assembled and chopped up 
the firewood which had been hauled to my house yester- 
day, and piled it up ready for use. 

The following "Ordinance concerning the sale of Spir- 
ituous Liquors 1 ' was passed by the City Council: 

An Ordinance concerning the Sale of Spirituous Liquors. 

Whereas, the use and sale of distilled and fermented liquors for all 
purposes of beverage and drink by persons in health are viewed by this 
City Council with unqualified disapprobation: 

Whereas, nevertheless the aforesaid liquors are considered highly 
beneficial for medical and mechanical purposes, and may be safely 
employed for such uses, under the counsel of discreet persons: 
Therefore, 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 179 

Sect. 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the city of Nauvoo, 
that the Mayor of this city is hereby authorized to sell said liquors in 
such quantities as he may deem expedient. 

Sect. 2. Be it further ordained, that other persons not exceeding 
one to each ward of the city, may also sell said liquors in like quan- 
tities for medical and mechanical purposes by obtaining a license of the 
Mayor of the city. The above ordinance to be in full force and effect 
immediately after its passage, — all ordinances to the contrary not- 
withstanding. 

Passed January 16, 1844. 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 
W. Richards, Recorder. 

An ordinance was also passed, authorizing Henry G. 
Sherwood to make out a city directory, and to establish 
an intelligence office in the city. Also the followiDg 
ordinance : — 

An Ordinance concerning Witnesses and Jurors' Fees. 

Be it ordained by the City Council of the city of Nauvoo, that here- 
after all persons subpoenaed and attending upon courts of trial as wit- 
nesses, or as jurors in civil cases, shall not be compelled to testify or be 
held in attendance either as witness or juror, unless they shall first be 
tendered the sum of fifty cents per day for each witness and each juror 
subpoenaed. 

Passed January 16, 1844. 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 
W. Richards, Recorder. 

Wednesday, 17. — At home settling accounts with vari- 
ous individuals. Gave deed of a lot to John Lytle. 

The steamer Shepherdess sank near St. Louis, drowning 
forty passengers. 

Thursday, 18. — At home, and wrote letters to Reuben 
McBride and Joseph Coe, Kirtland; Clark Leal, of Foun- 
tain Green; and to Justin J. Butterfield, Esq., Chicago. 

This afternoon a man called on Brother Nelson Judd, 
and said he wanted to sell him some wood below Davidson 
Hibbard's. He went to see the wood, the man saying he 
would meet him at the place. When below, Hibbard's two 



180 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

men came up on horseback, and told him they had a 
warrant for him, for taking away Avery's 
Nelson* Judd 1 things from Bear Creek. One shot at him 
twice and the lOther snapped at him twice 
with their pistols. Judd then coolly said, "Now, 'tis 
my turn," putting his hand into his pocket, although he 
knew he had no pistols: yet the men fled. 

There was a cotillion party at the Mansion this evening. 

Friday, 19. — Rode out in the course of the day. In the 
evening, gave a lecture on the Constitution of the United 
States, and on the candidates for the Presidency. 

Mild weather. Cloudy in the afternoon. 

A meeting was held in the assembly room to devise 
means for the founding of another library institution in 
Nauvoo. 



A.D. 1844) HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 181 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PRESENTATION OF THE BOOK OF MORMON TO QUEEN VICTO- 
RIA — THE SEALING POWERS OF THE PRIESTHOOD — GOV- 
ERNOR FORD'S WARNING TO THE PEOPLE OF HANCOCK 
COUNTY — APOSTROPHE TO MISSOURI — JOSEPH SMITH NOM- 
INATED FOR PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES — HIS 
VIEWS ON THE POWERS AND POLICY OF THE GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Saturday, January 20th, 1844. — Held Mayor's Court on 
the case — "City of Nauvoo versus Stephen Wilkinson," 
for breach of ordinance. I discharged the defendant, he 
paying costs. 

At six, p. m., prayer- meeting, in the assembly room. 
I was at home. 

The High Council met, but, having no business, ad- 
journed. 

"stanzas" 

On the Presentation of the Book of Mormon to Queen Victoria. 

BY MISS E. E. SNOW. 

Before leaving London, Elder Lorenzo Snow presented to her Maj- 
esty Queen Victoria, and his Royal Highness Prince Albert, through 
the politeness of Sir Henry Wheatly, two neatly bound copies of the 
Book of Mormon, which had been donated by President Brighani 
Young, and left in the care of Elder Snow for that purpose; which cir- 
cumstance suggested the following lines: — 

Of all the monarchs of the earth 

That wear the robes of royalty, 
She has inherited by birth 

The broadest wreath of majesty. 



182 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

From her wide territorial wing 

The sun does not withdraw its light, 
While earth's diurnal motions bring 

To other nations day and night. 

All earthly thrones are tottering things, 

Where lights and shadows intervene ; 
And regal honor often brings 

The scaffold or the guillotine. 

But still her sceptre is appproved; 

All nations deck the wreath she wears: 
Yet, like the youth whom Jesus loved, 

One thing is lacking even there. 

But lo! a prize possessing more 

Of worth than gems with honor rife — 

A herald ot salvation bore 

To her the words of endless life. 

That Gift, however fools deride, 

Is worthy of her royal care: 
She'd better lay her crown aside 

Than spurn the light reflected there. 

Oh would she now her influence bend — 

The influence of royalty, 
Messiah's kingdom to extend, 

And Zion's "nursing mother" be. 

Thus with the glory of her name 

Inscribed on Zion's lofty spire, 
She'd win a wreath of endless fame, 

To last when other wreaths expire. 

Though over millions called to reign — 

Herself a powerful nation's boast, 
'Twould be her everlasting gain * 

To serve the King, the Lord of Hosts. 

For there are crowns and thrones on high, 

And kingdoms thereto be conferred; 
There honors wait that never die; 

There fame's immortal trump is heard. 




A.D. 1844| HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 183 

Truth echoes — 'tis Jehovah's word; 

Let kings and queens and princes hear; 
In distant isles the sound is heard; 

Ye heavens rejoice! O earth, give ear! . 

The time, the time is now at hand 

To give a glorious period birth: 
The son of God will take command 

And rule the nations of the earth. 

Nauvoo, Jan. 20, 1844. 

Sunday 21. — Preached at the southeast corner of the 
temple to several thousand people, although the weather 
was somewhat unpleasant. My subject was the sealing 
of the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the hearts 
of the children to the fathers. 

[The following synopsis was reported by Elder Wilford 
Woodruff:]— 

Discourse: Ihe Sealing Power in the Priesthood. 

When I consider the surrounding circumstances in which I am 
placed this day, standing in the open air with weak lungs, and some- 
what out of health, I feel that 1 must have the prayers and faith of my 
brethren that God may strengthen me and pour out His special blessing 
upon me, if you get very much from me this day. 

There are many people assembled here to-day, and throughout the 
city, and from various parts of the world, who say that they have re- 
ceived to a certainty a portion of the knowledge from God, by revela- 
tion, in the way that He has ordained and pointed out. 

I shall take the broad ground, then, that we have received a portion 
of knowledge from God by immediate revelation, and from the same 
source we can receive all knowledge. 

What shall I talk about to-day? I know what Brother Cahoon wants 
me to speak about. He wants me to speak about the coming of Elijah 
in the last days. I can see it in his eye. I will speak upon that sub- 
ject then. 

The Bible says, "I will send you Elijah the Prophet before the com- 
ing of the great and dreadful day of the Lord; and he shall turn the 
hearts of the fathers to the children, and the hearts of the children to 
the fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse." 



184 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. TA.D. 1844 



r N 



Now, the word turn here should be translated bind, or seal. But 
what is the object of this important mission? or how is it to be fulfilled? 
The keys are to be delivered, the spirit of Elijah is to come, the Gospel 
to be established, the Saints of God gathered, Zion built up, and the 
Saints to come up as saviors on Mount Zion. 3 

But how are they to become saviors on Mount Zion? By building 
their temples, erecting their baptismal fonts, and going forth and re- 
ceiving all the ordinances, baptisms, confirmations, washings, anoint- 
ings, ordinations and sealing powers upon their heads, in behalf of all 
their progenitors who are dead, and redeem them that they may come 
forth in the first resurrection and be exalted to thrones of glory with 
them; and herein is the chain that binds the hearts of the fathers to 
the children, and the children to the fathers, which fulfills the mission 
of Elijah. And I would to God that this temple was now done, that 
we might go into it, and go to work and improve our time, and make 
use of the seals while they are on earth. 

The Saints have not too much time to save and redeem their dead, 
and gather together their living relatives, that they may be saved also, 
before the earth will be smitten, and the consumption decreed falls up- 
on the world. 

I would advise all the Saints to go to with their might and gather to- 
gether all their living relatives to this place, that they may be sealed 
and saved, that they may be prepared against the^day that the destroy- 
ing angel goes forth; and if the whole Church should go to with all 
their might to save their dead, seal their posterity, and gather their 
living friends, and spend none of their time in behalf of the world, they 
would hardly get through before night would come, when no man can 
work; and my only trouble at the present time is concerning ourselves, 
that the Saints will be divided, broken up, and scattered, before we get 
our salvation secure; for there are so many fools in the world for the 
devil to operate upon, it gives him the advantage oftentimes. 

The question is frequently asked "Can we not be saved without go- 
ing through with all those ordiaauces, &e.?" I would answer, No, not 
the fullness of salvation. Jesus said, "There are many mansions in 
my Father's house, and I will go and prepare a place for you." House 
here named should have been translated kingdom; and any person who 
is exalted to the highest mansion has to abide a celestial law, and the 
whole law too. 

But there has been a great difficulty in getting anything into the 
heads of this generation. It has been like splitting hemlock knots 
with a corn-dodger for a wedge, and a pumpkin for a beetle. Even the 
Saints are slow to understand. 



A.D. 1844| HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 185 

I have tried for a number of years to get the minds of the Saints 
prepared to receive the things of God; but we frequently see some of 
them, after suffering all they have for the work of God, will fly to 
pieces like glass as soon as anything comes that is contrary to their 
traditions: they cannot stand the fire at all. How many will be able 
to abide a celestial law, and go through and receive their exaltation, I 
am unable to say, as many are called, but few are chosen. 

Prayer-meeting in the Assembly Room. 

Monday, 22. — Rainy ; wind easterly ; mud very deep, 
^^ented the Nauvoo Mansion and stables to Ebenezer 
Robinson for one thousand dollars per annum Nauvoo Man . 
and board for myself and family and horses, siou Leased - 
reserving to myself three rooms in the housed 

Prayer-meeting at President Young's; ten present. 

Tuesday. 5^s^Ebenezer Robinson took possession of 
the Nauvoo Mansion, to continue it as a public-house/W. 
W. Phelps, Newel K. Whitney and Willard sale of the 
Richards valued the printing office and lot at SSment 
$1,500; printing apparatus, «$950; bindery, toJohn Ta y lor 
$112; foundry, $270; total, $2,832. I having sold the 
concern to John Taylor, who in consideration was to as- 
sume the responsibility of the Lawrence estate. 

There was a cotillion party in the evening at the Nauvoo 
Mansion. The night was clear and cold. 

The ship Fanny, Captain Patterson, sailed from Liver- 
pool with 210 Saints on board. 

Wednesday , 24. — Called at my office about one o'clock. 
I think the appraised valuation of the printing office rather 
too low. 

Weather very cold. 

The mob party at Carthage, Warsaw, and Green Plains 
continued their agitation. 

Thursday, 25. — At home. 

Prayer- meeting at Brother Brigham's: eight of the 
Twelve Apostles present. Weather extremely cold. 

I approved of the doings of a generel court-martial 
held January 13th. 



186 HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. [A.D. 1844 

Friday, 26. — I dictated to my clerk an article on the 
situation of the nation, referring to the President's 
Message, &c. 

Prayer- meeting at Brother Young's: eight of the Twelve 
Apostles present. Elder Orson Hyde went to Carthage to 
preach. Weather clear and cool. 

Saturday, 27. — Weather extremely cold and clear. 

Prayer-meeting in the assembly room. High Council 
met, but, having no business, adjourned. 

Sunday, 28. — I had some company in the evening from 
Warsaw. I conversed with them on politics, religion, &c. 
Prayer-meeting in the assembly room. Weather very 
cold. 

I insert the following from the Millennial Star: — 

Importance of Elders Keeping Journals, Case of Healing Recorded. 

Mr. Editor: — The idea has frequently crossed my mind, that were 
the Elders of the Church of Jesus Christ in this age to keep a journal 
of their travels and ministry, and record all the healings and miracles 
they had witnessed from time to time, — that should their separate jour- 
nals be afterwards collected together and published in a volume, I am 
inclined to believe that a far greater number of manifest displays of the 
power of God would be therein recorded than is found in the journals 
of the Eldprs of the Church of Jesus Christ in the early ages, at least 
so far as they are faithfully handed down to us in the New Testament 
Scriptures. 

A.nd although, as in days of old, we are frequently branded with the 
epithets of "fools, fanatics, religious enthusiasts, dupes, and vile im- 
postors," yet "what we have felt and seen, with confidence we tell." 

We have frequently heard from individuals on whose testimony we 
can rely with the greatest confidence, of extraordinary displays of the 
power of God in the gift of healing; such, for instance, as the blind 
receiving their sight, the deaf having their hearing restored, the lame 
man being made to "leap as an hart," the dumb spirit being cast out, 
and one instance of the dead being restored to life. 

Another instance of the kind last mentioned, with a heart overflowing 
with gratitude, I desire to record. On the afternoon of yesterday, a 
child of mine, a girl aged eight years, was sliding on the rails of the 
staircase, when on a sudden she turned over, and fell from top to bottom 
with a most tremendous crash, falling on her head, and being com- 
pletely double when picked up by her mother, — so much so indeed, that 



A.D. 1844 J HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 187 

her brother, who heard the noise, looked out of the kitchen, and seeing 
something lying in the passage motionless, concluded that his sister 
had thrown some dirty linen over the rails, and took no further notice. 
Her mother, on hearing the noise occasioned by her fall, hastened out 
of the parlor to the fatal spot, and immediately discovered it was poor 
Mary Jane, who lay motionless, speechless, senseless, yea, lifeless. She 
instantly took her up in her arms, and when she beheld her appearance, 
in an agony she cried out, "My child is dead! she has fallen and killed 
herself." 

By this time I had hastened to the horrid scene, where I beheld my 
lovely girl stretched on the lap of her disconsolate mother, without the 
slightest appearance of life. I immediately examined her, and found 
that she breathed not, and that her pulsation had ceased. Her eyes 
also were wide open, and quite fixed as in death, and there appeared 
to be gathering over them the film of dissolution. In fact, if it be true 
that Eutychus (the young man mentioned in the 20th chapter of the 
Acts of the Apostles, who fell from an upper stoi'y,) was taken up 
dead, it is equally true that my daugther was takea up dead, for there 
was not the slightest vestige of life apparent. 

At this moment, with heart uplifted to my Heavenly Father, I, in 
mighty faith, placed my hands upon her and ejaculated, "Lord, heal 
my child!" when in one moment she shewed signs of life, and attemp- 
ted to speak. 

T immediately gave her to drink a little cold water, and bathed her 
head with the same. She then sat up and vomited considerably, and 
she is now so far recovered as this morning to sing a verse of a hymn 
and walk about as usual. 

During my presidency over the Liverpool Conference, which is nearly 
eighteen months, I have witnessed many cases of healing, but never 
any so very striking as the one I have just related. 

If you deem the narrative worthy of a place in your pages of the 
Millennial Star, you are quite at liberty to insert it. 
I remain, dear brother, 

Yours sincerely in the Gospel of Jesus, 

George Mitchblson. 




(onday, 29. — At ten, a.m., the Twelve Apostles, 
together with Brother Hyrum and John P. The Pres . 
Greene, met at the mayor's office, to take into i™ctiL 
consideration the proper course for this people considered. 
^pursue in relation to the coming Presidential election. 
The candidates for the office of President of the United 
States at present before the people are Martin Van Buren 



188 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A D. 1844 

and Henry Clay. It is morally impossible for this people, 
in justice to themselves, to vote for the re-election of Pres- 
ident Van Buren — a man who criminally neglected his 
duties as chief magistrate in the cold and unblushing man- 
ner which he did, when appealed to for aid in the Missouri 
difficulties. His heartless reply burns like a firebrand in 
the breast of every true friend of liberty — "Your cause is 
just, but I can do nothing for you." 1,1 

As to Mr. Clay, his sentiments and cool contempt of 
the people's rights are manifested in his reply — "You had 
better go to Oregon tor redress,'''' which would prohibit any 
true lover of our constitutional privileges from supporting 
him at the ballot-box. 

It was therefore moved by Willard Richards, and voted 
unanimously— 

That we will have an independent electoral ticket, and 
that Joseph Smith be a candidate for the next Presidency; 
and that we use all honorable means in our power to 
secure his election. 

I said — 

The Prophet on the Campaign. 

If you attempt to accomplish this, you must send every man in the 
city who is able to speak in public throughout the land to electioneer 
and make stump speches, advocate the "Mormon" religion, purity of 
elections, and call upon the people to stand by the law and put down 
mobocracy. David Yearsly must go, — Parley P. Pratt to New York, 
Erastus Snow to Vermont, and Sidney Rigdon to Pennsylvania. 

After the April Conference we will have General Conferences all over 
the nation, and I will attend as many as convenient. Tell the people 
we have had Whig and Democratic Presidents long enough: we want a 
President of the United States. If I ever get into the presidential chair. 
I will protect the people in their rights and liberties. I will not elec- 
tioneer for myself. Hyrum, Brigham, Parley and Taylor must go. 
Clayton must go, or he will apostatize. The Whigs are striving for a 
king under the garb of Democracy. There is oratory enough in the 
Church to carry me into the presidential chair the first slide. \ 

Captain White, of Quincy, was at the Mansion last night, 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 189 

and this morning drank a toast. * * * "May Nauvoo be- 
come the empire seat of government ! ' ' 

I dictated to Brother Phelps the heads of my pamphlet, 
entitled, "Views on the Powers and Policy of 
the Government of the United States." commence- 

A T/rm • ment of the 

A Millerite lecturer came into the office with £r°P het 's 
Brother Clayton, about five, p.m. I had some ro wera and 
conversation with him about the definition of 
the Greek word Hades, and the Hebrew word Sheol, &c 
He lectured in the evening in the hall. 

Prayer-meeting at Elder Brigham Young's. 

Governor Ford wrote the following expostulatory epistle 
to the citizens of Hancock County, through the Warsaw 
Signal: — v 

Governor Ford's Warning to the People of Hancock' County. 

» Springfield, January 29, 1844. 

Dear Sir:— I have received the copy of the proceeding and reso- 
lutions of a meeting of the citizens of Hancock County, which you did 
me the honor to send me. 

I have observed with regret that occasions have been presented for 
disturbing the peace of your county; and if I knew what I could legally 
do to apply a corrective, I would be very ready to do it. But if you are 
a lawyer, or at all conversant with the law, you will know that I, as a 
Governor, have no right to interfere in your difficulties. 

As yet, I believe that there has been nothing like war among you: 
and I hope that all of you will have the good sense to see the necessity 
of preserving peace. If there is anything wrong in the Nauvoo char- 
ters, or in the mode of administering them, you will see that nothing 
short of legislative or judicial power is capable of enforcing a remedy. 

I myself had the honor of calling the attention of the Legislature to 

this subject at the last session; but a large majority of both political 

parties in that body either did not see the evil which you complain of, 

or, if they did, they repeatedly refused to correct it. And yet a call is 

made upon me to do that which all parties refused to do at the last 
session. 

I have also been called upon to take away the arms from the 
Mormons, to raise the militia to arrest a supposed fugitive, and in fact 
t o repeal some of the ordinances of the City of Nauvoo. 

Hancock County is justly famed for its intelligence; and I cannot 



190 HISTOKY 01 THE CHURCH. |A. D. 1844 

believe that any of its citizens are so ignorant as not to know that I 
have no power to do these things. 

The absurd and preposterous nature of these requests give some color 
to the charge that they are made for political effect only. I hope that 
this charge is untrue; for, in all candor, it would be more creditable to 
those concerned to have their errors attributed to ignorance than to a 
disposition to embroil the country in the horrors of war for the advance- 
ment of party ends. 

But if there should be any truth in the charge, (whicn God forbid.) I 
affectionately entreat all the good citizens engaged in it to lay aside 
their designs and yield up their ears to the voice of justice, reason, and 
humanity. All that I can do at present is to admonish both parties to 
beware of carrying matters to extremity. 

Let it come to this — let a state of war ensue, and I will be compelle'd 
to interfere with executive power. In that case also, I wish, in a 
friendly, affectionate, and candid manner, to tell the citizens o Hancock 
County, Mormons and all, that my interference will be against those 
who shall be the first transgressors. 

I am bound by the laws and Constitution to regard you all as citizens 
of the State, possessed of equal rights and privileges, and to cherish the 
rights of one as dearly as the rights of another. I can know no dis- 
tinction among you except that of assailant and assailed, 

I hope, dear sir, you will do me the favor to publish this letter in the 
papers of your county, for the satisfaction of all persons concerned. 

I am, with the highest respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

Thomas Ford. 

Tuesday 30. — At eleven, a.m., I went into the office 
with Colonel Jackson. 

One, p.m., held mayor's court at my office, on the 
case "City versus Thomas Coates. " Fined the defendant 
$25 and costs for beating John Ellison. 

A Millerite preached again in the assembly room, and 
Elder Rigdon replied to him. There was a full house. 

Prayer- meeting at Elder Brigham Young's. 

Wednesday, 31. — Eleven, a. m., I called at Miationto 
the office, and told Benjamin Winchester to 
go to Warsaw and preach the first principles of the Gospel, 
get some lexicons, and return home. 



i 



A.D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 191 

Prayer-meeting at Elder Brigham Young's in the 
evening. There seems to be quite a revival throughout 
Nauvoo, and an inquiry after the things of God, by all 
the quorums and the Church in general. 

Sidney Rigdon published a lengthy appeal to the Le- 
gislature of the State of Pennsylvania, setting 
forth in pathetic style the grievances he had SK?* 
suffered through the persecution against the Penns r lvania - 
Church by the State of Missouri, which concludes as 
follows: — 

Peroration of Rigdon : s Appeal to Pennsylvania. 

In confidence of the purity and patriotism of the represent atives of 
the people of his native state, your memorialist comes to your honor- 
able body, through this his winged messenger, to tell you that the al- 
tar which was erected by the blood of your ancestors to civil and relig- 
ious liberty, from whence ascended up the holy incense of pure patriot- 
ism and universal good will to man, into the presence of Jehovah, a 
savior of life, is thrown down, and the worshipers thereat have been 
driven away, or else they are lying slain at the place of the altar. He 
comes to tell your honorable body that the temple your fathers erected 
to freedom, whither their sons assembled to hear herprecepts and cher- 
ish her doctrines in their hearts, has been desecrated— its portals closed, 
so that those who go up thither are forbidden to enter. 

He comes to tell your honorable body that the blood of the heroes 
and patriots of the revolution, who have been slain by wicked hands 
for enjoying their religious rights, the boon of Heaven to man, has 
cried and is crying in the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth, saying, "Re- 
dress, redress our wrongs, Lord God of the whole earth." 

He comes to tell your honorable body that the dying groans of infant 
innocence and the shrieks of insulted and abused females, and many of 
them widows of revolutionary patriots, have ascended up into the ears 
of Omnipotence, and are registered in the archives of et ernity, to be 
had in the day of retribution as a testimony against the whole nation, 
unless their cries and groans are heard by the representatives of the 
people, and ample redress made, as far as the nation can make it, or 
else the wrath of the almighty will come down in fury against the 
whole nation. 

Under all these circumstances, your memorialist prays to be heard 



192 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1844 

by your honorable body touching all the matters of his memorial. And 
as a memorial will be presented to Congress this session for redress 
of our grievances, he prays your honorable body will instruct the 
whole delegation of Pennaylvania, in both houses, to use all their influ- 
ence in the national councils to have redress granted. 
And, as in duty bound, your memorialist will ever pray. 

SlDN EY RlGDON. 

Miss E. R. Snow published the following apostrophe 
to— 

"MISSOURI." 

What aileth thee, Missouri! that thy face should gather blackness? 
and why are thy features so terribly distorted? 

Rottenness has seized upon thy vitals, corruption is preying upon thy 
inward parts, and the breath of thy lips is full of destructive con- 
tagion. 

What meaneth thy shaking? and why art thou terrified? Thou hast 
become like Belshazzar. "Mene, mene, tekel, upharsin!' n is indeed 
written against thee; but it is the work of thine own hand; the charac- 
ters upon thy wall are of thine own inscription; and wherefore dost 
thou tremble? 

Wouldst thou know the interpretation thereof? Hast thou sought 
for a Daniel to declare it unto thee? Verily one greater than a Daniel 
was in thy midst; but thou hast butchered the Saints, and hast hunted 
the Prophets like Ahab of old. 

Thou has extinguished the light of thy own glory; thou hast plucked 
from thy head the crown of honor; thou hast divested thyself of the 
robe of respectability; thou hast thrust from thine own bosom the 
veins that flowed with virtue and integrity. 

Thou hast violated the laws of our sacred constitution; thou hast un- 
sheathed the sword against thy dearest national rights, by rising up 
against thine own citizens, and moistening thy soil with the blood of 
those that lega ly inherited it. 

When thou hadst torn from helpless innocence its rightful protectors 
thou didst pollute the holy sanctury of female virtue, and barbarously 
trampled upon the most sacred gems of domestic felicity. 

Therefore the daughters of Columbia count thee a reproach, and 
blush with indignation at the mention of thy name. 

Thou hast become an ignominious stain on the escutcheon of a noble, 
free and independent republic; thou hast become a stink in the nos- 
trils of the Goddess of Liberty. 



A.D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 193 

Thou art fallen — thou art fallen beneath the weight of thine own 
unhallowed deeds, and thine iniquities are pressing as a heavy load 
upon thee. 

But although thy glory has departed — though thou hast gone down 
like a star that is set forever, thy memory will not be erased; thou wilt 
be had in remembrance even until tbe Saints of God shall forget that 
the way to the celestial kingdom is "through great tribulation." 

Though thou shouldst be severed from the body of the Union, like a 
mortified member — though the lion from the thicket should deyour 
thee, thy doings will be perpetuated; mention will be made of them by 
the generations to come. 

Thou art already associated with Herod, Nero, and the bloody In- 
quisition; thy name has become synonymous with oppression, cruelty, 
treachery, and murder. 

Thou wilt rank high with the haters of righteousness and the shed- 
ders of innocent blood: the hosts of tyrants are waiting beneath to meet 
thee at thy coming. 

ye wise legislators! ye executives of the nation! ye distributors of 
justice! ye advocates of equal rights! arise and redress the wrongs of 
an innocent people, and redeem the cause of insulted liberty. 

Let not the contagious spirit of corruption wither the sacred wreath 
that encircles you, and spread a cloud of darkness over the glory of 
your star-spangled banner; 

Lest the monarchs of the earth should have you in derision; lest you 
should be weighed in the balance with the heathen nations, and should 
be found wanting; lest the arm of the Lord should be revealed in 
judgment against you; lest an arrow of vengeance from the almighty 
should pierce the rotten fabric of a once sheltering constitution, and 
your boasted confidence become like an oak dismembered of its 
branches, whose shattered trunk is torn piecemeal by the uprising of 
the tempest! 

For the cries of the widow and fatherless, the groans of the oppressed 
and the prayers of the suffering exile have come up before the God of 
Hosts, who brought our pilgrim fathers across the boisterous ocean, 
and raised up a Washington to break the yoke of foreign oppression. 

Morley Settlement, January, 1844. 

Thursday, February 1. — At home: weather cold. 

Phinehas Richards published a thrilling appeal to the 
inhabitants of his native state of Massachu- An Appeal to 
setts, to consider the wrongs sustained in the Sffiffia"" 
loss of lives and property, and other damages Richards - 

13 Vol. VT. 



194 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. | A.i). 1844 

done to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
of which he is a member. 

Elder Reuben Hedlock wrote to President Brigham 
Young, giving the names of those who had emigrated at 
the expense of the office, amounting to $2,378; which is 
due from the emigrants. 

Friday, 2. — Dr. Willard Richards called and read Phin- 
ehas Richards' appeal to the inhabitants of Massachusetts, 
for redress of Missouri grievances. 

Prayer-meeting at Elder Brigham Young's. Weather 

cold. 

I went into the assembly room, where I found Elders 
Wilford Woodruff, Willard Richards, and W. W. Phelps, 
to whom I related the following dream, which Elder Wil- 
ford Woodruff reported : 

The Prophet'' s Dream — Troubled Waters Overcome. 

I was standing on a peninsula, in the midst of a vast body of water 
where there appeared to be a large harbor or pier built out for boats 
to come to. I was surrounded by my friends, and while looking at 
this harbor I saw a steamboat approaching the harbor. There were 
bridges on the pier for persons to cross, and there came up a wind and 
drove the steamboat under one of the bridges and upset it. 

I ran up to the boat, expecting the persons would all drown; and 
wishing to do something to assist them, I put my hand against the side 
of the boat, and with one surge I shoved it under the bridge and righted 
it up, and then told them to take care of themselves. But it was. not 
long before I saw them starting out into the channel or main body of 
the water again. 

The storms were raging and the waters rough. I said to my friends 
that if they did not understand the signs of the times and the spirit of 
prophecy, they would be apt to be lost. 

It was but a few moments after when we saw the waves break over 
the boat, and she soon foundered and went down with all on board. 

The storm and waters were still very rough; yet I told my friends 
around me that I believed I could stem those waves and that storm, and 
swim in the waters better than the steamboat did; at any rate I was 
determined to try it. But my friends laugh?d at me, and told me I 
could not stand at all, but would be drowned. 



A.D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 195 

The waters looked clear and beautiful, though exceedingly rough; 
and I said I believed I could swim, and I would try it anyhow. They 
said I would drown. I said I would have a frolic in the water first, if I 
did; and I drove off in the raging waves. 

I had swam but a short distance when a towering wave overwhelmed 
me for a time; but I soon found myself on the top of it, and soon I met 
the second wave in the same way; and for a while I struggled hard to 
live in the midst of the storm and waves, and soon found I gained up- 
on every wave, and skimmed the torrent better; and I soon had power 
to swim with my head out of water: so the waves did not break over 
me at all, and I found that I had swam a great distance; and in looking 
about, I saw my brother Samuel by my side. 

I asked him how he liked it. He said, "First rate," and I thought so 
too. I was soon enabled to swim with my head and shoulders out of 
water, and I could swim as fast as any steamboat. 

In a little time it became calm, and I could rush through the water, 
and only go in to my loins, and soon I only went in to my knees, and 
finally could tread on the top of the water, and went almost with 
the speed of an arrow. 

I said to Samuel, See how swift I can go! I thought it was great 
sport and pleasure to travel with such speed, and I awoke. 

Saturday 3.— Prayer-meeting in the assembly room. 

The High Council met. Did but little business. 

A rather favorable article appears in Niles' National 
Register of this date, noticing the correspondence between 
myself and John C. Calhoun, a copy of which is con- 
tained in the political department of the same number. 

It also notices the correspondence between myself and 
James Arlington Bennett, publishing the same, with 
some of our city ordinances. The editor also quotes the 
following from the Haul- Eye: — 

Mormon Improvements. 

Atthough much complaint has been made about the Mormons, we 
saw on our late trip evidences of improvement on our prairies which we 
consider highly creditable to the Mormons who made them, without whom 
we doubt whether they would have been made for many years to come. 
All those who have traveled over the large prairie between Fort Mad- 
ison Warsaw and Carthage, remember how dreary it was a few 



196 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1844 

years since. Now it is studded with houses and good farms. The 
English, who understand hedging and ditching far better than our peo- 
ple, have gone upon that prairie and have enclosed extensive fields in 
this manner. Along the old Rock Island tract, which we traveled 
seven years ago, and which was then a dreary waste, we saw a field en- 
closed with a good sod fence, six miles long and one wide. We think 
such enterprise is worthy to be mentioned. As long as the Mormons 
are harmless, and do not interfere with the rights of our people we 
think they should be treated well. We shall never convince them that 
they are a deluded people, as far as their religious notions are concerned, 
in any other way. 

Sunday 4. — I attended prayer- meeting with the quor- 
The 144,000 um m the assembly room, and made some 

Selection Be- J ' ' 

gun. remarks respecting the hundred and forty-four 

thousand mentioned by John the Revelator, showing that 
the selection of persons to form that number had already 
commenced. 

President Brigham Young held a meeting at Brother 
Chamberlain's, in the neighborhood north of the city; 
and Elder Wilford Woodruff, at Thomas Kingston's, six 
miles east of the city. 

Monday 5. — The regular session of the Municipal 
Court was opened in the Mayor's office. Present, George 
W. Harris, George A. Smith, and N. K. Whitney. 
_. A ,, ., Adjourned to the Nauvoo Mansion, on ac- 

City Council. " m ' 

count of the severity of the weather. I pre- 
sided as Chief Justice. The assessors of the different 
wards in the city presented their tax-lists, which occupied 
nearly all day. The court remitted the taxes of the wid- 
ows and of the poor who were unable to pay. 

In the afternoon, Elder William Weeks (whom I had 

employed as architect of the Temple,) came in 

Architecture * ** ±7/ 

of the Nauvoo f or instruction . I instructed him in relation 
to the circular windows designed to light the 
offices in the dead work of the arch between stories. He 
said that round windows in the broad side of a building 
were a violation of all the known rules of architecture, and 
contended that they should be semicircular — that the 



A.D. 1844J HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 197 

building was too low for round windows. I told him I 
would have the circles, if he had to make the Temple ten 
feet higher than it was originally calculated ; that one light 
at the centre of each circular window would be sufficient 
to light the whole room; that when the whole building was 
thus illuminated, the effect would be remarkably grand. 
1 'I wish you to carry out my designs. I have seen in vision 
the splendid appearance of that building illuminated, and 
will have it built according to the pattern shown me." 

Called at my office in the evening, and revised my 
•'Views of the Powers and Policy of the 
Government of the United States." I was .bJTvS^ 
the first one who publicly proposed a national 
bank on the principles set forth in that pamphlet. 

Tuesday, 6. — Very cold day. 

I spent the evening with my brother Hyrum, Sidney 
Eigdon, and the Twelve Apostles and their wives, at Elder 
John Taylor's; took supper, and had a very pleasant time. 
Wednesday, 7. — An exceedingly cold day. in the 
evening I met with my brother Hyrum and the Twelve 
Apostles in my office, at their request, to devise means to 
promote the interests of the General Government. I com- 
pleted and signed my "Views of the Powers and Policy of 
the Government of the United States, "which I here insert: 

Views of the Powers and Policy oj the Government oj the United 
States, — Joseph Smith. 

Born in a land of liberty, and breathing an air uncorrupted with the 
sirocco of barbarous climes, I ever feel a double anxiety for the happi- 
ness of all men, both in time and in eternity. 

My cogitations, like Daniel's, have for a long time troubled me, when 
I viewed the condition of men throughout the world, and more especially 
in this boasted realm, where the Declaration of Independence "holds 
these thruths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that 
they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that 
among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness;" but at the 
same time some two or three millions of people are held as slaves for 
life, because the spirit in them is covered with a darker skin than ours; 
and hundreds of our own kindred for an infraction, or supposed in- 



198 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. fA.D. 1844 

fraction, of some over-wise statute, have to be incarcerated in dungeon 
gloom, or penitentiaries, while the duellist, the debauchee, and the 
defaulter for millions, and other criminals, take the uppermost rooms 
at feasts, or, like the bird of passage, find a more congenial clime by 
flight. 

The wisdom which ought to characterize the freest, wisest, and most 
noble nation of the nineteenth century, should, like the sun in his me- 
ridian splendor, warm every object beneath its rays; and the main 
efforts of her officers, who are nothing more nor less than the servants 
of the people, ought to be directed to ameliorate the condition of all, 
black or white, bond or free; for the best of books says, "God hath 
made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of 
the earth." 

Our common country presents to all men the same advantages, the 
facilities, the same prospects, the same honors, and the same rewards; 
and without hypocrisy, the Constitution, when it says, "We, the people 
of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish 
justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, 
promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to our- 
selves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for 
thf United States of America," meant just what it said without reference 
to color or condition, ad infinitum. 

The aspirations and expectations of a virtuous people, environed with 
so wise, so liberal, so deep, so broad, and so high a charter of equal 
rights as appears in said Constitution, ought to be treated by those to 
whom the administration of the laws is entrusted with as much sanctity 
as the prayers of the Saints are treated in heaven, that love, confidence, 
and union, like the sun, moon, and stars, should bear witness, 

"For ever singing as they shine, 
The hand that made us is divine!" 

TJrntv is ppwpr : and when I reflect on the importance of it to the 
stability of all governments, I am astounded at the silly moves of per- 
sons and parties to foment discord in order to ride into power on the 
current of popular excitement; nor am I less surprised at the stretches 
of power or restrictions of right which too often appear as acts of legis- 
lators to pave the way to some favorite political scheme as destitute of 
intrinsic merit as a wolf's heart is of the milk of human kindness. A 
Frenchman would say, "Presque tout aihier richesses etpouvoir." (Almost 
all men like wealth and power.) 

I must dwell on this subject longer than others; for nearly one 
hundred years ago that golden patriot, Benjamin Franklin, drei? up a 
plan of union for the then colonies of Great Britain, that now are such 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 199 

an independent nation, which, among many wise provisions for obedient 
children under their father's more rugged hand, had this: — "They have 
power to make laws, and lay and levy such general duties, imports, or 
taxes as to them shall appear most equal and just, (considering the 
ability and other circumstances of the inhabitants in the several colo- 
nies,) and such as may be collected with the least inconvenience to the 
people, rather discouraging luxury than loading industry with unneces- 
sary burthens." Great Britain surely lacked the laudable humanity 
and fostering clemency to grant such a just plan of union; but the 
sentiment remains, like the land that honored its birth, as a pattern for 
wise men to study the convenience of the people more than the comjort of 
the cabinet. 

And one of the most noble fathers of our freedom and country's 
glory, great in war, great in peace, great in the estimation of the world, 
and great in the hearts of his countrymen, (the illustrious Washington.) 
said in his first inaugural address to Congress — "I behold the surest 
pledges that as, on one side, no local prejudices or attachments, no se- 
parate views or party animosities will misdirect the comprehensive and 
equal eye which ought to watch over this great assemblage of commu- 
nities and interests, so, on another, that the foundations of our national 
policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private mo- 
rality, and the pre-eminence of free government be exemplified by all 
the attributes which can win the affections of its citizens and command 
the respect of the world.'' 

Verily, here shine the virtue and wisdom of a statesman in such lucid 
rays, that had every succeeding Congress followed the rich instruction 
in all their deliberations and enactments, for the benefit and conveni- 
ence of the whole community and the communities of which it is com- 
posed, no sound of a rebellion in South Carolina, no rupture in Rhode 
Island, no mob in Missouri expelling her citizens by Executive authority, 
corruption in the ballot-boxes, a border warfare between Ohio and 
Michigan, hard times and distress, outbreak upon outbreak in the prin- 
cipal cities, murder, robbery, and defalcation, scarcity of money, and 
a thousand other difficulties, would have torn asunder the bonds of the 
Union, destroyed the confidence of man with man, and left the great 
body of the people to mourn over misfortunes in poverty brought on by 
cpnupt legislation in an hour of proud vanity for self-aggrandizement. 
/ The great Washington, soon alter the foregoing faithful admonition 
( for the common welfare of his nation, further advised Congress that 
"among the many interesting objects which will engage your attention, 
that of providing for the common defense will merit particular regard. 
To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving 
peace."/ As the Italian would say — "Buono aviso." 



200 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

The elder Adams, in his inaugural address, gives national pride such 
a grand turn of justification, that every honest citizen must look back 
upon the infancy of the United States with an approving smile, and 
rejoice that patriotism in their rulers, virtue in the people, and pros- 
perity in the Union once crowded the expectations of hope, unveiled the 
sophistry of the hypocrite, and silenced the folly of foes. Mr. Adams 
said, "If national pride is ever justifiable or excusable, it is when it 
springs not from power or riches, grandeur or glory, but from conviction 
of national innocence, information, and benevolence." 

There is no doubt such was actually the case with our young realm at 
the close of the last century. Peace, prosperity, and union filled the 
country with religious toleration, temporal enjoyment, and virtuous 
enterprise; and grandly, too, when the deadly winter of the"StampAct,'' 
the "Tea Act," and other close communion acts of Royalty had choked 
the growth of freedom of speech, liberty of the press, and liberty of 
conscience— did light, liberty, and loyalty flourish like the cedars 
of God. 

The respected and venerable Thomas Jefferson, in his inaugural 
address, made more than forty years ago, shows what a beautiful pros- 
pect an innocent, virtuous nation presents to the sage's eye, where there 
is space for enterprise, hands for industry, heads for heroes, and hearts 
for moral greatness. He said, "A rising nation spread over a wide and 
fruitful land, traversing all the seas with the rich productions of their 
industry, engaged in commerce with nations who feel power and forget 
right, advancing rapidly to destinies beyond the reach of mortal eye,— 
when I contemplate these transcendent objects, and see the honor, the 
happiness, and the hopes of this beloved country committed to the issue 
and the auspices of this day, I shrink from the contemplation, and 
humble myself before the magnitude of the undertaking." 

Such a prospect was truly soul-stirring to a good man. But "since 
the fathers have fallen asleep," wicked and designing men have 
unrobed the Government of its glory; and the people, if not in dust and 
ashes, or in sackcloth, have to lament in poverty her departed great- 
ness, while demagogues build fires in the north and south, east and 
west, to keep up their spirits till it is better times. But year after year 
has left the people to hope, till the very name of Congress or State Legis- 
lature is as horrible to the sensitive friend of his country as the house of 
"Bluebard" is to children, or "Crockford's" Hell of London to 
meek men.* 

■0 c \ When the people are secure and their rights properly respected, then 
the four main pillars of prosperity— viz., agriculture, manufactures, 

* Reference is had to Crockford's famous gaming club house at No. 50 on the 
west side of St. James St., London. 



A.D. 1844J HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 201 

navigation, and commerce, need the fostering care of Government; and 
in so goodly a country as ours, where the soil, the climate, the rivers, 
the lakes, and the sea coast, the productions, the timber, the minerals, 
and the inhabitants are so diversified, that a pleasing variety accommo- 
dates all tastes, trades, and calculations, it certainly is the highest point 
of supervision to protect the whole northern and southern, eastern and 
western, centre and circumference of the realm, by a judicious tariff. 
It is an old saying and a true one, "If you wis h to be resnected, respect 
yourselves.'' 
y/* I will adopt in part the language of Mr. Madison's inaugural address, 
— "To cherish peace and friendly intercourse with all nations, having 
correspondent dispositions; to maintain sincere neutrality towards bel- 
ligerent nations; to prefer in all cases amicable discussioa and reason- 
able accommodation of differences to a decision of them by an appeal 
to arms; to exclude foreign intrigues and foreign partialities, so de- 
grading to all countries, and so baneful to free ones; to foster a spirit of 
independence too just to invade the rights of others, too proud to sur- 
render our own, too liberal to indulge unworthy prejudices ourselves, 
and too elevated not to look down upon them in others; to hold the 
union of the States as the basis of their peace and happiness; to support 
the Constitution, which is the cement of the Union, as well in its limi- 
tations as in its authorities; to respect the rights and authorities reserved 
to the States and to the people as equally incorporated with and essen- 
tial to the success of the general system ; to avoid the slightest inter- 
ference with the rights of conscience or the functions of religion, so 
wisely exempted from civil jurisdiction; to preserve in their full energy 
the other salutary provisions in behalf of private and personal rights, 
and of the freedom of the press, — so far as intention aids in the fulfill- 
ment of duty, are consummations too big with benefits not to captivate 
the energies of all honest men to achieve them, when they can be 
brought to pass by reciprocation, friendly alliances, wise legislation, 
find honorable treaties.'' / 

The Government has once flourished under the guidance of trusty ser- 
vants; and the Hon. Mr. Monroe, in his day, while speaking of the 
Constitution, says, "Our commerce has been wisely regulated with 
foreign nations and between the States. New States have been admit- 
ted into our Union. Our Territory has been enlarged by fair and hon- 
orable treaty, and with great advantage to the original States; the 
States respectively protected by the national Government, under a mild 
paternal system against foreign dangers, and enjoying within their se- 
parate spheres, by a wise partition of power, a just proportion of the 
sovereignty, have improved their police, extended their settlements, 
and attained a strength and maturity which are the best proofs of 



202 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844, 

wholesome laws well administered. And if we look to the condition of 
individuals, what a proud spectacle does it exhibit! Oa whom has op- 
pression fallen in any quarter of our Union? Who has been deprived of 
any right of pei'son or property? — who restrained from offering his 
vows in the mode which he prefers to the Divine Author of his being? 
It is well known that all these blessings have been enjoyed in their full- 
est extent; and I add, with peculiar satisfaction, that there has been 
no example of a capital punishment being inflicted on any one for the 
crime of high treason.'' What a delightful picture of power, policy, 
and prosperity! Truly the wise man's proverb is just — Righteousness 
exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to any people. 

But this is not all. The same honorable statesman, after having had 
about forty vears' experience in the Government, under the full tide of 
successful experiment, gives the following commendatory assurance of 
the efficiency of tne Magna Charta to answer its great end and aim — 
to protect the peojdein their rights. "Such, then, is the happy Govern- 
ment under which we live; a Government adequate to every purpose 
for which tae social compact is formed; a Government elective in all its 
branches, under which every citizen may by his merit obtain the highest 
trust recognized by the Constitution, which contains within it no cause 
of discord, none to put at variance one portion of the commuuity with 
another; a Government which protects every citizen in the full enjoy- 
ment of his rights, and is able to protect the nation against injustice 
from foreign powers." 

Again, the younger Adams, in the silver age of our country's ad- 
vancement to fame, in his inaugural address ( 1825). thus candidly de- 
clares the majesty of the youthful republic in its increasing greatness: 
— "The year of jubilee, since the first formation of our union, has jusfe 
elapsed: that of the Declaration of Independence is at hand. The con- 
summation of both was effected by this Constitution. Since that period, 
a population of four millions has multiplied to twelve. A Territory, 
bounded by the Mississippi, has been extended from sea to sea. New 
States have been admitted to the Union, in numbers nearly equal to- 
those of the first confederation. Treaties of peace, amity, and com- 
merce have been concluded with the principal dominions of the earth. 
The people of other nations, the inhabitants of regions acquired, not by 
conquest, but by compact, have been united with us in the participa- 
tion of our rights and duties, of our burdens and blessings. The forest 
has fallen by the ax of our woodsman. The soil has been made to teem 
by the tillage of oui farmers. Our commerce has whitened every ocean. 
The dominion of man over physical nature has been extended by the 
invention of our artists. Liberty and law have marched hand in hand. 
All the purposes of human association have been accomplished as effec- 



A.D.1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 203 

tivek as under any other Government on the globe, and at a cost little 
exceeding, in a whole generation, the expenditures of other nations in 

a single year." 

In continuation of such noble sentiments, General Jackson, upon his 
ascension to the great chair of the chief magistracy, said, "As long as 
our Government is administered for the good of the people, and is reg- 
ulat'ed by their will, as long as it secures to us the rights of person and 
property, liberty of conscience, and of the press, it will be worth de- 
fending; and so long as it is worth defending, a patriotic militia will 
cr«verit with an impenetrable cegis." 

GeneralJackson's administration may be denominated the acme of 

American glory, liberty, and prosperity; for the national debt, which 

i,a 1815, on account of the late war, was $125,000,000, and being les 

■sened gradually, was paid up in his golden day, and preparations were 

made to destribute the surplus revenue among the several States; and 

that august patriot, to use his own words in his farewell address, retired, 

leaving "a great people prosperous and happy, in the full enjoyment of 

liberty and peace, honored and respected by every nation of the 

world." 
4 /At the age, then, of sixty years, our blooming Republic began to de- 
/cline under the withering touch of Martin Van Buren! Disappointed 
ambition, thirst for power, pride, corruption, party spirit, faction, pa- 
tronage, perquisites, fame, tangling alliances, priestcraft, and spiritual 
wickedness in high places, struck hands and revelled in midnight 

splendor. 

Trouble, vexation, perplexity, and contention, mingled with hope, 
fear, and murmuring, rumbled through the Union and agitated the 
whole nation, as would an earthquake at the centre of the earth, the 
world heaving the sea bevond its bounds and shaking the everlasting 
hills; so, in hopes of better times, while jealousy, hypocritical preten- 
sions, and pompous ambition were luxuriating on the ill- gotten spoils of 
the people, they rose in their majesty like a tornado, and swept through 
the land/till General Harrison appeared as a star among the storm- 
clouds for better weather. / 

The calm came, and the language of that venerable patriot, in his 
inaugural address, while descanting upon the merits of the Constitution 
and its framers, thus expressed himself:— "There were in it features 
which appeared not to be in harmony with their ideas of a simple re- 
presentative Democracy or Republic. And knowing the tendency of 
power to increase itself, particularly when executed by a single indi- 
vidual, predictions were made that, at no verv remote period, the Gov- 
ernment would terminate in virtual monarchy. 

"It would not become me to say that the fears of these patriots have 




204 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

been already realized. But as I sincerely believe that the tendenc; of 
measures and of men's opinions for some years past has been jn that 
direction, it is, I conceive, strictly proper that I should take tai~, oc- 
casion to repeat the assurances I have heretofore given of my de- 
termination to arrest the progress of that tendency, if it really exjsts, 
and restore the Government to its pristine health and vigor." 

This good man died before he had the opportunity of applying < )Ue 
balm to ease the pain of our groaning country, and I am willing ihe 
nation should be the judge, whether General Harrison, in his exalted 
station, upon the eve of his entrance into the world of spirits, tend 
the truth, or not, with acting President Tyler's three years of p r- 
plexity, and pseudo-Whig-Democrat reign to heal the breaches > >r 
show the wounds, secundum artem. 

Subsequent events, all things considered, Van Buren's downfall, 
Harrison's exit, and Tyler's self-sufficient turn to the whole, go to 
show* — * * * * certainly there is a God in heaven to reveal 
secrets. 

No honest man can doubt for a moment but the glory of American 
liberty is on the wane, and that calamity and confusion will sooner 
or later destroy the peace of the people. Speculators will urge a na- 
tional bank as a savior of credit and comfort. A hireling pseudo- 
priesthood will plausibly push abolition doctrines and doings and 
"human rights'' into Congress, and into every other place where con- 
quest smells of fame, or opposition swells to popularity. Democracy, 
Whiggery, and cliquery will attract their elements and foment divi- 
sions among the people, to accomplish fancied schemes and accu- 
mulate power, while poverty, driven to despair, like hunger forcing its 
way through a wall, will break through the statutes of men to save life, 
and mead the breach in prison glooms. 

A still higher grade of what the "nobility of nations" call "great 
men'' will dally with all rights, in order to smuggle a fortune at "one 
fell swoop,'' mortgage Texas, possess Oregon, and claim a lj _ the un- 
jettl£d-region_s_o£-tJ ie world for hunting and _tiappingj. and should an 
humble, honest man, red, black, or white, exhibit a better titlft^ these 
gentry have only to clothe the judge with richer ermine, and spangle 
the lawyer's finger with finer rings, to have the judgment of his peers 
and the honor of his lords as a pattern of honesty, virtue, and humanity, 
while the motto hangs on his nation's escutcheon — "'Every man has 
his price! ^ 

Now, people! people! turn unto the Lord and live, and reform this 
nation. Frustrate the designs of wicked men. Reduce Congress at 

* For Explanation of Elipses see footnote p. 75 this volume. 



A..D. 1844| HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 205 

least two-thirds. Two Senators from a State and two members to a 
million of papulation will do more business than the army that now 
occupy the halls of the national Legislature. Pay them two dollars 
and their board per diem (except Sundays.) That is more than the 
farmer gets, and he lives honestly. Curtail the officers of Government 
in pay, number, and power; for the Philistine lords .have shorn our 
nation of its goodly locks in the lap of Delilah. / 

Petition your State Legislatures to pardon every convict in their 
several penitentiaries, blessing them as they go, and saying to them, 
in the name of the Lord, Go thy way, and sin no more. 

Advise your legislators, when they make laws for larceny, burglary, 
or any felony, to make the penalty applicable to work upon roads, pub- 
lic works, or any place where the culprit can be taught more wisdom and 
more virtue, and become more enlightened. Rigor and seclusion will 
never do as much to reform the propensities of men as reason and 
friendship. Murder only can claim confinement or death. Let the pe- 
nitentiaries be turned into seminaries of learning, where intelligence, 
like the angels of heaven, would banish such fragments of barbarism. 
Imprisonment for debt is a meaner practice than the savage tolerates, 
/vvith all his ferocity. "Amor vincit omnia." 1 " 1 
fT Petition, also, ye goodly inhabitants of the slave States, your legis- 
lators to abolish slavery by the year 1850, or now, and save the aboii 
tionist from reproach and ruin, infamy and shame. 

Pray Congress to pav every man a reasonable price for his slaves out 
of the surplus revenue arising from the sale of public lands, and from 
the deduction of pay from the members of Congress. 

Break off the shackles from the poor black man, and hire him to labor 
like other human beings; for "an hour of virtuous liberty on earth is 
worth a whole etermity of bondage." Abolish the practice in the army 
and navy of trying men by coui't-martial for desertion. If a soldier or 
marine runs away, send him his wages, with this instruction, that his 

^ country will never trust him again; he has forfeited his honor. 
* Make honor the standard with all men. Be sure that good is rendered 
for evil in all cases; and the whole nation, like a kingdom of kings and 
priests, will rise up in righteousness, and be respected as wise and 
worthy on earth, and as just and holy for heaven, by Jehovah, the 
Author of perfection. / 

More economy in tme national and state governments would make 
less taxes among the people; more equality through the cities, towns, 
and country, would make less distinction among the people; aud more 
honesty and familiarity in societies would make less hypocrisy and 
flattery in all branches of the community; and open, frank, candid de- 
corum to all men, in this boasted land of liberty, would beget esteem, 



a 




206 HISTORY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D.1844 

confidence, union, and love; and the neighbor from any state or from 
any country, of whatever color, clime or tongue, could rejoice when he 
put his foot on the sacred soil of freedom, and exclaim, The very name 
of "American' 1 '' is fraught with " friendship*. " Oh, then, create confi- 
dence, restore freedom, break down slavery, banish imprisonment for 
debt, and be in love, fellowship and peace with all the world! Remem- 
ber that honesty is not subject to law. The law was made for trans- 
gressors. Wherefore a * * * * good name is better than riches. 

f* For the accommodation of the people in every state and territory, 
let Congress show their wisdom by granting a national bank, with 
branches in each State and Territory, where the capital stock shall be 
held by the nation for the Central bank, and by the states and territor- 
ies for the branches; and whose officers and directors shall be elected 
yearly by the paople, with wages at the rate of two dollars per day for 
services; which several banks shall never issue any more bills than the 

jamount of capital stock in her vaults and the interest. 

The net gain of the Central bank shall be applied to the national rev- 
enue, and that of the branches to the states and territories' revenues. 
And the bills shall be par throughout the nation, which will mercifully 
cure that fatal disorder known in cities as brokerage, and leave the peo- 
ple's money in their own pockets. 

Give every man his constitutional freedom and the president full 
power to send an army to suppress mobs, and the States authority to 
repeal and impugn that relic of folly which makes it necessary for the 
governor of a state to make the demand of the President for troops, in 
I case of invasion or rebellion. 

The governor himself may be a mobber; and instead of being pun- 
ished, as he should be, for murder or treason, he may destroy the very 
lives, rights, and property he' should protect. Like the good Samari- 
tan, send every lawyer as soon as he repents and obeys the ordinances 
of heaven, to preach the Gospel to the destitute, without purse or scrip, 
pouring in the oil and the wine. A learned Priesthood is certainly 
more honorable than "cm hireling clergy :' '' 

r- As to the contiguous territories to the United States, wisdom would 
direct no tangling alliance. Oregon belongs to this government hon- 
orably; and when we have the red man's consent, let the Union spread 
from the east to the west sea; and if Texas petitions Congress to be 
adopted among the sons of liberty, give her the right hand of fellow- 
ship, and refuse not the same friendly grip to Canada and Mexico/And 
when the right arm of freemen is stretched out in the character of a 
navy for the protection of rights, commerce, and honor, let the iron 
eyes of power watch from Maine to Mexico, and from California to Col- 
umbia. Thus may union be strengthened, and foreiga speculation 
prevented from opposing broadside to broadside. 



) 



A. D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 207 

Seventy years have done much fur this goodly land. They have 
burst the chains of oppression and monarchy, and multiplied its inhab- 
itants from two to twenty millions, with a proportionate share of knowl- 
edge keen enough to circumnavigate the globe, draw the lightning 
from the clouds, and cope with all the crowned heads of the world. 

Then why — oh, why will a once flourishing people not arise, phoenix- 
like over the cinders of Martin Van Buien's power, and over the sink- 
ing fragments and smoking ruins of other catamount politicians, and 
•over the windfalls of Benton, Calhoun, Clay, Wright, and a caravan of 
other equally unfortunate law doctors, and cheerfully help to spread a 
plaster and bind up the burnt, bleeding ivounds, of a sore but blessed 
■country? % 

f* The Southern people are hospitable and noble. They will help to rid 
so free a country of every vestige of slavery, whenever they are as- 
sured of an equivalent for their property. The country will be full of \ 
money and confidence when a National Bank of twenty millions, and a 
State Bank in every state, with a million or more, gives a tone to mon- . 
etary matters, and make a circulating medium as valuable in the purses 
of a whole community as in the coffers of a speculating banker or 
broker. 

The people may have faults, but they should never be trifled with. I 

think Mr. Pitt's quotation in the British Parliament of Mr. Prior's 

couplet for the husband and wife, to apply to the course which the 

King and ministry of Eugland should pursue to the then colonies of the 

now United States, might be a genuine rule of action for some of the 

breath-made men in high places to use towards the posterity of this 

noble, daring people: — 

"Be to her faults a little blind; 
Be to her virtues very kind." 

We have had Democratic Presidents, Whig Presidents, a pseudo- 
Democratic- Whig President, and now it is time to have a President of 
the United States; and let the people of the whole Union, like the inflex- 
ible Romans, whenever they find a promise made by a candidate that is 
not practiced as an officer, hurl the miserable sycophant from his exalta- 
tion, as God did Nebuchadnezzar, to crop the grass of the field with a 
. beast's heart among the cattle. 

Mr. Van Buren said, in his inaugural address, that he went in the 
Presidential chair the inflexible and uncompromising opponent of every 
•attempt, on the part of Congress, to abolish slavery in the District of 
Columbia, against the wishes of the slave-holdiug States, and also with 
a determination equally decided to resist the slightest interference with 
it in the States where it exists. 

Poor little Matty made this rhapsodical sweep with the fact 
before his eyes, thac the State of New York, his native State, had abol- 



208 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

ished slavery without a struggle or a groan. Great God, how indepen- 
dent! Fi'om henceforth slavery is tolerated where it exists, constitu- 
tion or no constitution, people or no people, right or wrong: Vox Mattif 
Vox Diaboli! And perad venture, his great '"sub-treasury" scheme 
was apiece of the same mind. But the man and his measures have such 
a striking resemblance to the anecdote of the Welshman and his cart- 
tongue, that when the Constitution was so long that it allowed slavery at 
the capitol of a free people, it could not be cut off; but when it was so 
short that it needed a sub-treasury to save the funds of the nation, it 
could be spliced! Oh, granny, granny, what a long tail our puss has 
got.* But his mighty whisk through the great national 

fire, for the presidential chestnuts, burnt the locks of his glory with the 
blaze of his Jolly! 

In the United States the people are the government, and their united 
voice is the only sovereign that should rule, the onlv power that should 
be obeyed, and the only gentlemen that should be honored at home and 
abroad, on the land and on the sea. Wherefore, were I the president 
of the United States, by the voice of a virtuous people, I would honor 
the old paths of the venerated fathers of freedom ; I would walk in the 
tracks of the illustrious patriots who carried the ark of the Govern- 
ment upon their shoulders with an eye single to the glory of the people,, 
and when that people petitioned to abolish slavery in the slave states, 
I would use all honorable means to have their prayers granted, and, 
give liberty to the captive by paying the Southern gentlemen a reason- 
able equivalent for his property, that the whole nation might be free 
indeed! 
f~ When the people petitioned for a National Bank, I would use my best 
endeavors to have their prayers answered, and establish one on na- 
tional principles to save taxes, and make them the controllers of its- 
ways and means. And when the people petitioned to possess the terri- 
tory of Oregon, or any other contiguous territory, I would lend the in- 
fluence of a Chief Magistrate to grant so reasonable a request, that 
they might extend the mighty efforts and enterprise of a free people 
from the east to the west sea, and make the wilderness blossom as the 
rose. And when a neighboring realm petitioned to join the union of' 
liberty's sons, my voice would he, Come — yea, come, Texas; come Mexico, 
come Canada; and come, all the world: let us be brethren, let us be one 
great family, and let there be a universal peace. Abolish the cruel 
custom of prisons (except certain cases), penitentiaries, court-martials 
for desertion; and let reason and friendship reign over the ruins of ig- 
norance and barbarity; yea, I would, as the universal friend of man, open 
the prisons, open the eyes, open the ears, and open the hearts of all 
* For explanation of Elipses see footnote p. 75 this volume. 



A D. 1844] HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH. 209 

people, to behold and enjoy freedom — unadulterated'freedom; and God 
who once cleansed the violence of the earth with a flood, whose Son 
laid down His life for the salvation of all His Father gave him out of the 
world, and who has promised that He will come and purify the world 
again with fire in the last days, should be supplicated by me for the 
good of all people. With the highest esteem, I am a friend of virtue 

and of the people, 

Joseph Smith, 
Nauvoo, Illinois, February 7, 1844. 




14 VOL. VI 



210 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. IA.D. 184-t 




CHAPTER IX. 

COMMENTS ON CANDIDACY OF JOSEPH SMITH FOE PRESIDENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES — TENDERS OF PEACE TO MISSOURI 
— PRELIMINARY STEPS TO WESTERN MOVEMENT OF THE 
CHURCH — JAMES A. BENNETT AND VICE PRESIDENCY. 

Wednesday, February 7, 1844. — A piece of doggerel 
appears in the Warsaw Message of this date, entitled 
"Buckeye's Lamentations for the Want of More Wives," 
evidently the production of Wilson Law, and breathing a 
very foul and malicious spirit. 

Thursday, 8. — Held Mayor's court, and tried two ne- 
groes for attempting to marry white women: fined one $25, 
and the other $5. In the evening there was a political 
meeting in the assembly room, when Brother Phelps 
publicly read for the first time my "Views of the Powers 
and Policy of the General Government." addressed the 
meeting as follows : — 



Views of the Prophet on His Candidacy for President of United States. 



I would not have suffered my name to have been used by my 
friends on anywise as President of the United States, or candidate for 
that office, if I and my friends could have had the privilege of enjoying 
our religious and civil rights as American citizens, even those rights 
which the Constitution guarantees unto all her citizens alike. But this 
as a people we have been denied from the beginning. Persecution has 
rolled upon our heads from time to time, from portions of the United 
States, like peals of thunder, because of our religion; and no portion of 
the Government as yet has stepped forward for our relief. And in 
view of these things, I feel it to be my right and privilege to obtain 
what influence and power I can, lawfully, in the United States, for the 



\.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 211 

protection of injured innocence; and if I lose my life in a 
good cause I am willing to be sacrificed on the altar of 
virtue, righteousness and truth, in maintaining the laws and 
Constitution of the United States, if need be, for the general good of 
mankind. «v 

I was followed by Elders Hyde and Taylor, and a unan- 
imous vote was taken to maintain my political views, 

Friday, 9. — Held Mayor's court in my dining-room on 
the case, "Nauvoo versus William Withers," for assault. 
Case withdrawn on my recommendation. 

This evening a public meeting was held. I extract from 
the Neighbor: — 

PUBLIC MEETING. 

On Friday, the 9th instant, a public meeting was held in the assem- 
bly room, at which a public address of General Joseph Smith's to the 
citizens of the United States was read by Judge Phelps. The address 
is certainly an able document, big with meaning and interest, clearly 
pointing out the way for the temporal salvation of this Union, showing 
what would be our best policy, pointing out the rocks and quick-sand 
where the political bark is in danger of being wrecked, and the way to 
escape it, and evincing a knowledge and foresight of our political econ- 
omy worthy of the writer. 

Appropriate remarks were made by several gentlemen after the 
reading of the address. 

Saturday, 10. — I instructed the marshal to inform Mr. 
Cole, who kept a select school in the assembly room, 
that I must for the future have that room for my own 
use. 

Prayer- meeting in the assembly room. Prayed for Sis- 
ter Eichards and others, who were sick. 

A conference was held at Tuscaloosa county, Alabama : 
Elder John Brown, president; and George W. Stewart, 
clerk. Three branches were represented, containing nine 
elders, two priests, three teachers, three deacons, and 
123 members. 

Sunday, 11. — Snow on the ground. Thaw commenced 
in the afternoon. I was at home. 



212 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

Monday, 12. — I sat in the city council, and recom- 
mended the repeal of the ordinances entitled "An extra 
ordinance for the extra case of Joseph Smith," "An or- 
dinance to prevent unlawful search or seizure of persons 
or property, by foreign* process, in the city of Nauvoo," 
and "An ordinance regulatiDg the currency;" and they 
were repealed accordingly. The Memorial to Congress, 
passed December 21, 1843, was again read, and signed by 
the councilors, aldermen, mayor, recorder, and marshal. 

I instructed Councilor Orson Pratt to call all the Illinois 
representatives together, and tell them our sufferings 
have been such that we must have that document passed, 
and we^tvill have it. 

"You must go in for it. Go to John Quincy Adams 
and ask him to call the delegates from Massachusetts sep- 
arate from the Illinois delegation, and demand the same. 
Go to Henry Clay and other prominent men. Call public 
meetings in the city of Washington. Take the saloon, 
publish the admittance so much per ticket, invite the 
members of both houses to come and hear you, and roar 
upon them. You may take all my writings you think 
anything of and read to them, &c, and you shall pros- 
per, in the name of God. Amen." 

The recorder presented the report of the attendance of 
the city council, from which it appears that I have sat 
with them eleven sessions, from the 14th of October, 1843, 
to the 16th of January, 1844, inclusive. 

Councilor Orson Pratt nominated George P. Stiles as 
councilor during his absence, which was confirmed by the 
-jouncil. 

I burned $81 of city scrip according to ordinance. 

Thawing. Streets very dirty. 

Tuesday, 13. — 1 was at home. Settled with Theodore 
Turley, and gave him the deed of a lot. 

Having received an invitation from Brother Joseph L. 
Heywood to visit Quincy, I wrote him in reply: — 

*That is, process outside of the city government. 






A.D. 18441 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 213 

Letter: — Joseph Smith to Joseph L. Heywood — Anent a visit to 

Quincy. 

Nauvoo, February 13, 1844. 

Dear Brother Heywood, — I sit down at this time to acknowledge 
the receipt of, and reciprocate the friendly feelings manifest in yours of 
the 7th instant; and, although surrounded by a press of business, shall 
take pleasure in spending a few moments to reply. 

I would take the greatest pleasure imaginable in coming down to 
Quincy on a visit to see you and all my friends in your city, would bus- 
iness and circumstances permit; but it would be a matter of impossi- 
bility almost for me to leave home at the present time, in consequence 
of a multitude of business which I have daily to attend to. Moreover, 
wisdom and prudence seem to forbid my coming, on account of the bit- 
ter feeling which manifests itself in various places between this and 
Quincy, — not that I have any apprehensions for my personal safety; 
for the same kind hand which hath hitherto been my shield and sup- 
port would save me from the power of my wicked persecutors ; but 
something might grow out of it which would prompt my adversaries to 
get out another illegal writ, and would eventually, probably, cost me 
some three or four thousand dollars, as in other cases, and under 
which I have still to labor to disadvantage. Under these considera- 
tions, therefore, I am compelled to decline paying you a (visit for the 
present. At the same time, in connection with Mrs. Smith, I tender 
my warmest acknowledgement for the invitation. 

I am pleased to hear of the prosperity of your branch, and hope it 
will continue; for, although I never feel to force my doctrine'upon any 
person, I rejoice to see prejudice give way to truth, and the traditions 
of men dispersed by the pure principles of the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ. 

I should be pleased to have the privilege of forming an acquaintance 
with your partner, Mr. Kimball, and his lady; and should they ever 
come up this way, I hope they will call and see me. 

As respects things in Nauvoo, I have nothing to say but good. Al- 
though the mobocrats of this county breathe out their shame with a 
continual foam, and threaten extermination, &c..the citizens of Nauvoo 
are at peace; they fear no danger, for the report of mobs has become 
so common, that the "Mormons" pay no attention to itjwhatever. Each 
man minds his own business, and all are making improvements as fast 
as they can. In fact, things in general seem prosperous and pleasing; 
and I never saw a better feeling amongst the Saints than at the pres- 
ent time. 

My family have been somewhat sick of late, and continue so, espec- 
ially my youngest boy. 



214 HISTORY 01 THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

Accept, dear sir, the warmest respects of myself and Mrs. Smith, and 
please present the same to your lady. In the meantime I remain your 
friend and brother, 

Joseph Smith. 

President Brigham Young returned from Bear creek 
settlements, where he had been preaching for the last few 
days. 

Wednesday, 14. — At home through the day. In the 
evening the assembly room was filled by the brethren, 
when my "Views of the Powers and Policy of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States" was again read. I after- 
wards spoke on the same subject at a considerable 
length. 

Thursday, 15. — At home. A beautiful day. 

I insert the following article from the Times and Seas- 
ons: — 

WHO SHALL BE OUR NEXT PRESIDENT? 

This is an inquiry which to us as a people is a matter of the most 
paramount importance, and requires our most serious, calm, and dis- 
passionate reflection, f Executive power, when correctly wielded, is a 
great blessing to the^people of this great commonwealth, and forms one 
of the firmest pillars of our confederation. , It watches the interests of 
the whole community with a fatherly care; it wisely balances the other 
legislative powers when over-heated by party spirit or sectional feel- 
ing; it watches with jealous care our interests and commerce with for- 
eign nations, and^gives tone and efficacy to legislative enactments. 

The President stands at the head of these United States, and is the 
mouth-piece of this vast republic. If he be a man of an enlightened 
mind and ^ capacious"soul, — if he be a virtuous man, a statesman, a 
patriot, and'la man of unflinching integrity, — if he possess the same 
spirit that fired the souls of our venerable sires, who founded this great 
commonwealth, and wishes to promote the good of the whole republic, 
he may indeed.be made a blessing to the community. 

But if he prostrates his high and honorable calling to base and un- 
worthy purposes, — if he make use of the power which the people have 
placed in his] hands for their interests to gratify his ambition, for the 
purpose of self-aggrandizement or pecuniary interest, — if he meanly 
pander with demagogues, loses sight of the interest of the nation, and 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY 01' THE CHURCH. 215 

sacrifice the Union on the altar of sectional interests or party views, he 
renders himself unworthy of the dignified trust reposed in him, debases 
the nation in the eyes of the civilized world, and produces misery and 
confusion at home. "When the wicked rule, the people mourn." 

There is perhaps no body of people in the United States who are at 
the present time more interested about the issue of the presidential con- 
test than are the Latter-day Saints. And our situation in regard to the 
two great political parties is a most novel one. It is a fact well under- 
stood that we have suffered great injustice from the State of Missouri, 
that we have petitioned to the authorities of that state for redress in 
vain, that we have also memorialized Congress under the late adminis- 
tration, and have obtained the heartless reply that "Congress has no 
power to redress your grievances." 

After having taken all the legal and constitutional steps that we can, 
we are still groaning under accumulated wrongs. Is there no power 
anywhere to redress our grievances'? Missouri lacks the disposition 
and Congress lacks both the disposition and power (?); and thus fif- 
teen thousand inhabitants of these United States can with impunity be 
dispossessed of their property; have their houses burned, their prop- 
erty confiscated, many of their numbers murdered, and the remainder 
driven from their homes and left to wander as exiles in this boasted 
land of freedom and equal rights; and after appealing: again and again 
to the legally-constituted authorities of our land for redress, we are 
coolly told by our highest tribunals, "We can do nothing for you." 

We have paid hundreds of thousands of dollars into the coffers of 
Congress for their lands, and they stand virtually pledged to defend us 
in our rights, but they have not done it. If a man steals a dollar from 
his neighbor, or steals a horse or a hog, he [the neighbor] can obtain re- 
dress; but we have been robbed bv wholesale, the most daring murders 
have been committed, and we are coolly told that we can obtain no re- 
dress. If a steamboat is set on fire on our coast by foreigners, even 
when she is engaged in aiding and abetting the enemies of that power, 
it becomes a matter of national interference and legislation; or if a for- 
eigner, as in the case of McLeod, is taken on our land and tried for 
supposed crimes committed by him against our citizens, his nation in- 
terferes, and it becomes a matter of negotiation and legislation. But 
our authorities can calmly look on and see the citizens of a county 
butchered with impunity: they can see two counties dispossessed of 
their inhabitants, their houses burned, and their property confiscated; 
and when the cries of fifteen thousand men women and children sal- 
ute their ears, they deliberately tell us that we can obtain no 
redress. 

Hear it, therefore, ye mobbers! Proclaim it to all the scoundrels in 



216 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.o. 1844 

the Union! Let a standard be erected around which shall rally all the 
renegadoes of the land: assemble yourselves and rob at pleasure; mur- 
der till you are satiated with blood; drive men, women and children 
from their homes: there is no law to protect them, and Congress has no 
power to redress their grievances; and the great father of the Union 
(the President) has not got an ear to listen to their complaints. 

What shall we do under this state of things? In the event of either 
of the prominent candidates, Van Buren or Clay, obtaining the presi- 
dential chair, we should not be placed in any better situation. 

In speaking of Mr. Clay, his politics are diametrically opposed to 
ours. He inclines strongly to the old school of Federalists, and as a 
matter of course would not favor our cause, neither could we conscien- 
tiously vote for him. And we have yet stronger objections to Mr. Van 
Buren on other grounds. He has sung the old song of Congress — 
"Congress has no power to redi'ess your grievances." 

But did the matter rest here, it would not be so bad. He was in the 
presidential chair at the time of our former difficulties. We appealed 
to him on that occasion, but we appealed in vain, and his sentiments are 
yet unchanged. 

But all these things are tolerable in comparison to what we have yet 
to state. We have been informed from a respectable source that there 
is an understanding between Mr. Benton, of Missouri, and Mr. Van 
Buren, and a conditional compact entered into, that if Mr. Benton will 
use his influence to get Mr. Van Buren elected, Van Buren when 
elected, shall use his executive influence to wipe away the stain from 
Missouri by a further persecution of the "Mormons,'' and wreaking out 
vengeance on their heads, either by extermination or by some other 
summary process. We could scarcely credit the statement; and we 
hope yet, for the sake of humanity, that the suggestion is false: but we 
have too good reason to believe that we are correctly informed. 

If, then, this is the case, can we conscientiously vote for a man of 
this description, and put the weapons into his hands to cut our throat 
with? We cannot. And however much we might wish to sustain the 
Democratic nomination, we cannot — we will not vote for Van Buren. 
Our interests, our property, our lives, and the lives of our families are 
too dear to us to be sacrificed at the shrine of party spirit and to gratify 
party feelings. We have been sold once in the State of Missouri, and 
our liberties bartered away by political demagogues, through executive 
intrigue, and we wish not to be betrayed again by Benton and Van 
Buren. 

Under these circumstances, the question again arises, Whom shall 
we support? General Joseph Smith — a man of sterling worth and 
integritv and of enlarged views — a man who has raised himself from, 



a.D. 1844. HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 217 

the humblest walks in life to stand at the head of a large, intelligent, 
respectable, and increasing society, that has spread not only in this 
land, but in distant nations, — a man whose talents and genius are of an 
exalted nature, and whose experience has rendered him in every way 
adequate to the onerous duty. Honorable, fearless, and energetic, he 
would administer juftice with an impartial hand, and magnify and dig- 
nify the office of Chief Magistrate of this land; and we feel assured 
that there is not a man in the United States more competent for the task. 
r^One great reason that we have for pursuing our present course is, 
that at every election we have been made a political target for the 
filthy demagogues in the country to shoot their loathsome arrows at. 
And every story has been put into requisition to blast our fame from 
the old fabrication of "walk on the water" down to "the murder of ex- 
Governor Boggs.'' The journals have teemed with this filthy trash, 
and even men who ought to have more respect for themselves — men 
contending for the gubernatorial chair have made use of terms so de- 
grading, so mean, so humiliating, that a Billingsgate fisherwoman 
would have considered herself disgraced with. We refuse any longer 
to be thus bedaubed for either party. We tell all such to let their 
filth flow inits own legitimate channel, for we are sick of the loath- 
some smellr 

Gentlemen, we are not going either to "murder ex-Governor Boggs, 
nor a Mormon in this state for not giving us his money," nor are we 
going to "walk on the water," "nor drown a woman," nor "defraud 
the poor of their property,'' nor send "destroying angels after General 
Bennett to kill him," nor "marry spiritual wives," nor commit any 
other outrageous act this election to help any party with. You must 
get some other persons to perform these kind offices for you for the fu- 
ture. We withdraw. 

Under existing circumstances, we have no other alternative; and if 
we can accomplish our object, well: if not, we shall have the satisfac- 
tion of knowing that we have acted conscientiously, and have used our 
best judgment. And if we have to throw away our votes, we had bet- 
ter do so upon a worthy rather than upon an unworthy individual, who 
might make use of the weapon we put in his hand to destroy us with. 

Whatever may be the opinions of men in general in regard to Mr. 
Smith, we know that he needs only to be known to be admired; and 
that it is the principles of honor, integrity, patriotism, and philan- 
thropy that have elevated him in the minds of his friends; and the 
same principles, if seen and known, would beget the esteem and confi- 
dence of all the patriotic and virtuous throughout the Union. 

Whatever, therefore, be the opinions of other men, our course is 
marked out, and our motto henceforth will be — General Joseph Smith. 



218 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

Friday, 16. — At home. This evening I spent two 
hours in the office. Settled with Brother Whitney; gave 
him deed of several town lots, and took his receipt in full. 

Saturday, 17. — I wrote the following article : — 

PACIFIC INUENDO. 

The very candid, pacifie, and highly creditable advice which Gov- 
ernor Ford has done himself the honor to address to "the citizens of 
Hancock county, Mormons and all," and which appears in the Warsaw 
Signal of the 14th instant, is like the balm of Gilead, well calculated 
to ease the pain which has troubled the heads and hearts of the Cartha- 
genians, Warsawvians, and other over-jealous bodies for weal and woe. 

It certainly must be admitted, on all hands, that Governor Ford has 
exalted himself as a mediator, patriot, lawyer, governor, peacemaker, 
and friend of all, not only to magnify the law and make it honorable, 
but also in pointing out the part of peace. 

Such is what the Latter-day Saints have ever sought at the hands of 
those in authority; and with an approving conscience clear as the crys- 
tal spring, and with a laudable intention warm as the summer zephyr, 
and with a charitable prayer mellow as the morning dew, it is now our 
highest consolation to hope that all difficulties will cease, and give way 
to reason, sense, peace, and goodwill. 

The Saints, if they will be humble and wise, can now practice what 
they preach, and soften by good examples, rather than harden by a dis- 
tant course of conduct, the hearts of the people. 

For general information, it may be well to say that there has never 
been any cause for alarm as to the Latter-day Sa nts. The legislature 
of Illinois granted a liberal charter for the City of Nauvoo; and let ev- 
ery honest man in the Union who has any knowledge of her say 
whether she has not flourished beyond the most sanguine anticipations 
of all. And while they witness her growing glory, let them solemnly 
testify whether Nauvoo has willfully injured the country, county, or a 
single individual one cent. 

With the strictest scrutiny publish the fa" i, whether a particle of 
law has been evaded or broken: virtue and .nnocence need no artifi- 
s cial covering. Political views'and party distinctions never should dis- 
turb the harmony of society; and when the whole truth comes before a 
virtuous people, we are willing to abide the issue. 

We will here refer to the three last dismissals upon writs of habeas 
corpus, of Joseph Smith, when arrested under the requisitions of Mis- 
souri. 

The first, in June, 1841, was tried at Monmouth, before Judge 
Douglas, of the fifth judicial circuit: and as no exceptions have been 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 219 

taken to that decision by the state of Missouri — but Missouri previously 
entered a nolle prosequi on all the old indictments against the Mormons 
in the difficulties of 1838 — it is taken and granted that that decision 
was just! 

The second, in December, 1842, was tried at Springfield before Judge 
Pope in the U.S. District Court; and from that honorable discharge, 
as no exceptions from any source have been made to those proceed- 
ings, it follows as a matter of course that that decision was just! 

And the third, in July, 1843, was tried at the city of Nauvoo, before 
the Municipal Court of said city; and as no exceptions to that discharge 
have been taken, and as the governor says there is "evidence on the 
other side to show that the sheriff of Lee county voluntarily carried 
Mr. Reynolds (who had Mr. Smith in custody,) to the city of Nauvoo 
without any coercion on the part of any one," it must be admitted that 
that decision was just! 

But is any man unconvinced of the justness of these strictures rela- 
tive to the two last cases, let the astounding fact go forth, that Orrin 
Porter Rockwell, whom Boggs swore was the principal in his [attempted] 
assassination, and as accessory to which Mr. Smith was arrested, has 
returned home, "clear of sin." In fa?t, there was not a witness to get 
up an indictment against him. 

The Messrs. Averys, who were unlawfully transported out of this 
state, have returned to their families in peace; and there seems to be no 
ground for contention, no cause for jealousy, and no excuse for a sur- 
mise that any man, woman, or child will suffer the least inconvenience 
from General Smith, the charter of Nauvoo, the city of Nauvoo, or 
even any of her citizens. 

There is nothing for a bone of contention! Even those ordinances 
which appeared to excite the feeling of some people have recently been 
repealed; so that if the "intelligent" inhabitants of Hancock county 
want peace, want to abide by the Governor's advice, want to have a 
character at home, and really mean to follow the Savior's golden rule, 
"To do unto others as they would wish others to do unto them," they 
will be still now, and let their own works praise them in the gates of 
justice and in the eyes of the surrounding world. Wise men ought to 
have understanding enough to conquer men with kindness. 

"A soft answer turneth away wrath," says the wise man; and it will be 
greatly to the credit of the Latter-day Saints to show the love of God, 
by now kindly treating those who may have, in an unconscious moment, 
done wrong; for truly said Jesus, Pray for thine enemies. 

Humanity towards all, reason and refinement to enforce virtue, and 
good for evil are so eminently designed to cure more disorders of soci- 
ety than an appeal to arms, or even argument untempered with friend- 



220 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A D. 1844 

ship, and the one thins: needful that no vision for the future, guide- 
board for the distant, or expositor for the present, need trouble any one 
with what he ought to do. 

His own good, his family's good, his neighbor's good, his country's 
good, and all good seem to whisper to every person — The governor has 
told you what to do. Now do it. 

The constitution expects every man to do his duty; and when he fails 
the law urges him; or should he do too much, the same master rebukes 
him. 

Should reason, liberty, law, light, and philanthropy now guide the 
destinies of Hancock county with as much sincerity as has been mani- 
fested for her notoriety or welfare, there can be no doubt that peace, 
prosperity, and happiness will prevail, and that future generations as 
well as the present one will call Governor Ford a peacemaker. 
The Latter-day Saints will, at all events, and profit by the instruction, 
and call upon honest men to help them cherish all the love, all the 
friendship, all the courtesy, all the kindly feelings, and all the gener- 
osity that ought to characterize clever people in a clever neighborhood, 
and leave candid men to judge which tree exhibits the best fruit — the 
one with the most clubs and sticks thrown into its boughs and the grass 
trodden down under it, or the one with no sticks in it, some dead limbs, 
and rank grass growing under it; for by their signs ye can know their 
fruit, and by the fruit ye know the trees. 

Our motto, then, is Peace with all! If we have joy in the love of 
God, let us try to give a reason of that joy, which all the world cannot 
gainsay or resist. And may be, like as when Paul started with recom- 
mendations to Damascus to persecute the Saints, some one who has 
raised his hand against us with letters to men in nigh places may see a 
light at noonday, above the brightness of the sun, and hear the voice of 
Jesus saying, "It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks." 

Intelligence is sometimes the messenger of safety. And, willing to 
aid the governor in his laudable endeavors to cultivate peace and honor 
the laws, believing that very few of the citizens of Hancock county 
will be found in the negative of such a goodly course, and considering 
his views a kind of manifesto, or olive leaf, which shows that there is 
rest for the soles of the Saints' feet we give it a place in the Neighbor, 
wishing it God speed, and saying, God bless good men and good meas- 
ures! And as Nauvoo has been, so it will continue to be, a good city, 
affording a good market to a good country; and let those who do not 
mean to try the way of transgressors, say "Amen." 

The High Council met and settled several cases of dif- 
ficulty betwixt brethren. 



A. D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 221 



^TJl( 




ie Anti-Mormons held a convention at Carthage, the 
object being to devise ways and means of ex- Anti . Mormon 
pelling the Saints from the State. Among ° t on JJj|£° n 
other resolutions was one appointing the 9th s 

of March next as the day of fasting and prayer, wherein 
the pious of all orders are requested to pray to Almighty 
God that He would speedily bring the false Prophet Joseph 
Smith to deep repentance, or that He will make a 
public example of him and his leading accomplices . v 

The ice broke up in the river. 

Sunday, 18. — Beautiful day. Southwest wind. 

A very large assembly of the Saints met at the stand, 
near the Temple, when I preached a lengthy discourse. 

Four p. m., went to my office with Hyrum and two gen- 
tlemen from St. Louis. Heard Dr. Richards read my 
correspondence with Senator Calhoun, and Phelps read 
my "Views of the Power and Policy of the General Gov- 
ernment." 

At seven, attended prayer-meeting in the assembly 
room. 

Monday, 19. — At nine a. m. went to my office with Dr. 
Bernhisel, who proposed some alterations in my views of 
the government. Phelps read the same, and the doctor 
seemed better pleased with it than before. 

To the Editor of the Neighbor: — 

Sir, — I wish to say to you, as there seems to be a prospect of peace, 
that it will be more love-like, more God-like, and man-like, to say 
nothing about the Warsaw Signal. 

If the editor breathes out that old sulphurous blast, let him go and 
besmear his reputation and the reputation of those that uphold him 
with soot and dirt, but as for us and all honest men, we will act well 
our part, for there the honor lies. 

We will honor the advice of Governor Ford, cultivate peace and 
friendship with all, mind our own business, and come off with flying 
colors, respected, because, in respecting others, we respect ourselves. 

Respectfully, I am 
Joseph Smith. 

A conference was held in Halifax, Halifax county, 



222 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. I A.D. 1844 

Nova Scotia, Elder Robert Dickson, president. Two 
branches were represented, consisting of thirty members, 
three elders, one priest, one teacher, and two deacons. 

The wild geese commenced flying north. 

Tuesday, 20. — At ten a. m. went to my office, where 
Delegation the Twe ve Apostles and _e others met in 
w^hton man council with Brothers Mitchell Curtis and 
Indian Affairs Stephen Curtis, who left the pinery on Black 
river, 1st January. They were sent by Lyman Wight and 
Bishop Miller to know whether Lyman should preach to 
the Indians, the Menominees and Chippeways having re- 
quested it. 

The Chippeways had given Brother Wight some wam- 
pum as a token of peace, and the brethren had given them 
half a barrel of flour and an ox to keep the Indians from 
starving, and Wight had gone through to Green Bay with 
them to make a road. 

I told them to tell Brother Wight I had no counsel to 
give him on the subject. He is there on his own ground 
and must act on his own responsibility, and do what he 
thinks best in relation to the Indians, understanding the 
laws and nature of the subject as well as I can here, and 
he-shall never be brought into difficulty about it by us. 
<T I instructed the Twelve Apostles to send out a delegation 
western and investigate the locations of California and 

the V chureh ° Oregon, and hunt out a good location, where 
contemplated we can remove to afler fa e temple is com- 
pleted, and where we can build a city in a day, and have a 
government of our own, get up into the mountains, where 
the devil cannot dig us out, and live in a healthful cli- 
mate, where we can live as old as we have a mind to' 

Warm. The ice floating down the river. 

A meeting of the citizens of Hancock county was held 
a wolf Hunt at the court-house in Carthage. Passed a 
Hancock r Co. resolution that the second Saturday of March 
be appointed for a general wolf -hunt, being the same day 



A. D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH 223 

selected by the convention of the 17th instant for a day of 
fasting and prayer for my destruction. 

Wednesday 21. — The Rev. Mr. De Wolfe, Episcopalian, 
lectured in the assembly room in the evening. I attended 
and, after the sermon, at his request, spoke 
to the people, showing them that to getsalva- on the Neces- 
tion we must not only do some things, but phL ° obedi- 
•everything which God has commanded. Men ence t0 God - 
may preach and practice everything except those things 
which God commands us to do, and will be damned at 
last. We may tithe mint and rue, and all manner of 
herbs, and still not obey the commandments of God. The 
object with me is to obey and teach others to obey God in 
just what He tells us to do. It mattereth not whether the 
principle is popular or unpopular, I will always maintain 
a true principle, even if stand alone in it. 

My Pacific Inuendo, written on the 17th instant, ap- 
peared in the Neighbor of to-day, in connection with Gov- 
ernor Ford's letter of the 29th of January. 

Ice left the west bank of the river, opposite the lower 
brick house. 

J^ery warm and pleasant. 
<T Council of the Twelve met in my office. I insert the 
minutes : — 

Minutes of a Council Meeting of the Twelve. 

At a meeting of the Twelve, at the mayor's office, Nauvoo, Febru- 
ary 21, 1844, seven o'clock, p. m., Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt, 
Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, George A. Smith, Wil- 
lard Richards and four others being present, called by previous no- 
tice, by instruction of President Joseph Smith on the 20th instant, for 
the purpose of selecting a company to explore Oregon and California, 
and select a site for a new city for the Saints. 

Jonathan Dunham, Phineas H. Young, David D. Yearsley, and 
David Fullmer, volunteered to go; and Alphonzo Young, James Em- 
mett, George D. Watt, and Daniel Spencer were requested to go. 

Voted the above persons to be notified to meet with the council on 
Friday evening next, at the assembly room, 

Willard Richards, Clerk. 



224 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 184 

Thursday, 22. — At home. 

Ice continues to run in the river. Very pleasant, cool 
nights. 

Friday, 23. — W. W. Phelps received a letter from John 
Whitmer in relation to certain records, and a book con- 
taining some of the early history of the Church which had 
been written by my clerks, and was Church property, and 
which had been fraudulsntly detained from my possession 
by John Whitmer; to which Dr. Richards replied. 
.^"""Met with the Twelve in the assembly room concerning 
the Oregon and California Exploring Expedition ; Hyrum 
The western an( ^ Sidney present. I told them I wanted an 
Exploring exploration of all that mountain coountry. 

Equipment. * J 

Perhaps it would be best to go direct to San- 
ta Fe. "Send twenty-five men: let them preach the Gos- 
pel wherever they go. Let that man go that can raise 
$500, a good horse and mule, a double barrel gun, one- 
barrel rifle, and the other smooth bore, a saddle and 
bridle, a pair of revolving pistols, bowie-knife, and a 
good sabre. Appoint a leader, and let them beat up for 
volunteers. I want every man that goes to be a king 
and a priest. When he gets on the mountains he may 
want to talk with his God; when with the savage nations 
have power to govern, &c. If we don't get volunteers, 
wait till after the election." N v > 

George D. Watt said, "Gimtlemen, I shall go." Sam- 
uel Bent, Joseph A. Kelting, David Fullmer, James Em- 
mett, Daniel Spencer, Samuel Rolfe, Daniel Avery, and 
Samuel W. Richards, volunteered to go. 

Saturday, 24. — At home. Had an interview with 
Brother Phelps at nine o'clock. 

Seth Palmer, Amos Fielding, Charles Shumway, and John 
S. Fullmer volunteered to go to Oregon and California. 

Fifteen hundred copies of my "Views" out of press. 

Very pleasant the past two weeks; the pleasantest 
February I ever saw. 




A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 225 

President Brigkam Young went to Knowlton's settle- 
ment on Bear creek, and preached. 

Sunday, 25. — I preached at the temple block. Hyrum 
also preached. 

Evening, I attended prayer- meeting in the assembly 
room. We prayed that "General Josep Smith's Views of 
the Powers and Policy of the United States," . „ , 

" , . A Prophecy of 

might be spread far and wide, and be the Deliverance 
means of opening the hearts of the people ^1 
gave some important instructions, and prophesied that 
within five years we should be out of the power of our old 
enemies, whether they were apostates or of the world; 
and told the brethren to record it, that when it comes to 
pass they need not say they had forgotten the saying. 

Some rain in the evening; cloudy and foggy. 

Monday, 26. — At home. A cold wind from the north. 
Rainy, dull day. 

In the afternoon, held court at the Mansion. City of 
Xauvoo versus Orsimus F. Botswick, on complaint of 
Hyrum Smith for slanderous language con- The Case of 
cerning him and certain females of Nauvoo. S, 01 ^ "^ 

^ Slander of Hv- 

Bostwick was fined $50 and costs. Francis rum Smith. 
M. Higbee, his attorney, gave notice he should appeal to 
the municipal court, and then to the circuit court. I told 
Higbee what I thought of him for trying to carry such a 
suit to Carthage — it was to stir up the mob and bring 
them upon us. 

Prayer-meeting in the assembly room in the afternoon. 
My uncle John Smith and lady were present, were 
anointed, and received blessings; and in the evening 
Father Morley was also blessed. 

Ira S. Miles volunteered to join the mountain exploring 
expedition. 

Tuesday, 27. — At home. Cool and clear. River clear 
of ice. 

In the afternoon, visited the printing office. 
(^Mailed my "Views of Powers and Policy," &c, to the 



15 Vol. VT. 



226 



HISTOEY OF THE CHFECH. [A. D. 1844 



President and cabinet, supreme judges, senators, repre- 
sentatives, principal newspapers in the United States, (all 
the German), and many postmasters and individuals.^ 

Almon-L. Fullmer and Hosea Stout volunteered ^6 go 
on the Western Exploring Expedition. 

Wednesday, 28.— At home. Rainy day. 

At four, p. m., steamboat General Brooke passed up 
the river: first boat this season. No ice in sight. 

In the evening I sent Brother Coolidge to Brother 
Phelps, to call the brethren and pray for Brother Cool- 
idge's sick child, as he thought it could not live till morn- 
ing. Elder John Taylor and others prayed for him. 

Dr. Alphonzo Young published an appeal to his native 
state of Tennessee,givinga history of our Missouri troubles, 
and asking the influence of that state to obtain redress. 

The Neighbor of to-day publishes the following: — 

FOR PRESIDENT, JOSEPH SMITH. 

Having now raised the name of our General and Prophet to the head 
of our columns, it becomes us, as Latter day Saints, to be prudent and 
energetic in the cause that we pursue, and not let any secondary influ- 
ences control our minds or govern our proceedings. 

The step that we have taken is a bold one, and requires our united 
efforts, perseverance, and diligence; but important as it may be it is 
no greater than others have taken, and they have conceived that they 
had a right, without molestation, to pursue that course, and to vote for 
that man whose election they in their wisdom thought would be most 
conducive to the public weal. 

As American citizens, then we presume that all will concede to us 
this right; and whatever may be their views respecting the policy of 
such a step, they will acknowledge that we act legally, justly, and con- 
stitutionally in pursuing our present course. 

Some have nominated Henry CJay, some Colonel Johnson, others 
John C. Calhoun, others Daniel Webster, and others Martin Van 
Buren. 

Those several committees, unquestionably thought that they had 
each of them made the wisest selection in naming the man of their 
choice.They selected their several candidates because they thought they 
were the wisest, the greatest statesmen, and the most competent to 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 227 

fill the presidential chair, whilst they severally thought that the other 
candidates were incompetent. 

We have governed by the same principles; and if others think they 
have made the wisest selection, so do we. If others think they have 
nominated the greatest statesman, so do we; and while those several 
committees think that none of the nominations made are so good as 
their own, we think that the man of our choice is the most able, the 
most competent, the best qualified, and would fill the Presidential chair 
with greater dignity to the nation; and that his election would be con- 
ducive of more happiness and prosperity at home and abroad than that 
of any other man in these United States. 

This is a thing that we, as Latter-day Saints, know; and it now 
devolves upon us as an imperative duty to make others acquainted with 
the same things, and to use all our influence at home and abroad for 
the accomplishment of this object. 

Mr. Smith is not so generally known personally as are several of the 
above-named candidates; and although he has been much spoken of as 
a man, he has been a great deal calumniated and misrepresented, and 
his true character is very little known. 

It is for us to take away this false coloring; and by lecturing, by 
publishing, and circulating his works, his political views, his honor, 
integrity and virtue, to stop the foul mouth of slander, and present him 
before the public in his own colors, that he may be known, respected, 
and supported. 

Thomas S. Edwards volunteered to join the exploring 
expedition to the Rocky Mountains. 

Thursday, 29. — Called at my office, and gave Brother 
Phelps the Zanesville Gazette of January 31, containing 
the speech o Cassius M. Clay, delivered in A Reply 
Scott county, Kentucky, December 30, 1843, ^cSsL m. 
on annexing Texas to the United States ; and Cla 5"- 
instructed him to reply to the same, and gave him the 
subject matter, and directed the manner I wished it done; 
and then rode out with Porter Rockwell. 

The steamer Ohio went up the river. 

Moses Smith and Rufus Beach volunteered to join the 
Oregon exploring expedition. 

Friday, March 1. — Very frosty night; showery day, 
west wind. 

Spent the day in counseling. 



228 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1844 

Letters from the elders show a rapid progress of the 
work of the Lord in different parts of the Union. Elder 
John E. Page has gone to Washington for the purpose of 
proclaiming to the rulers of our nation the principles of 
eternal truth. By a letter received from him, we learn he 
has been preaching and baptizing in Boston and vicinity. 

Ihe High Council to the Saints in Nauvoo. 

The High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
at Nauvoo to the Saints of this [Nauvoo'] Stake, greeting. 

Beloved Brethren, — Realizing as we do, the importance of the 
work in which we are engaged, we deem it expedient to lay before you 
such matters from time to time as in our opinion will be beneficial 
to the Saints, and the spirit in us may seem to require. 

We would remind our brethren, the elders, who have at sundry 
times been sent forth as flaming heralds, messengers of the everlasting 
Gospel, who proclaim a message of salvation to their fellow-men, 
thereby gathering and'^rTnging up to Zion the scattered elect of God, 
to be taught more perfectly the principles of salvation; that whilst 
their message is abroad ^ have had our mission to remain at Nauvoo 
and to participate wilu the Saints in the blessing of poverty, f such it 
may be called; amid sickness and distress, in the vexations and tur- 
moils of the unruly and ungodly, for which no man has paid us, for 
days, weeks, months, and years; that our time has been spent in en- 
deavoring to settle difficulties, set in orde r the t hings needful to salva- 
tion; in trying to reconcile and cement the feelings of our brethren to 
each other in the spirit of the Gospel; whilst at times, circumstances of 
a more painful nature have been presented. 

Individuals have been brought before us charged with high crimes in 
violation of the laws of heaven, on whom much patient exertion in the 
labors of love have by us been bestowed, to reclaim them from the 
error and evil of their doings. 

We regret to have it to say that in some instances our efforts have 
been fruitless; for after we have found in them an obstinate and 
unyielding spirit to the principles of right, we have (reluctantly) been 
compelled to sever them from the Church as withered branches. 

Such persons not unfrequently manifest their wickedness by their 
trifling with and bidding defiance to all and every good rule, regulation 
and law, set forth for the guidance of all Saints. 

One single trait of their depravity is frequently manifested by their 
going to some ignorant elder and getting re-baptized into the Church, 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 229 

not having first made the least satisfaction (as was required) to such as 
they have injured. 

We have to say that baptism in such cases is not valid and cannot 
profit. We here continue to say; let such expelled person first be 
reconciled to his injured brother, and bring forth fruit mete for repent- 
ance; or, in case of dissatisfaction with our decision, take an appeal 
and reverse it, if found wrong. 

Expelled persons not complying with these rules (which are in 
accordance with the order of heaven), whom we have been once necessi- 
tated to withdraw fellowship from, cannot be restored in any illegal 
way; and we would say that all such clandestine entering into the 
Church is climbing up some other way, and that such persons can onty 
be considered as thieves and robbers. We would also remind the elders 
that it is improper for them to re-baptize any such expelled persons 
while they remain thus obstinate; and that it will subject them to cen- 
sure, and bring them to trial before a proper tribunal of the Church. 

We therefore hope, for the future, that certain officious, forward- 
feeling elders will be more prudent in such cases hereafter. 

We remain yours in the bonds of the new and everlasting covenant, 

William Marks, 

Charles C. Eich, 

Presidents. 
Samuel Bent, L. Dunbar Wilson, 

David Fullmer, Thomas Grover, 

Newel Knight, Leonard Soby, 

James Allred, Alpheus Cutler, 

George W. Harris, Aaron Johnson, 

William Huntington, Sen., Henry G. Sherwood, 

Counselors. 

Hosea Stout, Clerk. 

The Times and Seasons of March 1st presents my name to 
the public as candidate for president of the United States. 

Jonathan Dunham filed his bonds with the recorder, 
and took the oath of office as wharf-master of the city of 
Nauvoo. 

Elder Wilf ord Woodruff very sick ; the 37th anniversary 
of his birthday. 

Saturday, 2. — Ten a. m. held Mayor's court. Reproved 
Elder S. B. Stoddard for giving appearance of evil in 
attempting to be bail for Orsimus F. Boswick. Brother 
Stoddard afterwards explained to my satisfaction. 



230 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

President Brigham Young visited Macedonia, accom- 
panied by his brother, L. D. Young, and preached there 
on the Sabbath. 

Sunday, 3. — Ground covered with snow. Attended 
prayer-meeting in the evening. 

Monday, 4. — I suggested the name of James Arlington 
Bennett, of Long Island, as a candidate for Vice-Presi- 
dent. 

At early candle-light, the First Presidency, Twelve 
Apostles, temple committee, and others, met in council. 

I insert the minutes. 

Minutes of a Council Meeting — lioelve and 'lemple Committee. 

George Coray came in, and said he was sent by Lyman Wight to 
get sheep, &c, to carry to the Pine country, to receipt for them, or 
agree to pay lumber. 

President Joseph suggested that it was best to let the Nauvoo Honse 
remain as it is until the temple is completed, as we need the temple 
more than anything else. 

Elder Haws said there was some dissatisfaction about being sent 
from the Pinery without accounts, &c, and could not have credit on 
tithing, and one month at the Pinery is only called fifteen days here. 

President Joseph told them that they should have their number of 
days in full. "We will let the Nauvoo house stand until the temple is 
done, and we will put all our forces on the Temple, turn our lumber 
towards the Temple, and cover it in this fall, and sell the remainder to 
get blasting powder, fuse, rope, steel, &c. 

And when the temple is completed, no man shall pass the threshold 
tiil he has paid five dollars: and every stranger shall pay five dollars 
towards liquidating the cash debts on the Temple, and I will not have the 
house dirtied. 

Let Woodworth go to the pinery, take the things wanted, and bring 
back the lumber, and his wages go on as usual. 

Let a special conference be called on the 6th of April, and all the 
elders called home who can come. Let the people of this city come 
together on Thursday, at nine o'clock in the morning. After two or 
three lectures, we will call on the people to fill up the boxes with liberal 
contributions, to procure cash materials for the temple. 



< 



I instructed a letter to be written to James Arlington 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 2'Sl 

Bennett to consult him on the subject of nominating him 
for Vice-President ,\l here insert the letter: — 

Letter — Willard Richards to James Arlington Bennett — lhe Matter of 
Bennett Becoming Candidate for Vice-President of U. S. 

Nauvoo, March 4, 1844. 

Dear General, — Yours of the 1st of February, was duly 
received, and produced the most pleasing sensations among your 
friends here, and especially with the Prophet, who said, ''Tell General 
Bennett I am perfectly satisfied with his explanation; and as to temper , 
I had not even thought of it." 

You suggest that Brother Joseph's correspondence with Mr. Calhoun 
would appear in some degree to contradict the noble sentiments 
expressed in that able document to yourself; but if you will notice that 
his communication to you was written as an individual, and that to Mr. 
Calhoun as the voice of the people he represents, I think you will dis- 
cover no disciepancy; but if so, tell me particulars without delay, and 
you shall have an explanation. 

I have recently mailed to you General Smith's "Views of the Powers 
and Policy of the Government of the United States," which were 
drawn forth in consequence of his friends selecting him as a candidate 
for the next Presidency, which he very reluctantly acquiesced in, and 
it seems would not, only to support a favorite maxim — " lhe people must 
govern; " but having once been prevailed upon to suffer his name to go 
abroad as a candidate, it is desirable to him of course, as to every 
patriot, that those who have brought him forward should use all honor- 
able means to sustain him in the canvass; and if I had not felt dis- 
posed to uphold him before the people, I never would have 'been the 
first to urge his nomination; and during the short space since his 
name has been published, his friends have been astonished at the flood 
of influence that is rolling through the Western States in his favor, and 
in many instances where we might have least expected it. 

I need not assert what the wisest of the wise admit without argument 
— that General Smith is the greatest statesman of the 19th century. 
Then why should not the nation secure to themselves his superior tal- 
ents, that they may rise higher and higher in the estimation of the 
crowned heads of the nations, and exalt themselves through his wisdom? 

Your friends here consider your letter about the Governorship of 
Illinois just like every man in your quarter, mere sport, child's sport; 
for who would stoop to the play of a single State, when the whole 
nation was on the board? — a cheaper game! 

General Smith says, if he must be President, Arlington Bennett must 
be Vice-President. To this his friends are agreed — agreed in every- 
thing; and in this consists our power: consequently, your name will 



232 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. LA.D. 1844 

appear in our next paper as our candidate for Vice-President of the 
United States. You will receive our undivided support, and we expect 
the same in return for General Smith for the Presidency; and we will 
go it with the rush of a whirlwind, so peaceful, so gentle, that it will 
not be felt by the nation till the battle is won. 

Dear General, if glorv, honor, force, and power in righteous princi- 
ples are desired by you, now is your time. You are safe in following 
the counsel of that man who holds communion with heaven; and I 
assure you, if you act well your part, victory's the prize. 

Brother Arlington, look well to "General Smith's Views,'' and his 
letter to Calhoun, and comprehend him fully. Say to the New York 
Herald, now is the time for your exaltation; raise your standard hitrh, 
sound your trumpet long and loud, support General Smith and myself 
at the next election; and when we are exalted, you shall not be forgot- 
ten. 

Hold forth no false shadows to honest men; yet though there is but 
one best piece to the fatted calf, yet there are many good slices; there- 
fore you will not forget the "Advertiser,' 1 '' "Niles Begister,' n "Globe," 
&c, &c. 

Get up an electoral ticket — New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
and any other state within your reach. Open your mouth wide, and 
God shall fill it. Cut your quill, and the ink shall flow freely. 

Commence at your own mansion and stay not, only for electioneer- 
ing purposes, till by some popular route you reach Naueoo; and if you 
preach Mormonism it will help you. At every stage, tavern, boat and 
company, expose the wickedness of Martinism in saying, if he is elected 
President, he will annihilate the Mormons, and proclaim the sycophancy 
of the candidates generally, and uphold Joseph against every aspersion 
and you shall triumph gloriously. 

We have many thing's to say to you, which we must keep t'll we see 
you face to face. 

All is right at Nauvoo. We are now fitting out a noble company to 
explore Oregon and California, and progressing rapidly with the great 
Temple, which we expect to roof this season, though there is yet a 
chance at the eleventh hour for you to bring in your thousand, and se- 
cure your "penny.'' 

On the 6th of April is our special conference at Nauvoo. I wish you 
could be here on that occasion, but the time is too short. From 
that period our Elders will go forth by hundreds or thousands and search 
the land, preaching religion and politics; and if God goes with them, 
who can withstand their influence? 

My words are the words of your friends here— Come and see us. 



A.D. 1844 J HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 233 

Brother Joseph's, Young's, and Bernhisel's respects to you. Mrs. 
Richards' kind respects with mine to yourself and love to all yours. 

Most respectfully yours, 
Willard Richards. 

The temple committee proposed to establish a powder 
manufactory. 



234 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 



CHAPTER X. 

URGING THE BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE — TENDERS OF PEACE 
TO MISSOURI — PROPHET'S DISCOURSE ON ELIAS, ELIJAH, 
MESSIAH — LYMAN WIGHT'S PROPOSAL OF A SOUTHWEST 
MOVEMENT FOR THE CHURCH. 

luesday, March 5, 1844. — I saw Hyrum Kimball at Bry- 
ant's store, and gave him a lecture on his resisting the ordin- 
ances of the city, by telling the captains of the steamboats 
they need not pay wharfage, &c. 

Rode out with Emma. 

At two, p. m., met with the City Council. I copy the 
minutes : — 

Special Session of the City Council. 

March 5, 1844, 2 p. m. 

Names of members called. Quorum present. 

Mayor stated that he had called the council, because that when the 
wharf-master called on the steamboats for wharfage, the officers of the 
boats declined paying, assigning as a reason that Hyrum Kimball and 

Morrison had told them that they owned the land, and they need 

pay no wharfage to the city; and he called the council to know 
their views on the subject, as he had told Hyrum Kimball that he 
should see the ordinances executed; and if the boats did not pay, he 
should blow them up and all those who upheld them in resisting the 
ordinances. Every measure is taken to palsy the hands of the officers 
of the city; and I want to know how to remedy the evil, or whether I 
shall abandon the ordinances, &c. 

Alderman Harris said that it was the mayor's duty to enforce the ordi- 
nances of the city, and that no man has a right to build a wharf with- 
out leave from the city council. 

Councilor Phelps suggested the propriety of licensing those who 
owned wharves to collect a tax for the landing of the boat. 



A.D. 18441 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 235 

Alderman Wells concurred. 

Mayor said the land on the water's edge was a street. 

Alderman Wells suggested the propriety of having the street worked 
as soon as may be. 

Councilor Phelps said, if Water street extended round the city, then 
Kimball had been constructing a nuisance. 

Mayor spoke in explanation, and said that Kimball said, if the city 
would make a wharf, he would give up what he had done. 

Councilor Orson Spencer said he wished the mayor to execute the 
law of the city. 

Councilor Brigham Young concurred. 

Councilor W. W. Phelps proposed that Water street be worked the 
whole length. 

Councilor Taylor said, "I go in for executing the laws of the city.' T 

Marshal stated that Morrison said he had a bond for a deed to low- 
water mark, and the city could not take his personal rights, and he 
objected to the boats paying wharfage. 

Councilor Orson Pratt said, if Kimball or Morrison or any one else 
has built wharves since that street was laid out, they could get no dam- 
ages. 

Councilor Daniel Spencer considered the ordinance passed good, and 
it ought to be enforced. 

Councilor Hyrum Smith, believed it was our duty to stand up to the 
c linances. 

Moved by Brigham Young that the city council instruct the Mayor to 
order the supervisor to open Water stree from Joseph Smith's store 
north to the north line of the city. 

Councilor Phelps approved of the motion, that the road might be 
cleared from rafts, and the rafts might also pay license. 

Councilor Warrington said the upper stone house was in the street. 

Mayor said that was the greatest nuisance there was in the street. 

Councilor Orson Spencer was in favor [i.e., of the motion to open 
Water street.] Motion carried unanimously. 

The governor having refused to issue commissions to the aldermen- 
elect of the city, Councilor Whitney inquired who were aldermen. 

The mayor explained that if the governor refuses to grant a commis- 
sion, it does not disqualify the officer elect from acting in his office; 
consequently, there is no virtue in the commission, but the virtue of 
the office consists in the election. 

Councilor Young thought they were aldermen all the \ime or none of 
the time. 

Mayor said he wanted all the aldermen to be added to the city 
council. 



#r 



236 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

Alderman Wells said he considered the election made the aldermen, 
and not the commission. 

Mayor said if he had been elected alderman and filed his bonds, he 
would act as councilor and magistrate. 

Noah Packard sent a memorial to the governor, senate, 
Packard's and house of representatives of Massachusetts, 
LeSatireof his native state, setting forth in detail the suf- 
Massachusetts ferings of the Saints in Missouri, and their 
expulsion from that state. 

Wednesday, 6 . — Went to my office, and thence with 
Brother Phelps to Mr. Bryant's, to see him about his 
uniting with Hyrum Kimball and others to resist the 
ordinances of the city. 

The Neighbor publishes the name of James Arlington 
Bennett as candidate for Vice-President. 

Thursday, 7. — A splendid day; wind from the south- 
west. 



Minutes oj a General Meeting in the Interest of the lemple. 

/[Reported by Elders Willard Richards and Wilford Woodruff.] 

A vast assembly of Saints met at the Temple of the Lord at nine 
o'clock a. m., by a special appointment of President Joseph Smith, for 
the purpose of advancing the progress of the Temple, &c. 

The Patriarch, Hyrum Smith, was present; also of the Twelve Apos- 
tles, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, Orson 
Pratt, Willard Richards, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, and George 
A. Smith; also the temple committee and about eight thousand Saints. 

A hymn was sung by the choir; prayer by Elder Parley P. Pratt, 
when another hymn was sung. 

Patriarch Hyrum Smith took the stand and said, The object of the 
meeting is to stir up your minds by way of remembrance. It is neces- 
sary to have a starting-point, which is to build the Temple. 

With the assistance of the sisters, we expect to get the nails and 
glass; and with the assistance of the brethren, we expect to do the 
rest. I will proclaim in public and in private thet the sisters bought 
the glass and nails by penny subscription. Choose ye this day whom 
ye will serve. 

We shall call upon this vast multitude for a donation to buy powder 
and fuse-ropes to blast the rocks in the quarry. We want the brethren 
to at least do as much as the sisters. 



(A.D. 1814 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 237 

We do not intend to finish the Nauvoo House this season, but to take 
all the hands and finish the Temple this summer, or the walls of it, and 
get the roof on b? December, and do off the inside nest winter:' and 
about a year from this spring we will dedicate it. 

We can do anything we undertake. We have power, and we can do 
great things. In five years to come the work will progress more than 
it has done for ten years past. 

Isaiah said we should perform a marvelous work and a wonder. I 
don't wonder he said so, if he saw this vast multitude; and I think this 
people is abundantly able to build this temple, and much depends upon 
it for our endowments and sealing powers; and many blessings depend 
upon it. 

President Joseph Smith then arrived, took the stand, arose, and.after 
requesting Orson Pratt to come to the stand and take his post, said: — 

I do not know whether the object of the meeting has been told you 
or not. I apologize for noc coming sooner. 

I have had so much on my mind since I saw you, that I hardly know 
where to begin or what to say; but one of the grand objects I had in 
view in calling this meeting was to make a few remarks relative to the 
laws and ordinances of the city and the building of the temple. 

The reason I want to speak of the city ordinances is that the officers 
have difficulty in administering them. 

We are republicans, and wish to have the people rule; but they 
must rule in righteousness. Some would complain with what God 
Himself would do. 

The laws or ordinances are enacted by the city council on petition of 
the people; and they can all be repealed, if they wish it, and petition 
accordingly. 

At all events, the people ought not to complain of the officers; but if S\/} 
they are not satisfied, they should complain to the lawmakers by 
petition. 

I am instructed by the city council to tell this people that if there is 
any law passed by us which you dislike, we will repeal it, for we are 
your servants. Those who complain of our rights and charters are l njUtf 
wicked and corrupt, and the devil is in them. 

The reason I called up this subject is,jvro have a gang of simple fel- 
jojvs here who do not know where their elbows or heads are. If you 
preach virtue to them, they will oppose that; or if you preach a Metho- 
dist God to them, they will oppose that; and the same if you preach 
anything else; and if there is any case tried by the authorities of 
Nauvoo, they want it appealed to Carthage to the circuit court. Mr. 
Orsimus F. Bostwick's case had to go to Carthage. Our lawyers will 
appeal anything to the circuit court. 



238 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. TA.D. 1844 

I want the people to speak out and say whether such men should be 
tolerated and supported in our midst; and I want to know if the citi- 
zens will sustain me when my hands are raised to heaven for and in 
behalf of the people. 

From this time I design to brincr such characters who act against the 
interests of the city before a committee of the whole; and I will have 
the voice of the people, which is republican, and is likely to be the 
voice of God; and as long as I have a tongue to speak, I will expose 
the iniquity of the lawyers and wicked men. 

I fear not their boiling over nor the boiling over of hell, their thun- 
ders, nor the lightning of their forked tongues. 

If these things cannot be put a stop to, I will give such men into the 
hands of the Missouri mob. The hands of the officers of the city falter 
and are palsied by their conduct. 

There is another person I will speak about. He is a Mormon — a 
certain man who lived here before we came here; the two first letters 
of his name are Hyrum Kimball. When a man is baptized and be- 
comes a member of the Church, I have a right to talk about him, and 
reprove him in public or private, whenever it is necessary, or he 
deserves it. 

When the city passed an ordinance to collect wharfage from steam- 
boats, he goes and tells the captains of the steamboats that he owned 
the landing, and that they need not pay wharfage. 

I espise the man who will betray you with a kiss; and I am deter- 
mined to use up^pstmen, if they will not stop their operations. If 
this is not true, let him come forward and throw off the imputation. 

When they appeal to Carthage, I will appeal to this people, which is 
the highest court. I despise the lawyers who haggle on lawsuits, and 
I would rather die a thousand deaths than appeal to Carthage, 

Kimball and Morrison say they own the wharves; but the fact is, the 
city owns them, sixty-four feet from high water mark. From the 
printing office to the north limits of the city is public ground, as Water 
street runs along the beach, and the beach belongs to the city and not 
to individuals. 

Another thing: I want to speak about the lawyers of this city. I 
have good feelings towards them; nevertheless I will reprove the law- 
yers and doctors anyhow. Jesus did, and every prophet has; and if I 
am a prophet, I shall do it: at any rate, I shall do it, for I profess to be 
a prophet. 

The maritime laws of the United States have ceded up the right to 
regulate all tolls, wharfage, &c, to the respective corporations who 
have jurisdiction, and not to individuals. 

Our lawyers have read so little that they are ignorant of this: thev 



A.D. 1844| HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 239 

have never stuck their noses into a book on maritime law in their lives, 
and, as Pope says: — 

Shallow draughts intoxicate the hrain; 
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian Spring. 

Our city lawyers are fools to undertake to practice law when they 
know nothing about it. 

want " ' his time forth every fool to stay at home and let the 
steamboats and captairjs alone. No vessel could land anywhere, if 
subject to individual laws. 

The corporation owns the streets of the city, and has as much right 
to tax the boats to make wharves as to tax citizens to make roads. Let 
every man in this city stay at home, and let the boat-captains, peace- 
officers and everybody alone. 

How are we to keep peace in the city, defend ourselves against 
mobs, and keep innocent blood from being shed? By striking a blow 
at everything that rises up in disorder. 

I will wage an eternal warfare with those that oppose me while I am 
laboring in behalf of the city. I will disgrace every man by publishing 
him on the house top, who will not be still and mind his own business. 
Let them entirely alone, and they will use themselves up. 

I was visited by an old gentleman this morning, who told me that 
the spirit of mobocracy was about subsiding. A couple of merchants 
in this city (I will not tell their names,) have told the country people 
not to bring butter, eggs, &c, to Nauvoo for sale; at least, so the peo- 
ple abroad say. 

Now, if they will not let the people bring their produce, the people 
will not buy their goods; aud the result will be, the merchants will get a 
spirit of mobocracy. 

Another man (I will not call his name,) has been writing to the New 
York Iribune, some of the most disgraceful things possible to name. 
He says, in that article, that there are a great many donations to the 
Temple which have been appropriated to other purposes. 

His object evidently was to stigmatize the trustee and excite preju- 
dice against us abroad. But I pledge myself that whoever has contrib- 
uted any old shoes, harness, horses, wagons, or anything else, if he will 
come forward, will show that every farthing is on the book and has 
been appropriated for the building of the Temple. 

I pledge myself that if he finds the first farthing that we cannot show 
where it has been appropriated, I will give him my head for a football. 

He also states that the Temple cannot be built, it costs so much. Who 
does not know that we can put the roof on the building this season, if 
we have a mind to? By turning all the means from the Nauvoo House 
and doubling our diligence we can do it. 



240 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1844 

There are men in our midst who are trying to build up themselves at 
our expense, and others who are watching for iniquity, and will make a 
man an offender for a word. The best way for such men is to be still. 
If I did not love men, I would not reprove them, but would work in the 
darkness as they do. 

As to who is the author of the article in the Tribune, read it and you 
will see for yourselves. He is not a lawyer; he is nearer related to a 
doctor — a small man. (Mr. McNeil inquired if he was the man.) No; 
I do not know you: you are a stranger. But I will rest myself and 
give way for others. 

President Hyrum Smith arose and made a few remarks. He com- 
pared the lawyers to polliwogs,wigglers, and toads. He said they would 
dry up next fall. "Those characters, I presume, were made in gizzard 
making time, when it was cheaper to get gizzards than souls; for if a 
soul cost $5, a gizzard would cost nothing: like tree toads, they change 
color to suit the object they are upon. They ought to be ferreted out 
like rats. You could describe them as you would a hedgehog: they 
fe in every hedge, stinking like the skunk."* 
Charles Foster asked if Joseph meant him. 
Joseph said, "I will reply by asking you a question." 
Foster: "That is no way.'' 

Joseph. "Yes, that is the way the Quakers do. But Jesus said, 
"Whose image and superscription is this? Why did you apply the 
remarks to yourself? Why did you ask if we meant you? 
Foster. "Then I understand you meant me. 
Joseph. "You said it." 
Foster. "You shall hear from me." 

Joseph. "As Mayor, I fine you $10 for that threat, and for disturb- 
ing the meeting." 

Doctor Foster spoke in palliation of his brother Charles, and asked 
Josepe to await, &c. He said, "He has not threatened you." Joseph 
said, "He has.'' Doctor Foster said: "No one has heard him threaten 
you,'' when hundreds cried, "I have!" Doctor Foster continued to 
speak, when the Mayor called him to order, or, said he, "I will fine 
you." 

William W. Phelps then read General Smith's "Views of the Powers 
and Policy of the General Government of the United States;'' after 
which, it was voted, unanimously, with one exception, to uphold Gen- 
eral Smith for the Presidency of the United States. 

* Nauvoo was unfortunate '.a being overrun with pettifogging lawyers at this 
time, and it was to these, doubtless, that the disparaging remarks of both the 
Prophet and Hyrum, rspecting lawyers referred. It is unfortunate that they 
did not segregate the pettifoggers from the worthy men of the profession; than 
whom no class of citizens, and no other profession, render more valuable service to- 
the state. 



A.D. 1844] HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 241 

An article was also read by W. W. Phelps, entitled, "A Voice of 
Innocence from Nauvoo," and all the assembly said "Amen'' twice. 

At thirty minutes past twelve, the meeting adjourned till two p. m. 

When the people assembled according to adjournment, choir sang a 
hymn. Prayer by Elder Orson Pratt. Singing. 

Prosident Brigham Young addressed the congregation. He said: I 
wish to speak upon the duty of lawyers, as they have been spoken of 
this morning. They were first among the children of Israel to explain 
the laws of Moses to the common people. 

I class myself as a lawyer in Israel. My business is to make peace 
among the people; and when any man who calls himself a lawyer 
takes a course to break peace instead of making it, he is out of the line 
of his duty. A lawyer's duty is to read the law well himself, then tell 
the people what it is, and let them act upon it, and keep peace; and let 
them receive pay like any laboring man. 

It is desirable for justices of the peace, when men call for writs, to 
inquire into the merits of the case, and tell the parties how to settle it, 
and thus put down lawsuits. To cure lawing, let us pay attention to 
our business. 

When we hear a story, never tell it again, and it will be a perfect 
cure. If your brother mistreats you, let him alone; if your enemy 
cheats you, let it go; cease to deal with men who abuse you. If all men 
had taken the straightforward course that some have, we should not 
have such disorderly men in our midst. 

I have no objection to any man coming here, but I will have nothing 
to do with men who will abuse me at midnight and at noonday. Our 
difficulties and persecutions have always arisen from men right in our 
aiidst. 

It is the lust of individuals to rob us of everything, and to take 
advantage of divisions that may arise among us to build themselves up. I 
feel that I want every man should stay and lift up holy hands without 
dubiety, wrath or doubting. 

To the men who own land here I would say: Do not think you can 
sell your lands here, and then go off and spend it somewhere else in 
abusing the Mormons. I tell you nay; for know it, ye people, that 
Israel is here; and they are the head, and not the tail; and the people 
must learn it. All those who have gone from us have gone from the 
head to the tail. 

The grand object before us is to build the temple this season. 

We have heard the effects of slander, and we want a cure and balm; 
and I carry one with me all the while, and I want all of you to do the 
same. I will tell you what it is: it is to mind your own business, and 
let others alone, and suffer wrong rather than do wrong. If any take 

16 VOL. VI 



242 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

your property away, let them alone, and have nothing to do with them. 
A spirit has been manifested to divide the Saints. It was manifest 
in the last election. It was said, if they did not look out, the Saints on 
the flat would beat the Saints on the hill. 

Great God! how such a thing looks, that the Saints should be afraid 
of beating one another in the election, or being beat? I would ask, who 
built up this city? Would steamboats have landed here, if the Saints 
had not come? Or could you, even the speculators, have sold your 
lands for anything here, if the Saints had not come? They might have 
sold for a few bear and wolf skins, but not for money. 

If any of you wish to know how to have your bread fall butter-side 
up, butter it on both sides, and then it will fall butter-side up. Oppose 
this work, and it will roll over you. 

When did this work ever stop since it began? Never. The only 
thing the Saints now want to know is — what does the Lord want of us, 
and we are ready to do it. 

Well," then, build the Temple of the Lord. Keep the law of God, ye 
Saints, and the hypocrite and scoundrel will flee out of your midst and 
tremble, for the fire of God will be too hot for them, 

I expect the Saints are so anxious to work, and so ready to do right, 
that God has whispered to the Prophet, "Build the Temple, and let the 
Nauvoo House alone at present." I would not sue a man, if he owed 
me five hundred or a thousand dollars, should he come to me and say 
he would not pay me. 

Elder John Tayjjxr.-_r,e marked that it was said by some discontented 
personsTEat the municipal officers of the city were acting in an arbi- 
trary manner, which was false. He then went to explain the princi- 
ples of Democracy, until it was announced that it would be desirable to 
set a contribution on foot immediately to get fuse rope and blasting 
powder, as a boat was coming down the river, and the messenger 
was waiting to go down to St. Louis. 

Elder Taylor paused awhile for this purpose, and a collection amount- 
ing to about sixty dollars was made. He then continued his speech: 
"When society was first organized they found themselves without leg- 
islature, congress, house of lords, or anything of the kind, every man 
was lord over his own house. 

Difficulties began to arise, and the people began to contend and com- 
bine together in governments. By-and-by, some two or three requested 
that they might return to their original customs, and the govern- 
ment said they might. This was the situation of this city in the main, 
when we asked for a charter. 

Of General Joseph Smith some are afraid, and think it doubtful 
about his election; and, like the ostrich, stick their heads under a bush, 



a.D. 1841] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 243 

and leave their bodies out, so that we can all see them; and after this 
it will be a by- word— "That man is an ostrich who hides his head in 
this cause." He spoke also on going on with the temple. 

President Bri gham Young jsaid— "Those who have not paid their 
property tiflHsg^w^sha¥ : c^tnip"on, and take dinner; and we had rather 
be saved that trouble, and have them come up and pay. You will want 
a blessing in the temple when it is done." 

President Joseph Smith remarked:— In relation to those who give in 
property forlEelemple. We want them to bring it to the proper source, 
and to be careful into whose hands it comes, that it may be entered into 
the Church books, so that those whose names are found in the Church 
books shall have the first claim to receive their endowments in the tem- 
ple. I intend to keep the door at the dedication myself, and not a man 
shall pass who has not paid his bonus. 

As to politics, I care but little about the presidential chair. I would 
not give half as much for the office of President of the United States as 
I would for the one I now hold as Lieutenant-General of the Nauvoo 
Legion. 

We have as good aright to make a political party to gain power to 
defend ourselves, as for demagogues to make use of our 
religion to get pow*r to destroy us. In other words, as the world has 
used the power of government to oppress and persecute us, it is right 
for us to use it for the protection of our rights. We will whip the mob 
by getting up a candidate for President. 

When I get hold of the Eastern papers, and see how popular I am, I 
am afraid myself that I shall be elected; but if I should be, I would not 
say, "Your cause is jtist, but I can do nothing for you. r 

What I have said in my views in relation to the annexation of Texas 
is with some unpopular; the people arc opposed to it. Some of the 
Anti-Mormons are good fellows. I say it, however, in anticipation 
that they will repent. They object to Texas on account of slavery. 
Why, it is the very reason she ought to be received, so that we may 
watch over them; for, of the two evils, we should reject the greatest. 

Governor Houston of Texas, says— "if you refuse to receive us into 
the United Scates, we must go to the Briush Government for pro- 
tection." 

This would certainly be bad policy for this nation; the British are 
now throughout that whole country, trying to bribe all they can; and 
the first thing they would do, if they got possession, would be to set the 
negroes and the Indians to fight, and they would use us up. British 
officers are now running all over Texas to establish British influence in 
that country. 

It will be more honorable for us to receive Texas and set the negroes 



244 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. t AD - 1844 

free, and use the negroes and Indians against our foes. Don't let Texas 
go, lest our mothers and the daughters of the land should laugh us in 
the teeth; and if these things are not so, God never spoke by any 
Prophet since the world began. 

How much better it is for the nation to bear a little expense than to 
have the Indians and British upon us and destroy us all. We should 
grasp all the territory we can. I know much that I do not tell. I have 
had bribes offered me, but I have rejected them. 

The government will not receive any advice or counsel from me: they 
are self-sufficient. But they must go to hell and work out their own 
salvation with fear and trembling. 

The South holds the balance of power. By annexing Texas, I can 
do away with this evil. As soon as Texas was annexed, I would liberate 
the slaves in two or three States, indemnifying their owners, and send 
the negroes to Texas, and from Texas to Mexico, where all colors are 
alike. And if that was not sufficient, I would call upon Canada, and 
annex it. 

Singing by the choir. Prayer by President B. Young. 

The barque Fanny, Captain Patterson, arrived at New 
Orleans with 210 souls, led by Elder William Kay. They 
express, [the opinion] in a letter to the 
wm^Kay and Millennial Star, that no people ever had a 
Engush 7 ° £ more prosperous voyage than the Lord has 
saints. favored this company with ; and such a cap- 

tain and crew, for kindness, could scarcely be met with, 
the captain frequently administering from the cabin stores 
unto the necessities of all who required it. 

Elder John E. Page published an address to the inhab- 
itants of Washington. 

Friday, 8. — Very heavy rain all night, accompanied by 
thunder. 

Bishop Miller arrived from the Pinery. 
<^Ltten a. m., my scribe, Willard Richards, called to 
j^T a. Ben- tell me that James Arlington Bennett was a 
we'fo^viS- native of Ireland, and therefore was not con- 
president of stitutionally e legible to be the Vice-President.' 
He wanted to know who should be nominated for Vice- 
President. I told him to counsel with others upon that 



A.D.1844] HISTORY OF THE CHUKOH. 245 

point, when he said he would call a council this evening. 
At seven p. m., the First Presidency, the Twelve, 
Bishop Miller, Levi Richards, W. W. Phelps, and Lucian 
Woodworth assembled in the Mayor's office, when W. W. 
Phelps read the following pacific communication, which I 
had previously dictated him to write : — 

A Friendly Hint to Missouri. 

One of the most pleasing scenes that can occur on earth, when a 
sin has been committed by one person against another, is, to forgive 
that sin; and then according to the sublime and perfect pattern of the 
Savior, pray to our Father in heaven to forgive him also. 

Verily, verily, such a friendly rebuke is like the mellow zephyr of 
summer's eve — it soothes, it cheers and gladdens the heart of the hu- 
mane and the savage. Well might the wise man exclaim, "A soft 
answer turn eth away wrath; " for men of sense, judgment, and observa- 
tion, in all the various periods of time, have been witnesses, figura- 
tively speaking, that water, not wood, checks the rage of fire. 

Jesus said: "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called 
the children of God." Wherefore if the nation, a single State, com- 
munity, or family ought to be grateful for anything, it is peace. 

Peace, lovely child of heaven! — peace like light from the same great 
parent, gratifies, animates, and happifies the just and the unjust, and 
is the very essence of happiness below, and bliss above. 

He that does not strive with all his powers of body and mind, with 
all his influence at home and abroad, and to cause others to do so too — 
to seek peace and maintain it for his own benefit and convenience, and 
for the honor of his State, nation, and country, has no claim on the 
clemency of man; nor should he be entitled to the friendship of woman 
or the protection of government. 

He is the canker-worm to gnaw his own vitals; and the vulture to 
prey upon his own body; and he is, as to his own prospects and pros- 
perity in life, a telo-de-se of his own pleasure. 

A community of such beings are not far from hell on earth, and should 
be let alone as unfit for the smiles of the free or praise of the brave. 

But the peacemaker, give ear to him! for the words of his mouth 
and his doctrine drop like the rain, and distil as the dew. They are 
like the gentle mist upon the herbs, and as the moderate shower upon 
the grass. 

Animation, virtue, love, contentment, philanthropy, benevolence, 
compassion, humanity and friendship push life into bliss: and men, a 




246 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D.1844. 

little below the angels, exercising their powers, privileges, and know- 
ledge according to the order, rules, and regulations of revelation, by 
Jesus Christ, dwell together in unity; and the sweet odor that is wafted 
by the breath of joy and satisfaction from their righteous communion is 
like the rich perfume from the consecrated oil that was poured upon 
the head of Aaron, or like the luscious fragrance that rises from the 
field of Arabian spices. Yea, more, the voice of the peacemaker — 

It is like the music of the spheres — 
It charms our souls and calms our fears; 
It turns the world to Paradise, 
And men to pearls of greater price. 

So much to preface this friendly hint to the state of Missouri: for, 
notwithscanding some of her private citizens and public officers have 
committed violence, robbery, and even murder upon the rights and per- 
sons of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, yet compassion, 
dignity, and a sense of the principles of religion among all classes, and 
honor and benevolence, mingled with charity by high-minded patriots, 
lead me to suppose that there are many worthy people in that state who 
will use their influence and energies to bring about a settlement of all 
those old difficulties, 'and use all consistent meant> to urge the State, for 
ber honor, prosperity, "and good name, to restore every person she or 
her citizens have expelled from her limits, to their rights, and pav them 
all damage, that the great body of high-minded and well-disposed 
Southern and Western gentlemen and ladies — the real peace-makers of 
a western world, will go forth — good Samaritan-like, and pour in the oil 
and the wine, till all that can be healed are made whole; and after 
repentance, they shall be forgiven; for verily the Scriptures say, "Joy 
shall be in heaven over one sinner that repents, more than over ninety- 
and-nine just persons that need no repentance." 

Rowing the fallibility of man, considering the awful responsibility of 
rejecting the cries of the innocent, confident in the virtue and patriot- 
ism of the noble-minded Western men, tenacious of their character and 
standing, too high to'jstoop to disgraceful acts, and too proud to tol- 
erate meanness in others; yea, may, I not say, without boasting that 
the best blood of the West, united with the honor of the illus- 
trious fathers of freedom, will move, as the forest is moved by a mighty 
wind, to promote peace and friendship in every part of our wide-spread, 
lovely country. 

Filled with a love almost unspeakable, and moved by a desire pleas- 
ant as the dew of (heaven, 1 supplicate not only our Father above, but 
also the civil, the enlightened, the intelligent, the social, and the best 
inhabitants of Missouri — those that feel bound by principles of honor, 
justice, moral greatness, and national pride, to arise in the character of 



A.D. 18441 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 247 

virtuous freemen from the disgrace and reproach that might inadver- 
tantly blur their good names, for want of self-preservation. 

Now is the time to brush off the monster that, incubus-like, seems 
hanging upon the reputation of the wnole State. A little exertion, and 
the infamy of the evil will blacken the guilty only, for is it not written, 
"The tree is known by its fruit?'' 

The voice of reason, the voice of humanity, the voice of the nation, 
and the voice of Heaven seem to say to the honest and virtuous through- 
out the State of Missouri, wash yourselves, make you clean, lest your 
negligence should be taken by the world, from the mass of facts before 
it, that you are guilty! 

Let there be one unison of hearts for justice; and when you reflect 
around your own firesides, remember that fifteen thousand once among 
you, now not, but who are just as much entitled to the privileges and 
blessings you enjoy as yourselves, like the widow before the unjust 
judge, are fervently praying for their rights. 

When you meditate upon the massacre at Haun's mill, forget not that 
the Constitution of your State holds this broad truth to the world, that 
none shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, but by the judge- 
ment of his peers or the law of the land. 

And when you assemble together in towns, counties, or districts, 
whether to petition your legislature to pay the damage the Saints have 
sustained in your State, by reason of oppression and misguided zeal, or 
to restore them to their rights according to Republican principles and 
benevolent designs, reflect, and make honorable, or annihilate, such 
statute law as was in force in your state in 1838, — viz: "If twelve or 
more persons shall combine to levy war against any part of the people 
of this state, or to remove [them] forcibly out of the state or from their 
habitations, evidenced by taking arms and assembling to accomplish 
such purpose, every person so offending shall be punished by imprison- 
ment in the Penitentiary for a period not exceeding five years, or by 
a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars and imprisonment in the 
county jail not exceeding six months. 

Finally, if honor dignifies an honest people, if virtue exalts a com- 
muity, if wisdom guides great men, if principle governs intelligent 
beings, if humanity spreads comfort among the needy, and if 
religion affords consolation by showing tnat charity is the first, best 
and sweetest token of perfect love, then, ye good people of Missouri, 
like the woman in Scripture who had lost one of her ten pieces of sil- 
ver, arise, search diligently till you find the lost piece, and then make a 
feast, and call in your friends for joy. 

With due consideration, I am the friend of all good men, 

Joseph Smith. 

Nauvoo, III., March 8, 1844. 



< 



248 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

Brother George A. Smith brought the information that 
st. Louis Brother Farnnam had just returned from St. 

tV^PrTphet's Louis, ana 1 said the people in that place were 
Candidacy. saying, '^Things have come to a strange pass. 
If Joe Smith is elected President, he will raise- the d«vil 
with Missouri; and if he is not elected, he will raise the 
devil anyhow." 

It was agreed that Colonel Solomon Copeland, living at 
copeiand of Paris, Benry county, Tennessee, should be 
considered as written \q on the subject of the Vice-Presi- 

Candidatefor dency . and that E ' lder Wilford Woodruff 

President. should write the letter, and invite him to visit 
us, and see if he would suffer his name to run for that 
office. ^> , 

Saturday, 9. — Met in the City Council, and gave my 
reasons in favor of the repeal of the hog law. [The sub- 
ject was discussed at some length.] 

Council adjourned for one hour. In the afternoon City 
Council rejected the petition to repeal the hog law. 

I proposed to license Hyrum Kimball and Mr. Morrison , 
who own the land opposite to the wharf, to make wharves 

and collect wharfage ; then the city can dis- 
wharfage. pense with a wharf-master; that Kimball and 

Morrison pay a tax for the landing of every 
boat; and they could tax the boat, or not, as they liked. 
The Female Relief Society met twice in the assembly 
room, and sanctioned "The Voice of Innocence From 
Nauvoo," and then adjourned for one week to accommo- 
date others who could not get into the room at either of 
the meetings. 

Our worthy brother, King Follett, died this morning, ) 

occasioned by the accidental breaking of a 
K^gFonett. rope, and the falling of a bucket of rock upon 

him while engaged in walling up a well, and 
the men above were in the act of lowering the rock to 
him. 



A.D. 1844| HISTOKY OF THE CHUECH. 243 

KING FOLLETT BIOGRAPHY. 

Elder Follett was one of those who bore the burden, in common 
with others of his brethren, in the days when men's faith was put to 
the test. He was a native of Vermont, and moved many years since 
into Cuyahoga county, Ohio. 

There, for the first time, he heard the Gospel preached, united with 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the spring of 1831, 
and has been a sharer in the afflictions through which the Saints have 
passed from that time until the time of his death. 

He shared in the violence of Missouri persecution, was cast into 
prison, and endured many months' imprisonment; and, after long 
delay, obtained a trial on the charges preferred against him, and was 
honorably discharged, being acquitted of all the crimes with which a 
band of wicked persecutors could charge him 

All the persecutions he endured only tended to strengthen his faith 
and confirm his hope; and he died as he had lived, rejoicing in the 
hope of future felicity. 

Having united with the Church in the forty-first year of his age, he 
filled up the prime of his life in the service of his God, and went to rest 
in his fifty-sixth year, being fifty-five years, seven months, and four- 
teen days old when he slept the sleep of death. — v 

So the righteous pass, and so they sleep, until the mandate of Him 
for whom they suffer and in whom they trust shall call them forth to 
glory, honor, immortality and eternal life. 

Sunday, 10. — Frost in the night; beautiful day. South 
wind. 

Brother King Follett was buried this day with Masonic 
honors. 

I attended meeting at the stand, and preached on the 
subject of Elias, Elijah, and Messiah. [A sketch of which 
was reported by Elder Wilford Woodruff, as follows]: — 

Discourse of the Prophet. — Elias, Elijah, Messiah. 

There is a difference between the spirit and office of Elias and 
Elijah. It is the spirit of Elias I wish first to speak of; and in order 
to come at the subject, I will bring some of the testimony from the 
Scripture and give my own. 

In the first place, suffice it to say, I went into the woods to inquire of 



250 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. TA.D. 1844 

the Lord, by prayer, His will concerning me, and I saw an angel, and 
he laid his hands upon my head, and ordained me to a Priest after the 
order of Aaron, and to hold the keys of this Priesthood, which office 
was to preach repentance and baptism for the remission of sins, and 
also to baptize. But I was informed that this office did not extend to 
the laying on of hands for the giving of the Holy Ghost; that that 
office was a greater work, and was to be given afterward; but that my 
ordination was a preparatory work, or a going before, which was the 
spirit of Elias; for the spirit of Elias was a going before to prepare the 
way for the greater, which was the case with John the Baptist. He 
came crying through the wilderness, "Prepare ye the way of the Lord, 
make his paths straight." And they were informed, if they could 
receive it, it was the spirit of Elias; and John was very particular to 
tell the people, he was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of 
that Light. 

He told the people that his mission was to preach repentance and 
baptize with water; but it was He that should come after him that 
should baptize with fire and the Holy Ghost. 

If he had been an imposter, he might have gone to work beyond his 
bounds, and undertook to have performed ordinances which did no* - 
belong to that office and calling, under the spirit of Elias. 

The spirit of Elias is to prepare the way for a greater revelation of 

^■^^God, which is the Priesthood of Elias, or the Priesthood that Aaron was 

ordained unto. And when God sends a man into the world to prepare 

for a greater work, holding the keys of the power of Elias, it was 

called the doctrine of Elias, even from the early ages of the world. 

John's mission was limited to preaching and baptizing; but what he 
did was legal; and when Jesus Christ came to any of John's disciples, 
He baptized them with fire and the Holy Ghost. 

We find the apostles endowed with greater power than John: their 
office was more under the spirit and power of Elijah than Elias. 

In the case of Phillip when he went down to Samaria, when he was 
under the spirit of Elias, he baptized both men and women. When 
Peter and John heard of it, they went down and laid hands upon them, 
and they received the Holy Ghost. This shows the distinction between 
the two powers. 

When Paul came to certain disciples, he asked if they had received 
the Holy Ghost? They said, No. Who baptized you, then? We were 
baptized unto John's baptism. No, you were not baptized unto John's 
baptism, or you would have been baptized by John. And so Paul 
went and baptized them, for he knew what the true doctrine was, and 
he knew that John had not baptized them. And these principles are 



A.D. 1844| HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 

strange to me. that men who have read the Scriptures of the New Tes- 
tament are so far from it. 

What I want to impress upon your minds is the difference of power 
in the different parts of the Priesthood, so that when any man comes 
among you, saying, "I have the spirit of Elias," you can know 
whether he be true or false; for any man that comes, having the spirit 
and power of Elias, he will not transcend his bounds. 

John did not transcend his bounds, but faithfully performed that 
part belonging to his office; and every portion of the great building 
should be prepared right and assigned to its proper place; and it is nec- 
essary to know who holds the keys of power, and who does not, or we 
may be likely to be deceived. ___^- 

That person who holds the keys of Elias hath a preparatory work. 
But if 1 spend much more time in conversing about the spirit of Elias, 
I shall not have time to do justice to the spirit and power of Elijah. 

This is the Elias spoken of in the last days, and here is the rock 
upon which many split, thinking the time was past in the days of John 
and Christ, and no more to be. But the spirit of Elias was revealed to 
me, and I know it is true; therefore I speak with boldness, for I know 
verily my doctrine is true. 

Now for Elijah. The spirit, power, and calling of Elijah is, that ye 
aave power to hold the key of the revelation, ordinances, oracles, powers 
and endowments of the fullness of the Melchisedec Priesthood and__of 
the kingdom of God on the earth; and to receive, obtain, and perform 
all the ordinances belonging to the kingdom of God, even unto the turn- 
ing of the hearts of the fathers unto the children, and the hearts of the 
children unto the fathers, even those who are in heaven. 

Malachi says, "I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming 
of the great and dreadful day of the Lord: and he shall turn the heart 
of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their 
fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse." 

Now, what I am after is the knowledge of God, and I take my own 
course to obtain it. What are we to understand by this in the last 
days? 

In the days of Noah, God destroyed the world by a flood, and He has 
promised to destroy it by fire in the last days: but before it should take 
place, Elijah should first come and turn the hearts of the fathers to the 
children, &c. 

Now comes the point. What is this office and work of Elijah? It is 
one of the greatest and most important subjects that God has revealed. 
He should send Elijah to seal the children to the fathers, and the fath- 
ers to the children. 

Now was this merely confined to the living, to settle difficulties with 



252 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A D. 1844 

families on earth? By no means. It was a far greater work. Elijah! 
what would you do if you were here? Would you confine your work to 
the living alone? No; I would refer you to the Scriptures, where the 
Subject is manifest: that is, without us, they could not be made per- 
fect, nor we without them; the fathers without the children, nor the 
children without the fathers. 

I wish you to understand this subject, for it is important; and if you 
will receive it, this is the spirit of Elijah, that we redeem our dead, and 7 
connect ourselves with our fathers which are in heaven, and seaTup our 
dead to comeTorth~in the first resurrection;and here we want the power 
of Elijah to seal those who dwell on earth to those who dwell in 
f-— heavenJ This is the power of Elijah and the keys of the kingdom of ) 
Jghovah. 

Let us suppose a case. Suppose the great God who dwells in heaven 
should reveal Himself to Father Cutler here, by the opening heavens, 
and tell him, "I offer up a decree that whatsoever you seal on earth 
with your decree, I will seal it in heaven; you have the power then; 
can it be taken off? No. Then what you seal onearih, by the keys of 
Elijah, is sealed in heaven; and this is the-power of Elijah, and this is 
the difference .between the spirit and power of Elias and Elijah; for 
while the spirit of Elias is a forerunner, the power of Elijah is sufficient 
to make our calling and election sure; and the same doctrine, where 
we are exhorted to go on to perfection, not laying again the foundation 
of repentance from dead works, and of laying on of hands, ressurection 
of the dead, &c. 

We cannot be perfect without the fathers, &c. We must have reve- 
lation from them, and we can see that the doctrine of revelation far 
transcends the doctrine of no revelation; for one truth revealed 
from heaven is worth all the sectarian notions in existence. 

This spirit of Elijah was manifest in the days of the apostles, in 
delivering certain ones to the buffetings of Satan, that they might be 
saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. They were sealed by the spirit of 
Elijah unto the damnation of hell until the day of the Lord, or revela- 
tion of Jesus Christ. 

Here is the doctrine of election thai the world has quarreled so much 
about; but they do not know anything about it. 

The doctrine that the Presbyterians and Methodists have quarreled 
so much about — once in grace, always in grace, or falling away from 
grace, I will say a word about. They are both wrong. Truth takes a 
road between them both, for while the Presbyterian says "once in 
grace, you cannot fall;" the Methodist says: "You can have grace 
today, fall from it to-morrow, next day have grace again; and so follow 
on, changing continually." But the doctrine of the Scriptures and the 



A.D. 1844| HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 253 

spirit of Elijah would show them both false, and take a road between 
them both; for, according to the Scripture, if men have received the 
good word of God, and tasted of the powers of the world to come, if 
they shall fall away, it is impossible to renew them again, seeing they 
have crucified the Son of God afresh, and put Him to an opeu shame; 
so there is a possibility of falling away; you could not be renewed 
again, and the power of Elijah cannot seal against this sin, for this is a 
reserve made in the seals and power of the Priesthood. 
* I will make every doctrine plain that I present, and it shall stand 
upon a firm basis, and I am at the defiance of the world, for I will take 
shelter under the broad cover of the wings of the work in which I am 
engaged. It matters not to me if all hell boils over; I regard it only as 
I would the crackling of the thorns under a pot. 

A murderer, for instance, one that sheds innocent blood, cannot have 
forgiveness. David sought repentance at the hand of God carefully 
with tears, for the murder of Uriah; but he could only get it through 
hell: he got a promise that his soul should not be left in hell. 

Although David was a king, he never did obtain the spirit and power 
of Elijah and the fullness of the Priesthood; and the Priesthood that 
he received, and the throne and kingdom of David is to be taken from 
him and given to another by the name of David in the last days, raised 
up out of his lineage. 

Peter referred to the same subject on the day of Pentecost, but the 
multitude did not get the endowment that Peter had; but several days 
after, the people asked "What shall we do?" Peter says, "1 would ye 
had done it ignorantly,"' speaking of crucifying the Lord, &c. He did 
not say to them, "Repent and be baptized, for the remission of 
your sins;" but he said, "Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that 
your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come 
from the presence of the Lord.' ; (Acts iii. 19.) 

This is the case with murderers. They could not be baptized for the 
remission of sins for they had shed innocent blood. 

Again: The doctrine or sealing power of Elijah is as follows: — If 
you have power to seal on earth and in heaven, then we should be wise. 
The first thing you do, go and seal on earth your sons and daughters 
unto yourself, and yourself unto your fathers in eternal glory. * * 

* * I will walk through the gate of heaven and claim what 
I seal, and those that follow me and my counsel. 

The Lord once told me that what I asked for I should have. I have 
been afraid to ask God to kill my enemies, lest some of them should, 
perad venture, repent. 

r I asked a short time since for the Lord to deliver me out of the hands 
_j/. the Governor of Missouri, and if it needs must be to accomplish it, to 



J" 



254 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

take him away; and the next news that came pouring down from there 
was, that Governor Reynolds had shot himself. And I would now say, 
"Beware, earth, how you fight against the Saints of God and shed 
innocent blood; for in the days of Elijah, his enemies came upon him, 
and fire was called down from heaven and destroyed them. 
, (The spirit of Elias is first, Elijah second, and Messiah last. Elias is 
a forerunner to prepare the way, and the spirit and power of Elijah is 
to come after, holding the keys of power, building tbe Temple to the 
capstone, placing the seals of the Melchisedee Priesthood upon the 
house of Israel, and making all things ready; then Messiah comes to 
His Temple, which is last of all. A- 

Messiah is above the spirit and power of Elijah, for He made Ihe 
world, and was that spiritual rock unto Moses in the wilderness. ^Eli- 
jah was to come and prepare the way and build up the kingdom before 
the coming of the great day of the Lord, although the spirit of Elias 
might begin it^y 

I have asked of the Lord concerning His coming; and while asking 
the Lord, He gave a sign and said, "In the days of Noah I seta bow in 
the heavens as a sign and token that in any year that the bow should be 
seen the Lord would not come; but there should be seed time and har- 
vest during that year: but whenever you see the bow withdrawn, it 
shall be a token that there shall be famine, pestilence, and great dis- 
tress among the nations, and that the coming of the Messiah is not far 
distant. 

But I will take the responsibility upon myself to prophesy in the name 
of the Lord, that Christ will not come this year, as Father Miller has 
prophesied, for we have seen the bow; and I also prophesy, in the 
name of the Lord, that Christ will not come in forty years; and if God 
ever spoke by my mouth, He will not come in that length of time. 
Brethren, when you go home, write this down, that it may be remem- 
bered. 

Jesus Christ never did reveal to any man the precise time that He 
would come. Go and read the Scriptures, and you cannot find any- 
thing that specifies the exact hour He would come; and all that say so 
are false teachers. 

There are some important things concerning the office of the Mes- 
siah in the organization of the world, which I will speak of hereafter, 
May God Almighty bless you and pour out His Spirit upon you. is the 
prayer of your unworthy servant. Amen. 

At half-past three p. m., I met with the Twelve, Bishop 
Miller and the Temple Committee, in the Nanvoo Mansion 



A.D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 255 

The following letter from Lyman Wight and others was 
read : — 

Letter: — Lyman Wight to the First Presidency — Preaching the Gospel to 
the Indians and Proposing to Migrate to Texas. 

Black Kiver Falls, Feb. 15, 1844. 

To the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Iwelve of the Church of 
Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

Dear Brethren, — Through the goodness and mercy of God, the 
Eternal Father, and grace of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, we are 
permitted to write and send by a special messenger a concise account 
of our lumbering operations, together with the apparent prospects of 
the introduction and spread of the Gospel among the Chippewa and 
Menomanee Indians, and also the projects of our hearts in regard to 
future operations in spreading the Gospel south in all the extent of 
America, and the consequences growing out of the same, all of which we 
beg leave to submit to your consideration that we may have your con- 
currence, or such views as shall be in accordance with the mind and 
will of the Lord, and govern ourselves in accordance therewith. 

Since we have been here lumbering, we have had many difficulties to 
encounter; but the main hindrance to our successful operations was the 
feeding, clothing, and transporting a great many lazy, idle men, who 
have not produced anything by their pretended labor, and thus 'eating 
up all that the diligent and honest could produce by their unceasing 
application to labor; and we have not yet got entirely clear of such 
persons. 

But under all these mighty clogs and hindrances, we have been able 
to accomplish and have in progress, so that we can deliver in Nauvoo 
about one million feet of lumber by the last of July next, which will be 
a great deal more than what is necessary to build the Temple and the 
Nauvoo House. Besides all this, we have made valuable improvements 
here, — all the result of much labor done under trying circumstances. 

We have recently ascertained that the lands from the falls of Black 
River to its sources are the property of the Menomanee Indians, and the 
general government having urged them to move off the lands in the 
vicinity of Green Bay to their own lands. The Indians say they will, 
provided the Government will remove all strange Indians and trespass- 
ing white men off their lands; consequently, tht, agent and superintend- 
ent of Indian Affairs are taking such steps as will stop all further 
trespassing on the Indian lands, on the Wisconsin, Black and Chippewa 
rivers, under the penalties of the laws relative to the cases. 



256 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

We sent Brothers Miller and Daniels, in company with the principal 
chief of the Menomanee Indians, overland to the Wisconsin river, to 
ascertain more about the matter. They saw the agent; found him a 
gruff, austere man, determined to stop all trespassing on Indian lands. 

The Indians are willing to sell privileges to individuals for lumber- 
ing and cutting timber, as they have hitherto done; but the agent is 
opposed to it. Thus a difficulty arises between themselves. 

Now, as regards the introduction of the Gospel of Christ among the 
Indians here, it will require more exertion, to all appearances, to check 
the enthusiastic ardor of these our red brethren, until the full principles 
of faith in our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ shall be reasoned into their 
minds, than to urge them on to receive it. They have great confi- 
dence in us. 

The country belonging to these northern Indians is a dreary, cold 
region, and to a great extent, cranberry marshes, pine barrens, and 
swamps, with a small amount of good lands, scarce of game, and only 
valuable in mill privileges and facilities for lumbering purposes. 

As to mineral resources, they have not been fully developed. There 
is no doubt as to the abundance of iron ore, but uncertain as to quality. 
; Now, under all these circumstances, a few of us here have arrived at 
this conclusion in our minds (such as can undergo all things,) — that as 
the Gospel has not been fully opened in all the South and Southwestern 
States, as also Texas, Mexico, Brazil, &c, together with the West In- 
dian Islands, having produced lumber enough to build the Temple and 
Nauvoo House, — also having an influence over the Indians, so as to 
induce them to sell their lands to the United States, and go to a climate 
southwest, (all according to the policy of the U. S. Government), — and 
having also become convinced that the Church at Nauvoo or in the 
Eastern States will not build the Nauvoo House according to the com- 
mandment, neither the Temple in a reasonable time, and that we have, 
so far as we have made trials, got means in the south, — we have in our 
minds to go to the table-lands of Texas, to a point we may find to be the 
most eligible, there locate, and let it be a place of gathering for all the 
South (they being incumbered with that unfortunate race of beings, 
the negroes) ; and for us to employ our time and talents in gathering 
together means to build according to the commandments of our God, 
and spread the Gospel to the nations according to the will of our Heav- 
enly Father. We, therefore, our beloved brethren, send our worthy 
Brother Young, with a few of our thoughts, on paper, that you may 
take the subject-matter under consideration, and return us such instruc- 
tions as may be according to the mind and will of the Lord our God. 

We have thought it best to sell the mills here, if you think it expedi- 
ent. We feel greatly encouraged to spend and be spent in the cause 
of Christ, according to the will of our Heavenly Father. 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 257 

You will, therefore, after due deliberation, send us, by the hands of 
Brother Young, such instructions as may be the result of your delib- 
erations. 

Holding ourselves ready under all circumstances in life to try to do 
all things whatsoever commanded or instructed to do by those ordained 
to direct the officers of the Church of Jesus Christ; subscribing our- 
selves yours truly, while life shall endure, 

Lyman Wight, 

George Miller, 
Phineas R. Bird 
Pierce Hawley, 
John Young. 

Select Committee to write expressly the views of the branch of the 
Church at Black River Falls. 
Joseph Smith, P. C. 
Brigham Young, P. T. 
Willard Richards, Clerk. 

Also a letter to myself from Lyman Wight and others — 

Letter: — Lyman Wight to President Joseph Smith — Suggesting a South- 
west Movement jor the Church. 

Black River Falls, Wisconsin Territory, 

February 15th, 1844. 

To Joseph Smith, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, and to the Iwelve Apostles, greeting: — 

Believing a concert of action in all things in this Church to be highly 
important, we deem it necessary, under existing circumstances, to make 
you acquainted with our views, feelings, and temporal and spiritual 
prospects, as they now exist. 

We wrote you last fall a full and complete description of this country 
as high as the falls on Black River, without exaggeration, giving a 
slight description of the Pinery. 

With the exception of several renegadoes and false brethren, things 
passed smoothly until some time in the month of January, when we were 
vifited by three different tribes of Lamanites upon the most friendly 
terms, receiving us as their counselors, both temporal and spiritual. 

The names of those tribes are Menomanees, Chippewa, and Winne- 
bagoes. They informed us that all the land above the falls belongs to 
the Menomanee tribe, and that the agents and the governor, the gen- 

17 Vol. VT. 



258 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

eral agent in the northwest of all the Indian affairs, had agreed with 
them to remove all the lumbermen from Black River, Chippewa, and 
Lemanware rivers, by their request; but after a lengthy conversation 
with them, they felt to treat us as their friends, and not their enemies. 

We dispatched two mossengers — namely, George Miller and Cyrus 
Daniels, to go immediately to Wisconsin, where they met with the 
agent, who gave them to understand we could get the timber, which is 
already cut, at a reasonable rate, and for any future prospect we will 
be under the necessity of entering into a contract. 

We calculate the present prospect for lumber betwixt this and the 
last of July next will be from eight to twelve hundred thousand feet, 
which we deem will be all sufficient to finish the two houses, which will 
accomplish the mission on which we started to this country. 

We, therefore, as a brahch and a member of the body of the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints chose the following committee — 
namely, Lyman Wight, George Miller, Pierce Hawley, Phineas R. 
Bird and John Young, to correspond with your reverend council, giv- 
ing you our views concerning matters and things, and requesting your 
counsel on the same. 

This committee views it inexpedient to purchase standing timber on 
so rapid and unnavigable a stream for the purpose of making lumber 
to gain wealth. 

The Lamanites owning this land, notwithstanding their great anxiety 
to receive the Gospel and the Book of Mormon, have a strong desire, if 
counseled by us so to do, to go south-west, where game is more plenti- 
ful as their only resource here for a living is the pitiful annuities and 
proceeds from their pine timber, which timber is the only inducement 
to the Government to purchase their lands. 

This committe is therefore led to take a brief view of the south and 
western part of North America, together with the Floridas, Texas, 
West India Islands, and the adjacent islands to the Gulf of Mexico, 
together with the Lamanites bordering on the United Territories from 
Green Bay to the Mexican Gulf, all crying with ono voice, through the 
medium of their chiefs, Give us an understanding of your doctrine and 
principles, for we perceive that your ways are equal, and your right- 
eousness far exceeds the righteousness of all the missionaries that we 
have yet become acquainted with, — that your conduct with one another 
is like that of ours, and that all your feasts and attendant ceremonies 
are precisely like ours. 

Your servants, the committee, have viewed the Colorado river, with 
all its beautiful hills and valleys and fertile soil, with deep regret, when 
viewing the countless thousands of inhabitants on either side thereof, 
without the knowledge of God or the doctrine of the Church of Jesus 



A.D. 1844] HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 259 

Christ of Latter-day Saints, and say in their hearts, Would it be expe- 
dient to form a mission of those true and full-blooded Ephraimites, who, 
from principle, and the love of the truth, have borne the most extreme 
burdens, fatigue, and hunger, to prosecute the mission, to procure lum 
ber sufficient to build the two houses, to open the door to all the regions 
which we have named, which regions have never yet had an opportunity 
to hear the Gospel and to be made acquainted with the plan of salva- 
tion? or shall they continue to suffer the fatigues of hunger, wet and 
cold, in a rigid, inclement climate, for the pitiful sum that it shall 
avail them, after undergoing those hazardous perils? or shall they, like 
Timothy and Titus, with Paul, hazard the perils of the sea and land 
through the Southern States and West India Islands, and all the Laman - 
ite world, go forth and proclaim to them the Gospel of our Lord and 
Savior Jesus Christ, and teach them to build up Zion? 

Are there not thousands of the rich planters who would embrace the 
Gospel, and, if they had a place to plant their slaves, give all the pro- 
ceeds of their yearly labor, if rightly taught, for building up the king- 
dom, being directed by the President of the whole Church to make the 
right application? We answer, Yes, we believe they would. 

Your servants, the committee, are of the opinion that a concerted and 
reciprocity of action between the North and the South would greatly 
advance the building up of the kingdom. 

The committee is well informed of the Cherokee and the Chocktaw 
nations who live between the state of Arkansas and the Colorado river 
of the Texans, owning large plantations and thousands of slaves, and 
that they are also very desirous to have an interview with the Elders of 
this Church, upon the principles of the Book of Mormon. 

This committee is of the opinion that they can choose soldiers for 
this expedition who are as undeviating in the principles of the doctrine 
of Christ and the Book of Mormon as the sun in his daily course, and 
as indefatigable in their exertions in this cause as the earth is in its 
daily revolution. 

This committee views it as a matter of investigation, whether would 
the Southerner, with his slaves and abundance of wealth, do better to 
ake them to some slave-holding point, keep them in lively exer- 
cise according to his former customs and habits turning 
over his yearly proceeds into the hands of the Trustee-in- 
Trust for the whole Church, or to abolish slavery and settle himself in 
a climate uncongenial to his nature and entirely derogatory to his 
former occupations in life? 

After having procured the lumber for those two houses, the committee 
is of the opinion that the preaching of the Gospel and raising funds 



260 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

in the south would be a far more speedy way of accomplishing the 
work than any other that could be introduced at the present time. 

We, your servants, therefore, will wait patiently the result of your 
council, and submit ourselves to the same with all cheerfulness, our 
only object being to advance the cause and kingdom of God, stand 
ready to take hold wherever your wise council may consider it to be of 
the most advantage. 

This committee view with deep regret the many different teachings 
this Church has received concerning the distribution of their property, 
such as raising funds for the printing of tracts, evidences of the Book 
of Mormon, and pamphlets of various descriptions, which we consider 
has not advanced the cause in the least degree, but has tended directly 
to sap the foundation of building the houses. 

We therefore believe that no person embracing the doctrine of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints should give any part or 
parcel of the property without a direct counsel, written or oral, from 
the First Presidency of the Church. 

Whereas the committee having appointed George Miller and Lyman 
Wight to write the views of the committee, each wrote separate and 
apart, having laid the same before the committee, the committee 
resolved that both productions be sent without alterations. 

We, the committee, conclude by subscribing ourselves your friends 
and well-wishers in the Lord, praying a speedy answer from your 

worth v council, or the word of the Lord. 

J Lyman Wight, 

George Miller, 

Phineas R. Bird, 

Pierce Hawley, 

John Young, 

Select Committee to write expressing the views of the branch of 
the Church at Black River Falls. 

Joseph Smith, Sen., P. C. 

Brigham Young, P. T. 

Willard Richards, Clerk. 

The brethren went into council on the subject matter 
of the letters during the evening. 

Monday 11.— At home till nine; then spent the day in 
council in the lodge room over Henry Miller's house. 

Special Council Meeting on Wight and Miller Letters. 
Present— Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young, Heber C. 
Kimball, Willard Richards, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, John Taylor, 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 261 

George A. Smith, William W. Phelps, John M. Bernhisel, Lucien 
Woodworth, George Miller, Alexander Badlam, Peter Haws, Erastus 
Snow, Reynolds Cahoon, Amos Fielding, Alpheus Cutler, Levi Rich- 
ards, Newel K. Whitney, Lorenzo D. Wasson, and William Clayton, 
whom I organized into a special council, to take into consideration the 
subject matter contained in the above letters, and also the best policy 
for this people to adopt to obtain their rights from the nation and insure 
protection for themselves and children; and to secure a resting place in 
the mountains, or some uninhabited region, where we can enjoy the 
liberty of conscience guaranteed to us by the Constitution of our coun- 
try, rendered doubly sacred by the precious blood of our fathers, and 
denied to us by the present authorities, who have smuggled themselves 
into power in the States and Nation. 



262 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1844 



CHAPTER XL 

ORSON PRATT SENT TO WASHINGTON AS AGENT OF NAUVOO — 
AMOS FIELDING TO ENGLAND, DITTO — COMMENT ON THE 
CANDIDACY OF JOSEPH SMITH I OR PRESIDENT OF THE U. 
S — CONSPIRACIES OF THE LAWS, HIGBEES, FOSTERS, ET 
AL. AGAINST JOSEPH SMITH — THE PROPHET 's MEMORIAL 
TO CONGRESS — OCCUPATION OF THE WEST CONTEM- 
PLATED. 

Tuesday, March 12, 1844. — At home in the morning. 
At eleven a. m., I told Brother Cole I wanted the room 
over the store for more important purposes, and wished 
him to remove the school to Henry Miller's house imme- 
diately; which he did. 

The brethren who were in council with me yesterday 
assembled there in the afternoon and evening. 

Gave the following recommend to Elder Orson Pratt. 

Credentials of Orson Pratt as Agent for the City of Nauvoo. 

City of Nauvoo, Illinois, March 12, 1844. 

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN : — 

We, the mayor and recorder of said city, do hereby certify that 
Orson Pratt, Esq., the bearer, a councilor in city council of said citv, 
is seat as an agent by the authorities of said city or corporation to 
transact such business as he may deem expedient and beneficial for the 
community which he represents; and as such agent and gentlemau of 
prirciple and character, he by us is recommended to the due consider- 
ation of all the executive officers of the government, both houses of 
Congress, and gentlemen generally of the United States. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and affixed the 
seal of said corporation at the time and place aforesaid. 

[corporation seal.] 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 
Willard Richards, Recorder. 



A. L). 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 263 



<w 



A dull cloudy day. 

A meeting of the inhabitants of the Tenth ward was 
leld this evening at the schoolhouse on the hill, in Parley 
street, to take into consideration the propriety 

. • ■ i n Co-operative 

of establishing a store en the principle of co- store 
operation or reciprocity. The subject was 
fully investigated, and the benefits of such an institution 
clearly pointed out. 

The plan proposed for carrying out the object of the 
meeting was by shares of five dollars each. 

The leading feature of the institution was to give em - 
ployinent to our own mechanics, by supplying the raw- 
material, and manufacturing all sorts of domestic goods, 
and furnishing the necessaries and comforts of life on the 
lowest possible terms. 

A committee was appointed to draft a plan for the gov- 
ernment of said institute, to be submitted for adoption or 
amendment at their next meeting; after which an adjourn- 
ment took place till next Tuesday evening, at half-past 
six o'clock, at the same place. ^^> 

Wednesday, 13. — In special council from nine to twelve 
a. m. Orson Hyde, Wilford Woodruff and James Em- 
mett were present, in addition to those of the preceding 
day. Willard Eichards was appointed historian, and Wil- 
liam Clayton clerk of the council . 

It was decided that Amos Fielding should return to 
England, when I and my brother Hyrum gave him the 
following letter of attorney: — 

Credentials of Elder Amos Fielding on Departing for England. 

''This is to certify that the bearer thereof, our worthy brother Elder 
Amos Fielding, hath been appointed by the First Presidency of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, our agent, to transact such 
business as may be deemed necessary for the benefit of said Church, 
and such as he shall see proper throughout the island of Great 
Britain. • 

He is hereby authorized to receive moneys for the Temple in Nauvoo, 



264 HISTORY OF THE CHUKCH. [A. D. 1844 

the poor, or for the Church; and the brethren will be safe should they 
deposit money in his bands for any purpose pertaining to the Church 
business in this place. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and placed the 
corporation seal of City of Nauvoo this 13th day of March, A. D. 1844. 

[corporation seal.] Joseph Smith, 

Hyrum Smith, 
Presiding Elders of the whole Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints. 

Thursday, 14. — In special council over the store from 
nine till one. 

At two, went to see Brother John Wilkie. He had sent 
to me to come and see him. He wanted to know what he 
should do. I told him of the order of tithing, &c, and he 
wanted I should come again. 

At four, went to assembly room again. Lucien Wood- 
worth sent on a mission to Texas. At seven, adjourned 
to next Tuesday, at nine, a. m. 

Friday 15. — Dull, cloudy day, north wind. Frosty 
night. Spent the day in council. 

Beiug in a strait to raise money to assist the hands in 
the Pine country, I sent Elders Brigham and Willard 
Richards to borrow some money from Mr. Orme, who, it 
is believed, had a large sum of money lying idle, but they 
did not get any. 

I copy from the Law of the Lord : — 

John Wilkie. The Blessing of the Prophet upon Him. 

"This day President Joseph Smith rode over to Brotner John Wil- 
kie's at his special request, to give him some instructions relative to his 
duty in regard to tithing and consecration. 

Brother Wilkie has for a long time back been struggling with his 
feelings, designing to do right, but laboring under many fears and pre- 
judices, in consequence of having in some degree given way to believe 
the base reports circulated by individuals for the purpose of injuring: 
the authorities of the Church, and also from various other causes. His 
faithful companion has persevered diligently, and with fervent prayer 
has called upon God in his behalf, until she has realized her utmost 
wishes. 



A.D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 265 

Brother Wilkie now feels anxious to do right in all things, and espe- 
cially to pay his tithing to the fall. President Joseph showed him the 
principles of consecration and the means whereby he might realize the 
fullness of the blessings of the celestial kingdom; and as an evidence 
that he desired to do right, he paid over to the Trustee-in-Trustthe sum 
of three hundred dollars in gold and silver for the benefit of the Tem- 
ple, and which is now recorded on consecration. 

He also signified his intention of paving more as soon as he could get 
matters properly arranged. The president then pronounced a blessing 
upon him and his companion, that they should have the blessing of God 
to attend them in their basket and in their store — that they should have 
the blessing of health and salvation and long life, inasmuch as they 
would continue to walk in obedience to the commandments of God. 

May the Lord grant his Spirit and peace to abide upon Brother "Wil- 
kie and his companion through the remainder of their days; may their 
hearts expand and become enlarged to receive the fullness of the bless- 
ings of the kingdom of heaven; may ttiey have the light of eternal 
truth continually springing up in them like a well of living water; may 
they be shielded from the powers of Satan and the influence of design- 
ing men, and their faith increase from day to day until they shall have 
power to lay hold on the blessings of God and the gifts of the Spirit 
until they are satisfied: and, finally, may they live to a good old age; 
and when they have lived while they desire life, may they die in peace 
and be received into the mansions of eternal life, and enjoy a celestial 
glory forever and ever! Even so, amen. 

The editors of the Times and Seasons published a short 
account of "Our City and the Present Aspect of Affairs," 
which we insert. 

STATUS OF XAUVOO IN THE SPRING OF 1844. 

Believing that our patrons and friends are pleased to hear of our 
prosperity, we feel happy in apprising them of the same, through the 
columns of our paper. 

Owing to the scarcity of provision and the pressure in the money 
market daring the past winter, commercial business has been some- 
what dull; consequently, those who were not previously prepared have 
been obliged to employ the principal portion of their time in obtaining 
the necessary means for the sustenance of their families: there- 
fore little improvement has been made. But old Boreas is now on his 
receding march, and spring has commenced its return with all its pleas- 
antness. 



266 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

Navigation is open, and steamboats are almost continually plying up 
and down our majestic river. They have already brought several fam- 
ilies of emigrants to this place, who have cordially joined with their 
friends and brethren in the great work of the upbuilding of Zion and 
the rolling forth of the kingdom of God. 

The work of improvement is now actively begun, and in every direc- 
tion may be heard the sound of the mason's trowel, the carpenters's 
hammer, the teamster's voice, or, in other words, the hum of industry 
and the voice of merriment. Indeed, to judge from the present appear- 
ance, a greater amount of improvement will be done the ensuing sum- 
mer than in the preceding one. 

Almost every stranger that enters our city is excited with astonish- 
ment that so much has been done in so short a time; but we natter our- 
selves, from the known industry, perseverance, and diligence of the 
Saints, that by the return of another winter so much more will be 
accomplished, that his astonishment will be increased to wonder and 
admiration. 

Quite extensive preparations are being made by the farmers in this 
vicinity for the cultivation of land; and should the season prove favor- 
able, we doubt not that nearly, if not a sufficient amount of produce will 
be raised to supply the wants of the city and adjacent country. 

We are also pleased that we can inform our friends abroad that the 
Saints here of late have taken hold of the work on the Temple with the 
zeal and energy that in no small degree excites our admiration. Their 
united efforts certainly speak to us that it is their determination that 
this spacious edifice shall be enclosed, if not finished, this season. 

And a word we would say to the Saints abroad, which is, that the 
Temple is being built in compliance with a special commandment of God 
not to a few individuals, but to all. Therefore we sincerely hope you 
will contribute of your means as liberally as your circumstances will 
allow, that the burden of the work may not rest upon a few, but pro. 
portionately upon all. 

Where is the true-hearted Saint that dues not with joy and delight 
contemplate the endowment of the servants of God and the blessings 
He has promised to His people on condition that they speedily build the 
Temple? Certainly you cannot reasonably expect to enjoy these bless- 
ings if you refuse to contribute your share towards its erection. 

It is a thing of importance, and much depends upon its accomplish- 
ment: therefore we wish to forcibly impress the matter upon your 
minds, hoping you will become aroused to a sense of your duty — that 
every company of Saints, every Elder that comes here, and every mail 
may bring money and other property for this important work, — which, 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 267 

•when completed, will stand, in one sense of the word, as a firm pillar in 
Zion, and which will greatly facilitate the prosperity of the great cause 
of truth which we all are actively engaged in, 

Saturday, 16. — At home. At one p. m., I sat in coun- 
cil with Willard Richards, Orrin P. Rockwell, and Bishop 
George Miller. 

The Female Relief Society had two meetings in the 
assembly room, as it would not hold all at once, and 
sanctioned the "Voice of Innocence from Nauvoo." 

Sunday, 17. — Last night, Nauvoo was visited by a very 
strong wind from the west. It blew down a 
portion of the west wall of the new hall (28 by a t Nauvoo?" 
40 feet on the ground,) which the Seventies 
had commenced on Bain street, and they had raised for 
the roof. 

The wind continued very strong all day. In the even- 
ing, had a smart snowstorm, which covered the ground, 
was succeeded by a frosty night. 

Attended prayer meeting. 

Monday, 18. — The frost of last night was so severe as 
to form ice inside the houses. 

I stayed at home to recite German with Brother 
Neibaur. 

Tuesday, 19. — Met in council in the assembly room. 
Elder Samuel Bent, Uriah Brown, Samuel James, John 
D. Parker, Orrin P. Rockwell, Sidney Rigdon, William 
Marks, and Orson Spencer met in council, in addition to 
the former names. 

In the afternoon, heavy, driving rain. Northwest wind. 
Dull, cold day. 

Wednesday, 20. — Severely cold northwest wind, with a 
snow and hail storm until ten a. m. Afternoon dull. West 
wind. 

Spent the morning and afternoon in the assembly room, 
studying the languages. 



268 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. TA.D. 1844 

Elder Woodruff read me a letter which he had written 
to Colonel Solomon Copeland concerning his 
and the vice- nomination to be a candidate for the Vice- 
President of the United States. 
The Illinois Springfield Register has the following: — 

GENERAL JOSEPH SMITH A CANDIDATE FOR PRESIDENT. 

It appears by the Nauvoo papers that the Mormon Prophet is actually 
a candidate for the presidency. He has sent us his pamphlet, contain- 
ing an extract of his principles, from which it appears that he is up to 
the hub for a United States bank and a protective tariff. On these 
points he is much more explicit than Mr. Clay, who will not say that he 
is for a bank, but talks all the time of restoring a national currency. 
Nor will Mr. Clay say what kind of a tariff he is for. He says to the 
south that he has not sufficiently examined the present tariff, but 
thinks very likely it could be amended. 

General Smith posesses no such fastidious delicacy. He comes right 
out in favor of a bank and a tariff, taking the true Whig ground, and 
ought to be regarded as the real Whig candidate for President, until 
Mr. Clay can so far recover from his shuffling and dodging as to declare 
his sentiments like a man. 

At present we can form no opinion of Clay's principles, except as 
they are professed by his friends in these parts. 

Clav himself has adopted the notion which was once entertained by 
an eminent grammarian, who denied that language was intended as a 
means to express one's ideas, but insisted that it was invented on pur- 
pose to aid us in concealing them. X 

The Iowa Democrat publishes the following: — 

A New Candidate in the Field. 

T^e see from the Nauvoo Neighbor that General Joseph Smith, the 
great Mormoi. Prophet, has become a candidate for the next presidency. 
We do not know whether he intends to submit his claims to the National 
Convention, or not; but, judging from the language of his own organ, 
we conclude that he considers himself a full team for all of them. 

All that we have to sav on this point is, that if superior talent, gen- 
ius, and intelligence, combined with virtue, integrity, and enlarged 
views, are any guarantee to General Smith's being elected, we think 
that he will be a "full team of himself." 



I 



A. D. 18441 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 269 

The Missouri Republican believes that it will be death to Van Buren, 
and all agree that it must be injurious to the Democratic ranks, inas- 
much as it will throw the Mormon vote out of the field. 

A traveler, having visited Nauvoo for a few days, wrote to the limes 
and Seasons — 

"Mr. Editor, — Before I take my departure, permit me to express my 
views relative to the leading men of your city, where I have been these 
few days. 

I have been conversant with the great men of the age; and, last of all 
I feel that I have met with the greatest, in the presence of your 
esteemed Prophet, General Joseph Smith. From many reports, I had 
reason to believe him a bigoted religionist, as ignorant of politics as 
the savages; but, to my utter astonishment, on the short acquaintance, ; 
I have found him as familiar in the cabinet of nations as with his Bible 
and in the knowledge of that book I have not met with his equal in 
Europe or America. Although I should beg leave to differ with him in 
some items of faith, his nobleness of soul will not permit him to take 
offense at me. No, sir; I find him open, frank, and generous, — as 
willing others should enjoy their opinions as to enjoy his own. 

The General appears perfectly at home on every subject, and his 
familiarity with many languages affords him ample means to become in- 
formed concerning all nations and principles,which with his familiar and 
dignified deportment towards all must secure to his interest the affec- 
tions of every intelligent and virtuous man that may chance to fall in 
his way, and I am astonished that so little is known abroad concern- 
ing him. 

Van Buren was my favorite, and I was astonished to see General 
Smith's name as a competitor; but, since my late acquaintance, Mr. 
Van Buren can never re-seat himself in the Presidential chair on my 
vote while General Smith is in the field. Forming my opinions alone 
on the talents of the two, and from what I have seen, I have no reason 
to doubt but General Smith's integrity is equal to any other individual; 
and I am satisfied he cannot easily be made the pliant tool of any polit- 
ical party. I take him to be a man who stands far aloof from little 
caucus quibblings and squabblings, while nations, governments, and 
realms are wielded in his hand as familiarly as the top and hoop in the 
hands of their little masters. 

Free from all bigotry and superstition, he dives into every subject, 
and it seems as though the world was not large enough to satisfy his 
capacious soul, and from his conversation one might suppose him as 
well acquinted with other worlds as this. 

So far as I can discover, General Smith is the nation's man, and the 
man who will exalt the nation, if the people will give him the opportu- 



270 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. [A.D. 1844 

nity; and all parties will find a friend in him so far as right is 
concerned. 

General Smith's movements are perfectly anomalous in the estima- 
tion of the public. All other great men have been considered wise in 
drawing around them wise men; but I have frequently heard the Gen- 
eral called a fool because he has gathered the wisest of men to his cab- 
inet, who direct his movements; but this subject is too ridiculous to 
dwell upon. Suffice it to say, so far as 1 have seen, he has wise men at 
his side — superlatively wise, and more capable of managing the affairs 
of a State than most men now engaged therein, which I consider much 
*o his credit, though I would by no means speak diminutively of my 
old friend. 

From my brief acquaintance, I consider General Smith (independent 
of his peculiar religious views, in which by-the by, I have discovered 
neither vanity nor folly,) the sine qua non of the age to our nation's 
prosperitv. He has learned the all-important lesson "to profit by the 
experience of those who have gone before; " so that, in short, General 
Smith begins where other men leave off. I am aware this will appear 
a bold assertion to some; but I would say to such, call, and form your 
acquaintance, as I have done; then judge. 

Thus, sir, you have a few leading items of my views of General 
Smith, formed from personal acquaintance, which you are at liberty to 
dispose of as you think proper. I anticipate the pleasure of renewing 
my acquaintance with your citizens at a future day. 

Yours respectfully, 
A Traveler 




A writer in the Quincy Herald reflects very strongly 
upon the conduct of the Quincy Whig, New York Trib- 
une, and other newspapers, for publishing slanderous 
falsehoods against the Saints. 

Ten, p. m., commenced snowing again. 

Thursday, 21. — A cold snow-storm through the night. 

In council in the assembly room, discussing the propri- 

. ety of petitioning Congress for the privilege 

Memorial to of raising troops to protect the making of set- 

ments in the uncivilized portions of our 

continent. 

Willard Richards was appointed a committee to draw 
up a memorial to Congress. 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 271 

Friday, 22. — Snow on the ground; cold, bleak north 
wind; cloudy. 

At ten a. m., held Mayor's court, and afterwards read 
German in the reading room. 

In the afternoon, met with the Twelve in prayer at 
President Brigham Young's house. 

I advised the Seventies to pull down the remainder of 
the walls and rebuild the Seventies' hall on The seventies' 
a permanent basis from the foundation, and Sons <5n Ke UC 
not erect for themselves a trap, but build one biiildin s- 
two stories high, and strong enough to stand for a gener- 
ation /> 

Saturday, 23. — Day warmer. Rode out with Clayton 
to endeavor to raise money to furnish the hands in the 
Pinery with Supplies. Visited the Temple and public 
works 

Also called with William Clayton and Alexander Nei- 
baur at Dr. Foster's. He was gone to Appanoose, and 
Mrs. Foster was at Mr. Gilman's. 

I here extract from William Clayton's journal: — 

President Smith's Interview With Mrs. Foster. 

We went down there and saw her, [Mrs. Foster] . President Joseph 
asked Sister Foster if she ever in her life knew him guilty of an im- 
moral or indecent act. She answered, ''No." He then explained his 
reasons for asking; which were, he had been informed that Dr. Foster 
had stated that Joseph made propositions to his wife calculated to lead 
her astray from the path of virtue; and then asked if ever he had used 
any indecent or insulting language to her. She answered, "Never." He 
further asked if he ever preached anything like the "pluralitj 7 of wife" 
doctrine to her other than what he had pleached in public? She said, 
"No." He asked her if he ever proposed to have illicit intercourse with her, 
and especially when he took dinner during the doctor's absence. She 
said, "No.'' After some further conversation on the subject, we left. 
Mrs. Gillman was present all the time. President Joseph and Neibaur 
then went on foot to the farm. \ 

Sunday, 24. — At ten, a. m., met at the stand near the 





272 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

Temple. [The following very brief outline of the speeches 
is from the journal of Wilford Woodruff] : — 

Discourse of President Smith — Conspiracies in Nauvoo. 

President Joseph Smith addressed the people. The following: is the 
substance of what I heard him say: — 

I have been informed by two gentlemen that a conspiracy is got up 
in this place for the purpose of taking the life of President Joseph 
Smith, his family, and all the Smith family, and the heads of the 
Church. One of the gentlemen will give his name to the public, and 
the other wishes it to be hid for the present: they will both testify to it 
on oath, and make an affidavit upon it. The names of the persons re- 
vealed at the head of the conspiracy are as follows: — Chancey L. Hig- 
bee, Dr. Robert D. Foster, Mr. Joseph H. Jackson, William and Wilson 
Law. And the lies that C. L. Higbee has hatched up as a foundation 
to work upon are — he says that I had men's heads cut off in Missouri, 
and that I had a sword run through the hearts of the people that I 
wanted to kill and put out of the way. I won't swear out a warrant 
against them, for I don't fear any of them: they would not scare off an 
old setting hen. I intend to publish all the iniquity that I know of 
them. If I am guilty, I am ready to bear it. There is sometimes 
honor among enemies. I am willing to do anything for tiie good of 
the people. I will give the name of one of the gentlemen who have 
divulged the plot: his name is M. G. Eaton. He will swear to it: he is 
a bold fellow. Joseph H. Jackson said a Smith should not be alive in 
two weeks, — not over two months anyhow. Concerning the character 
of these men, I will say nothing about it now; but if I hear anything 
more from them on this subject, I will tell what I know about them.^ 

Elder Orson Spencer addressed the people as follows: — 

While listening to President Smith's remarks, I thought of a figure, 
i.e., if a physician was going to dissect a body, he would not be likely to 
begin at the limbs but cut the head off first. So the adversary of the 
Saints has laid a plan to cut off the head of the Church with the inten- 
tion of scattering and destroying the whole body. It was so in the days 
of Jesus Christ; the enemies of the truth sought to kill Him, that the 
body might be destroyed; which was also the case in the days of Elijah, 
Daniel, and many of the ancients. 

I once heard a man say, who was opposed to this work, "That it 
might be true, but it gave Joseph Smith power." True, said I; but if 
his power be subordinate to the power of God, it is right. If a man set 
up a kingdom by the power of God, then let others seek power from 
the same source. God sets up kingdoms and pulls down kingdoms: 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OK' THE CHURCH. 273 

this makes men mad who will not submit to the kingdom of God. We 
all know the result of the power of Moses, who was the representa- 
tive of (iod. 

Judging from what is past, how will it be when God sets up His king- 
dom in che last days? Whether there is a conspiracy now, or not, I 
don't know; but no doubt there will be, if not now, for it has 
always been so. In the days of the Nephites, they had their Gadian- 
ton robbers, I have not any doubt but that the apostates will join with 
the other wicked powers to try to put down the power of God, and I am 
glad to have the power of the kingdom of God tested; I care not what 
sacrifice I am called to make for such a kingdom. If it is friends, 
wealth, or even life, at the purchase of such a kingdom, it is cheap. Did 
the ancient Apostles, Prophets, or Saints who died pay too much for 
that kingdom? They did not. It is necessary that men be put in pos- 
session of the knowledge and mysteries of the kingdom of God, in order 
to sin as far as they wish, that they may go to the highest pitch. How 
often men lay down their lives for their country and other purposes. 
How much better, then, to die for the cause of Zion! Good and 
righteous men will administer justice and rebuke evil. The Church 
should be cleansed from bad men, and the Lord will take His own way 
to cleanse the Church. 

We should lift up our voice against wickedness of all kinds. But 
will the rulers of our land do it? No, they will not; they will be cow- 
ards until there is no man to fight, and then be brave. When Govern- 
ment will not do it, some man should take the helm of government that 
will do it. Will it be called treason, if the God of heaven should set up 
a kingdom? May the Lord give you more and more of His Spirit, light 
and intelligence, until you are cemented together in union and love. 
Amen. 

Elder Sidney Rigdon addressed the meeting, 
resident Joseph Smith again arose and said — In relation to the 
power over the minds of mankind which I hold, I would say, It is in 
consequence of the power of truth in the doctrines which I have been 
an instrument in the hands of God of presenting unto them, and not 
because of any compulsion on my part. I wish to ask if ever I got any 
of it unfairly? if I have not reproved you in the gate? I ask, Did I ever 
exercise any compulsion over any man? Did I not give him the liberty 
of disbelieving any doctrine I have preached, if he saw fit? - x Why do 
not my enemies strike a blow at the doctrine? They cannot do it: it is 
truth, and I defy all men to upset it. I am the voice of one crying in 
the wildtrness, "Repent ye of your sins and prepare the way for the 
coming of the Son of Man; for the kingdom of God has come unto you, 

18 VOL. VI 







274 HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1844 

and henceforth the ax is laid unto the root of the tree: and every tree 
that bringeth not forth good fruit, God A-lmighty (and not Joe Smith) 
shall hew it down and east it into the fire.'^ 



After meeting, I rode out with Emma. The trees begin 
to bud forth. 

In the evening, held a conversation with a large com- 
pany of friends at my door. 

Elder R. H. Kinnamon writes that during the last 22 
months he has baptized over 100 persons while on a mis- 
sion in Virginia and North Carolina, organized two 
branches in Virginia, and calls are continually made for 
preaching in every direction. 

Monday, 25. — At home in the morning. After dinner 

rode up to the upper landing to see the St. Louis Oak 

steamer. Learned that a company of emi- 

Progress on *s 

Memorial grants from England were expected soon. 

to OoD£TI*GSS« 

Called at my office on returning, and heard 
read the draft of a memorial to Congress which my clerk 
had been writing, as a committee appointed by the coun- 
cil on Thursday last, and was pleased with the instru- 
ment. 

Millions of wild pigeons flying north, and millions of 
gnats dancing in the air. Dull day. At night thunder, 
1 ightning and rain. 

Tuesday, 26. — Dull day. From nine to twelve, noon, 
in council; also from two to five p. m. 

The memorial drawn up by Dr. Richards was read, dis- 
cussed, and approved by the general council. 

Started this morning to go to Ramus with Brother 
Amasa Lyman. Rode as far as the Temple, and found it 
so muddy that we turned back. 

Issued a warrant on the complaint of Vernon H. Bruce, 
against lanthus Rolfe, for stealing two stone-cutter's 
tools. 

I wrote the following: — 



A-L>- 1844! HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 275 

The Prophet's Memorial to Congress. 

To the Honorable the Senate and House oj Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress Assembled: 

Your memorialist, a free-born citizen of these United States, respect- 
fully showeth that from his infancy his soul has been filled with the 
most intense and philanthropic interest for the welfare of his native 
country; and being 1 fired with an ardor which floods cannot quench, 
crowns cannot conquer, nor diplomatic intrigue corrupt, to see those 
principles which emanated from the bosoms of the fathers of seventy- 
six, and which cost the noblest talents and richest blood of the nation, 
maintained inviolate and perpetuated to future generations; and the 
proud eagle of American freedom soar triumphant over every party prej- 
udice and local sinistry, and spread her golden pinions over every 
member of the human family, who shall stretch forth their hands for 
succor from the lion's paw or the oppressor's grasp; and firmly trust- 
ing in the God of liberty, that He has designed universal peace and 
goodwill, union, and brotherly love to all the great family of man, your 
memorialist asks your honorable body to pass the following: — 

ORDINANCE. 

An Ordinance for the Protection of the Citizens of the United States Emi- 
grating to the Territories, and for the Extension of the Principles of 
Universal Liberty. 

PREAMBLE. 

Whereas, many of the citizens of these United States have migrated 
and are migrating to Texas, Oregon, and other land; contiguous to this 
nation; and whereas, Texas has declared herself free and independent, 
without the necessary power to protect her rights and liberties; and 
whereas Oregon is without anv organized government, and those who 
emigrate thither are exposed to foreign invasion and domestic feuds; 
and whereas the Oregon, by geographical location and discovery more 
rightfully belongs to these United States than any other general gov- 
ernment; and whereas it is necessary that the emigrants of that newly 
settling teriitory should receive pi'otection; and whereas the Texan 
Government has petitioned the United States to be received into our 
Union, but yet retains her national existence; and whereas the United 
States remember with gratitude the seasonable support they received in 
a like situation from a LaFayette; and ichereas the United States desire 
to see the principles of her free institutions extended to all men, espe- 



276 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 184* 

cially where it can be done without the loss of blood and treasure to the 
nation; and whereas there is an almost boundless extent of territory on 
the west and south of these United States, where exists little or no 
organization of protective Government; and whereas the lands thus 
unknown; unowned, or unoccupied, are among some of the richest and 
most fertile of the continent; and whereas many of the inhabitants of 
the Union would gladly embrace the opportunity of extending their 
researches and acquirements so soon as they can receive protection in 
their enterprise, thereby adding strength, durability, and wealth to the 
nation; and whereas the red man, the robber, and the desperado have 
frequenty interrupted such research and acquisition without justifiable 
cause; and whereas Joseph Smith has offered and does hereby offer 
these United States, to show his loyalty to our Confederate Union and 
the Constitution of our Republic; to prevent quarrel and bloodshed 
our frontiers; to extend the arm of deliverance to Texas; to on 
protectXthe inhabitants of Oregon from foreign aggressions and 
domestic broils; to prevent the crowned nations from encircling 
us as a nation on our western and southern borders, and save 
the eagle's talon from the lion's paw; to still the tongue of slander, 
and show the world that a Republic can be, and not be ungrate- 
ful; to open the vast regions of the unpeopled west and south to 
our enlightened and enterprising yeomanry; to protect them in their 
researches; to secure them in their locations, and thus strengthen 
the Government [and enlarge her borders; to extend her influence; to 
inspire the nations with the spirit of freedom and win them to her 
standard; to promote intelligence; to cultivate and establish peace 
among all with whom we may have intercourse as neighbors; to settle 
all existing difficulties among those not organized into an acknowledged 
government bordering upon the United States and Territories; to save 
the national revenue in the nation's coffers; to supercede the necessity 
of a standing army on our western and southern frontiers; to create and 
maintainable principles of peace and suppress mobs, insurrections, and 
oppression in Oregon and all the lands bordering upon the United 
Statesfand not incorporated into any acknowledged national govern- 
ment; to explore the unexplored regions of our continent; to open new 
fields for^enterprise to our citizens, and protect them therein; to search 
out the antiquities of the land, and thereby promote the arts and sci- 
ences, and general information; to amalgamate the feelings of all with 
whom he: may have intercourse on the principles of equity, liberty, jus- 
tice, humanity and benevolence; to break down tyranny and oppression 
and exalt the standard of universal peace, provided he shall be pro- 
tected in those rights and privileges which constitutionally belong to 
every citizen of this Republic; therefore, that the said memorialist may 



A. D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 277 

have the privilege, and that no citizen of the United States shall 
obstruct, or attempt to obstruct or hinder, so good, so great, so noble an 
enterprise to carry out those plans and principles as set forth in this pre- 
amble, and be shielded from every opposition by evil and designing men. 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America, in Congress Assembled, that Joseph Smith, 
of the city of Nauvoo, in the State of Illinois, is hereby authorized and 
empowered to raise a company of one hundred thousand armed volun- 
teers in the United States and Territories, at such times, and places 
and in such numbers, as he shall find necessary and convenient for the 
purposes specified in the foregoing preamble, and to execute the same. 

Sec. 2. And be it further ordained that if any person or persons 
shall hinder or attempt to hinder or molest the said Joseph Smith from 
executing his designs in raising said volunteers, and marching and 
transporting the same to the borders of the United States and Territor- 
ies, he, or they so hindering, molesting, or offending, shall be punished 
by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars each for every offense, or 
by hard labor on some public work not exceeding two years, or both, at 
the discretion of the nearest District Court of the United States, where 
the hindrance or offense shall be committed, having jurisdiction. 

See. 3. And be it further ordained, the more fully to remove all 
obstructions and hindrances to the raising, enlisting, and marching the 
volunteers as aforesaid, the said Joseph Smith is hereby constituted a 
member of the army of these United States, and is authorized to act as 
such in the United States and Territories, and on all lands bordering 
upon the United States and Territories, for the purposes specified in the 
foregoing preamble, provided said land shall not be within the acknowl- 
edged jurisdiction of any acknowledged national government. 

Sec. 4. And be it further ordained that nothing in this ordinance 
shall be so construed by any individual or nation to consider the volun- 
teers aforesaid as constituting any part of the army of the United 
States; neither shall the said Joseph Smith, as a member of the United 
States army, disturb the peace of any nation or government acknowl- 
edged as such, break the faith of treaties between the United States 
and any other nation, or violate any known law |of nations, thereby 
endangering the peace of the United States. 

Sec. 5. A nd be it further ordained, that the said Joseph Smith shall 
confine his operations to those principles of action specified in the pre- 
amble to this ordinance, the perpetuity of which shall be commensurate 
with the circumstances and specifications which have originated it. 

And your memorialist will ever pray, &c. 

Joseph Smith. 

City of Nauvoo, Illinois, March 26, 1844. 



278 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. I A.D. 1844 

Dr. Willard Richards wrote to the Saints at Augusta, 
Lee County, Iowa, requesting a brief history of the set- 
tling of that branch, and also asking a donation of lum- 
ber for his house. 

In the afternoon, Abiathar B. Williams made the fol- 
lowing affidavit before Daniel H. Wells, Esq: — 

Affidavit of Abiathar B. Williams, Concerning a Conspiracy against the 

Prophet. 

State of Illinois, f 
Hancock County, J 

Personally appeared before me, Daniel H. Wells, Acting Justice of 
the Peace in and for the said county, Abiathar B. Williams, who, being 
duly sworn according to law, deposeth and saith that on or about the 
15th day of March, A. D., 1844, Joseph H. Jackson came to my house 
and requested me to walk with him; which I did. During the time we 
were walking, said Joseph H. Jackson said that he was then coming 
direct from Mr. Law's; that there was going to be a secret meeting in 
the city of Nauvoo, probably tomorrow evening: but, as it was not 
decided, he could not say positively as to the time; but he would 
inform me in season. The said Joseph H. Jackson said that Doctor 
Foster, Chauncey L. Higbee, and the Laws were red hot for a con- 
spiracy, and he should not be surprised if in two weeks there should 
not be one of the Smith family left alive in Nauvoo. After we arrived 
at Mr. Loomis',near the Masonic hall, in the city of Nauvoo, he related 
some things which he stated that Dr. Foster had said relative to his 
family. This he did in the presence of Mr. Eaton and myself, and 
strongly solicited myself and Mr. Eaton to attend the secret meeting 
and join them in their intentions. The said Joseph H. Jackson further 
said that Chauncey Higbee had said that he, the said Chauncey Higbee, 
had seen men tied hand and foot, and run through the heart with a 
sword, and their heads taken off, and then buried; and he durst not say 
a word. This the saidJJackson said in Mr. Loomis' room. And further 

this deponent saith not. 

A. B. Williams. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 27th day of March, A. D. 

1844. 

[L. S.] Daniel H. Wells, J. P. 

Also M. G. Eaton made affidavit as follows: — 



A D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 279 

Affidavit of M. G. Eaton — A conspiracy Against Joseph Smith. 

State of Illinois, ) 
Hancock County, j 

Personally appeared before me, Daniel H. Wells, an acting Justice 
of the Peace, in and for the said county, M. G. Eaton, who being duly 
sworn according to law, deposeth and saith that on or about the fif- 
teenth day of March, A. D. 1844, Joseph H. Jackson came to me sev- 
eral times and requested me to go on the hill with him. I finally consented 
went with him to the Keystone Store, in the city of Nauvoo. Dr. Foster 
and one of the Higbees (I think Chauncey L. Higbee) were in the store. 
The said Joseph H.Jackson, together with the said R. D. Foster and said 
Higbee, went into the back room of the store. They appeared to enter into 
private council. Soon after they went into the said room, the said 
Joseph H. Jackson invited me into the room where they were sitting. 
I immediately complied. 

Soon after I went in, the said Higbee commenced talking about the 
spiritual wife system. He said he had no doubt but some of the 
Elders had ten or twelve apiece. He said they married them, whether the 
females were living or not; and they did it by recording the marriage 
in a large book, which book was sealed up after the record was made, 
and was not to be opened for a long time, — probably not till many of 
the husbands of those who were thus married were dead. They would 
then open the book and break the seals in the presence of those females, 
and when they saw their names recorded in that book they would 
believe that the doctrine was true and they must submit. He said this 
book was kept at Mr. Hvrum Smith's. I asked the Chauncey L Higbee. 
***** 

[Here follows some expressions too indecent for insertion.] 
The aforesaid R. D. Foster then asked me what I would think, if, 
during my absence from home, a carriage should drive up to my house, 
a person alight, and the carriage then drive off again; this person 
should then go into my house and begin to tell my wife a great many 
things against me to prejudice her mind against me, and use every pos 
sible means to do this, and finally would introduce and preach the 
spiritual wife doctrine to her, and make an attempt to seduce her; 
and further, this person should sit down to dine with my wife, 
bless the victuals, &c; and while they were thus engaged, I should 
come home and find them thus associated, this person should rise up 
and say, "How do you do?" and bless me in a very polite man- 
ner, &c; and also if, upon these appearances, I should feel 
jealous that something was wrong, and when the person was 



280 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. \A. D. 1844 

gone I would ask my wife what had been the conversation between 
her and this person, but she would refuse to tell me; I then 
draw a pistol and present it to her head and threaten to shoot 
her if she did not tell me all, but she would still refuse: I then would 
give her a double-barrelled pistol, and say to her, "Defend yourself; 
for if you don't tell me, either you or I would shoot:" she would then 
faint away through fear and excitement, and when she came to again, 
she would begin and tell how this person had been trying to poison 
your wife's mind against you, and, by preaching the spiritual wife sys- 
tem to her, had endeavored to seduce her. I replied, I should think he 
was a rascal: but who has had such a trial as that 1 ? The said R. D. 
Foster answered that he was the man who had had that trial, and who 
had been thus abused. 

The said Dr. Foster, Higbee, and Joseph H. Jackson then remarked 
that they were about to hold a secret meeting to oppose and try to put a 
stop to such things. The said Joseph H. Jackson also said that if any 
person undertook to arrest him, he should begin to cut them. 

The said R. D. Foster further said he was afraid of his life, and 
dared not be out at nights. 

The said Higbee said he had not a doubt but there had been men 
killed in Missouri who had secrets that they were afraid they would 
divulge. He said he was afraid of his life. 

The said Jackson further said he should not be surprised if there 
should be a real muss and an insurrection in the city in less than two 
months; and that if a disturbance should take place, the Carthagenians 
and others would come and help them. 

He mentioned some names of persons who would come from 
Carthage, which names I do not remember. The same day, when in 
Mr. Loomis' room, I heard the said Jackson say that the Laws were 
ready to enter into a secret conspiracy, tooth and nails. 

The said Higbee also said, while at the Keystone Store, that if ever he 

was brought before the Mayor's court again, and the Mayor told him to 

hold his tongue, he should get up and tell him he had a right to speak, 

and should do so; and then if any man attempted to put him out of 

court, he would shoot him through. And further this deponent saith 

not. 

M. G. Eaton. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, this 27th day of March, A. D., 

1844. 

[L. S.] Daniel H. Wells, J. P.* 

*In addition to these affidavits the Prophet was apprised by two young men 
Dennison L. Harris and Robert Scott, the latter living in the family of William Law 
of a secret movement then on foot to take his life, and the lives of several other 
leading men in the Church, among them the Prophet's brother, Hyrum. These 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 281 

This evening, Dr. Reynolds, of Iowa City, lectured on 
astronomy in the assembly room. 

Thursday, 28. — Dull day, drizzling rain, cold north- 
east wind. 

Transferred the trial of Ianthus Rolfe to Aaron Johnson, 
J. P. 

This afternoon, had the assembly room and office plas- 
tered where the same had been knocked off, &c. 

Friday, 29. — Xight boisterous : about eight, a. m., hail- 
storm, northeast wind, nipping frost; frost, hail, and 
strong wind all day. 

Spent the day at home. 

Saturday, 30. — This morning I heard there was some 
disturbance on the hill ; I rode up and found it reported 
that a robbery had been committed at the 
Keystone Store, kept by Mr. Rollasson, of 2lJE*55 
some $-t00 or $500, and some goods, and they x£™j£ 
were suspicious of a certain black man. I 
issued a search-warrant and returned to my office, where 
I found the black man, Chism, with his back lac- 
erated from his shoulders to his hips, with twenty or more 
lashes. My clerk. Dr. Richards, kept him secreted, and 
called Aaron Johnson, a justice of the peace, who issued 

a warrant for — , a Missourian, who had 

boarded at mv house a few days, and on testimony fined 

him $5 and costs for whipping Chism. One 

Eastori, a witness, said he could not testify without 
implicating himself, and he was apprehended and held in 
custody. W. H. J. Marr, Esq., refused to testify, 
because he was counsel. 
I got prepared a memorial to his Excellency John Tyler, 



oec 



young men were invited to the secret meetings by the conspirators, but before 
going conferred with the Prophet, who told them to go, but to take no part in the 
proceedings of these wicked men against himself. They carried out his instruc- 
tions, and at the risk of their lives attended the secret meetings three times, and 
brought to President Smith a report of what they had witnessed. A full account of 
this conspiracy written by Horace Cummings — the narrative being detailed to him 
by Dennison L. Harris — was published in the Contributor, for April, 1884. 




282 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. LA.D. 1844 

the President of the United States, embodying in it the 
same sentiments as are in my Petition to the 
Se m preaident Senate and House of Representatives of the 
states United United States, dated 26th March, 1844, ask- 
ing the privilege of raising 100,000 men to 
extend protection to persons wishing to settle Oregon and 
ether portions of the territory of the United States, and 
extend protection to the people in Texas. 

Sunday, 31. — Cold, fine day. 

At home this morning until nine, when I went over to 
my reading-room, again heard read and signed my me- 
morial to Congress for the privilege of raising 100,000 vol- 
unteers to protect Texas, Oregon, &c, dated 26th instant; 
and also a memorial to the President for the same pur- 
pose, if the other fail. 

Also signed an introductory letter to Elder Orson Hyde, 
who is going to carry the memorials* to Washington as 
follows : — 

* President Smith's memorial to Congress, of the 26th of March, asking to be 
appointed "a member of the army of these United States," to be authorized "to 
raise 100,000 armed volunteers" to police the inter-mountain and Pacific slope 
we3t, was presented to the House of Representatives by Mr. John Wentworth, of 
Chicago, where the following occurred with reference to it: 

mormons : 

"Mr. Wentworth asked permission to present a memorial from Gen. Joseph 
Smith, the head of the Mormons, and required that it might be read by the clerk 
for the information of the House. 

"The Clerk commenced the reading of the memorial. 

"Before the reading was concluded. 

'•Mr. J. R. Ingersoll interposed, and objected to the reception at first, and still 
objected. 

"Mr. Weber observed that if memorials of this kind were to be read, he was 
entrusted with the presentation of one of a peculiar character, from certain citizen* 
of Frederick county, Md. 

"Mr. Wentworth said he would move a suspension of the rules to enable him to 
have the paper read; and he wished to inquire of the chair whether it would be in 
order for him to assign his reasons for making such a motion. 

"Mr. Duncan observed, if the gentleman would yield him the floor, he would 
move to suspend the rules, to go into committee of the whole on the Oregon bill. 

"Mr. Wentworth said that, as he had the floor, he would make the motion. Mr. 
Wentworth then moved that the rules be suspended, for the purpose of going into 
committee of the whole on the Oregon Bill. 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 283 

Credentials 0/ Orson Hyde, Agent to Present the Prophet's Memorial 

to Congress. 

City of Nauvoo, Illinois, March 30, 1844. 

To ivhom it may concern: We, the Mayor and Recorder of said city, 
do certify that Orson Hyde, Esq., the bearer, a Councilor in the City 
CouDcil of said city, is sent as our agent, by the authorities of said city, 
to transact such business as he may deem expedient and beneficial for 
the party whom he represents; and such agent and gentleman of prin- 
ciple and character, he by us is recommended to the due consideration 
of all the executive officers of the Government, both houses of Con- 
gress, and gentlemen generally of the United States. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and affixed the 
seal of said corporation at the time and place aforesaid. 

[corporation seal.] 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 
Willard Richards, Recorder. 

About this time, Brother Alexander Mills, one of the 
police, informed me that Chauncey L. Higbee drew a pistol 
on him the night before, and threatened to shoot him. I 
instructed him to make complaint to Esquire Wells, and 
have him apprehended. 

"The Speaker said that the question would be put on suspending the rules to go 
into committee of the whole. If that motion prevailed, the gentleman could move 
to take up any bill he pleased. 

"Mr. Vance called for the yeas and nays on the question; which were ordered. 

"Mr. McKay inquired if the House should refuse to go into committee of the 
whole, if it could by postponement of the previous orders, take up the naval appro- 
priation bill which had been reported from the committee of the whole. 

"The Speaker said a morion to that effect would require a vote of two-thirds. 

"The question was put on suspending the rules and rejected— yeas 79, nays 86." 
("Congressional Globe" for May 25th, 1844. Vol. 13, No. 39, p624.) 



284 HISTOEY Ot THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE AUTHORITIES OF NAUVOO VS. THE HIGBEES, ET. AL — DED- 
ICATION OF THE MASONIC HALL — THE CHURCH CONFER- 
ENCE OF APRIL, 1844 — ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT SIDNEY 
RIGDON; DITTO PATRIARCH HYRUM SMITH — HISTORICAL 
RESUME, AND BUILDING THE TEMPLE. 

Monday, April 1, 1844. — In the the court-room in the 
Mansion, Mr. J. Easton was brought up as being acces- 
sory to whipping Chism, [a negro]. Referred the case to 
Alderman Wells. On investigation, it appeared to the 
satisfaction of the court that he had been on trial for the 
same offense before Robert D. Foster, and acquitted. 

I extract from the Neighbor: — 

Comment on the Negro Chism's Case. 

After the court dismissed the case, General Smith fearlessly stated 
that he believed that it was a plot on the part of those who were instru- 
mental in getting up the previous trial to thwart the ends of justice and 
screen the prisoner from the condemnation he justly deserves. Mr. 
Foster then stated, by wav of an apology, that at the time he issued the 
warrant he did not know that the prisoner was under an arrest, or 
that there was any process out against him. 

We hope, for the honor of such a man as Mr. Foster, that his 
statement is true. Mr. Foster, however, called upon one of his jurors, 
Mr. Cam, to corroborate what he had said; but, to our astonishment, he 
replied that when Mr. Foster summoned him to appear and act as a 
juryman, he was not informed what case he was to act upon, nor did 
he learn until he entered the office, where he acted according to the 
evidence given; but believed then, as well as now, that it was a sham 
trial, and a mere mockery of justice. We state facts as they are, 
and let the public judge for themselves. 



A.D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 285 

The statement of the negro was that Messrs. Easton, Townsend, and 
Lawyer W. H. J . Marr were the persons engaged in this diabolical 
affair. Mr. Gibbs, one of the witnesses against Townsend, believed 
the above persons were engaged in it; but as a negro knows nothing in 
this state, and Mr. Gibbs could not positively swear to it, of course 
we don't know; but we have our opinion, and so have the public. We 
don't remember ever having seen more indignation manifest than was 
manifested on this occasion, and the public mind is not satisfied at the 
turn affairs have taken. Lynch law will not do in Nauvoo, and those 
who engage in it must expect to be visited by the wrath of an indig- 
nant people, not according to the rule of Judge Lynch, but according 
to law and equity. 

It was thought best to acquit Easton and leave the case 
to the Circuit Court. 

Francis M. fligbee and Chauncey L. Higbee were 
brought up before Esquire Wells for assaulting 

,. , • -, ™ T T-r- , The Higbee 

the police, and acquitted. Chauncey L. Higbee Brothers in 
a lawyer, was brought before Daniel H. Wells 
Esq., on the charge of using abusive language to and 
insulting the city marshal while in the discharge of his 
official duty. He was fined ten dollars. 

Also Robert D. Foster, Esq. , was taken before Isaac 
Higbee, J. P., and fined ten dollars, for a breach of the 
ordiuance pertaining to gambling, &c. 

We are sorry to find that our lawyers and magistrates 
should be taking the lead among gamblers and disorderly 
persons, and be numbered among the law-breakers, 
rather than supporting virtue, law, and the dignity of the 
city. 

Tuesday, 2. — At home, somewhat unwell, and kept my 
house this fine day. John P. Greene, mar- 

-,-,-, 7 Counter move 

shal; Andrew Ly tie, and John Lvtle, police- of the 
men, were arrested by a warrant issued by 
Robert D. Foster, on complaint of Frauds M. Higbee, 
for false imprisonment. As the case was going to trial, 
the prisoners were taken by John D. Parker, with a writ 
of habeas corpus before the Municipal Court; and tomor- 
row, at one, p. m., was fixed for trial. 



286 HISTORY 01 THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

Wednesdey, 3. — At one, p. m. , presided in a special 
session of the Municipal Court, with Aldermen William 
Marks, Newel K. Whitney, Orson Spencer, George W. 
Harris, Gustavus Hills, George A. Smith, and Samuel 
Bennett as Associate- Justices. John P. Greene, Andrew 
Lytle, and John Lyttle were brought up on habeas corpus 
having been taken from the officer who held them on a 
writ issued by Robert D. Foster, before whom they had 
been arraigned on the complaint of Chauncey L. Higbee, 
charged with false imprisonment. 

Joel S. Miles, Andrew Lytle, John Lytle, John P. 
Greene, and Robert D. Foster were sworn, gave testimony 
in the case, and the court decided that Greene and the 
two Lytles be discharged, and that Chauncey L. Higbee is 
a very disorderly person; that this case on habeas corpus 
originated in a malicious and vexatious suit, instituted by 
Chauncey L. Higbee against the petitioners now dis- 
charged; and that said Higbee pay the costs. 

Warm and cloudy. 

A conference was held in the city of New York ; Elder 
William Smith presiding, and Elder William 
New York? ln 2. Miles, clerk. Fifteen branches were repre- 
sented, containing 566 members, including 3 
High Priests, 26 Elders, 15 Priests, 16 Teachers, and 9 
Deacons. 

Thursday, %4. — In a general council in the assembly 
room from nine to twelve, a. m. , and from one to four, 
p. m. 

I was visited by eleven Indians, who wanted counsel, 
and had an impressive interview. 

Mjjlder Orson Hyde was in the council, and left immedi- 
ately for Washington.* 

*The object of his mission was to assist Elders Orson Pratt and John E. Page in 
getting President Smith's Memorial, asking to be appointed "a member of the U- 
S. Army" and to be authorized to raise one hundred thousand armed volunteers to 
police the inter-mountain and Pacific coast west from Oregon to Texas. V^ 




(A.D. 1844 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 287 

A company of Saints arrived on the steamer St. Croix. 
^--Showery day. 

^Friday, 5. — Attended the dedication of the Masonic 
Temple, which was attended by abont 550 

. - ■-•■■ . „ Dedication 

members of the Masonic fraternity from var- Masonic 
ious parts of the world. A procession was 
formed at Henry Miller's house, and was accompanied by 
the Nauvoo Brass Band to the hall. The dedicatory cer- 
emonies were performed by the Worshipful Master Hyrum 
Smith. Elder Erastus Snow delivered an able Masonic 
address. Dr. Groforth and I also addressed the assembly. 
All the visiting Masons were furnished a dinner at the 
Masonic Hall at the expense of the Nauvoo Lodge. The 
building is admitted to be the most substantial and best 
finished Masonic Temple in the Western States. It has, 
been erected under the direction of Mr. Lucius N. Scovil. 
In consequence of ill health, I deferred preaching th e 
funeral sermon of King Follett until Sunday. Elder 
Amasa Lyman addressed a very large assembly at the 
stand. 

General Conference Minutes of the Church, April, 1844. 

Conference met pursuant to adjournment. Present — President Joseph 
Smith, Hyrum Smith, Sidney Rigdon, and William Marks. Of the 
Twelve — Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Wiilard Richards, Wil- 
ford Woodruff, John Taylor, and George A. Smith. 

The members of. the High Council, an immense number of Elders, 
and a very large concourse of people. 

Presidents Joseph and Hyrum Smith came to the stand at a quarter- 
past ten o'clock, when the meeting was called to order by Elder Brig- 
ham Young. The choir sang a hymn, after which 

Opening Address of President Joseph Smith. 

President Joseph Smith rose to state to the congregation the nature 
of the business which would have to come before them. He stated that 
it had been expected by some that the little petty difficulties which have 
existed would be brought up and investigated before this conference, but 



288 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. [A.D. 1844 

it will not be the case : these things are of too trivial a nature to occupy 
the attention of so large a body. I intend to give you some instruction 
on the principles of eternal truth, but will defer it until others have 
spoken, in consequence of the weakness of my lungs. The Elders will 
give you instruction; and then, if necessary, I will offer such corrections 
as may be proper to fill up the interstices. Those who feel desirous of 
sowing the seeds of discord will be disappointed on this occasion. It 
is our purpose to build up and establish the principles of righteousness, 
and not to break down and destroy. The Great Jehovah has ever been 
with me, and the wisdom of God will direct me in the seventh hour. I 
feel in closer communion and better standing wich God than ever I felt 
before in my life, and I am glad of this opportunity to appear in your 
midst. I thank God for the glorious day that He has given us. In so 
large a congregation it is necessary that the greatest order and decorum 
be observed. I request this at your hands, and believe that you will 
all keep good order. 

Prayer was offered by W. W. Phelps, after which the choir sang a 
hymn. 

Elder Sidney Eigdon. 

Elder Sidney Rigdon then rose and said: It is with no ordinary 
degree of satisfaction I enjoy this privilege this morning. Want of 
health and other circumstances have kept me in silence for nearly the 
last five years. It can hardly be expected that when the violence of 
sickness has used its influence, and the seeds of disease have so long 
preyed upon me, that I can rise before this congregation, only in 
weakness. I am now come forth from a bed of sickness, and have 
enough of strength left to appear here for the first time in my true 
character. I have not ^ome before a conference for the last five years 
in my true character. I shall consider this important privilege sacred 
in my family history during life. I hardly promise myself lungs to 
make this congregation hear me. I shall do the best I can, and the 
greatest can do no more. 

The circumstance by which we are now surrounded point out the 
principles of my discourse — the history of this Church, which I have 
known from its infancy. My text is — "Behold the Church of God of 
the last days.'' I do not know that I can find it in the Bible. I do not 
think it necessary to have Paul to make a text for me; I can make a 
text for myself. I recollect in the year 1830 I met the whole Church 
of Christ in a little old log-house about 20 feet square, near Waterloo, 
N. Y., and we began to talk about the kingdom of God as if we had 
the world at our command. We talked with great confidence, and 



A D, 1844 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 289 

talked big things. Although wo were not many people, we had big 
feelings. 

We knew fourteen years ago that the Church would become as large 
as it is today. We were as big then as we ever shall be. We began 
to talk like men in authority and power. We looked upon the men of 
the earth as grasshoppers. If we did not see this people, we saw by 
vision the Church of God, a thousand times larger. And when men 
would say we wanted to upset the Government, although we were not 
enough to well man a farm, or meet a woman with a milk-pail, all the 
Elders, all the members met in conference in a room twenty feet 
square. 

I recollect Elder Phelps being put in jail for reading the Book of 
Mormon. He came to see us, and expressed great astonishment, and 
left us, apparently pondering in his hear*. He afterwards came to 
Kirtland, Ohio, and said he was a convert. Many things were taught, 
believed, and preached then, which have since come to pass. We knew 
the whole world would laugh at us; so we concealed ourselves, and there 
was much excitement about our secret meetings, charging us with 
designs against the Government, and with laying plans to get money, 
&c, which never existed in the hearts of any one else [i. e., but in the 
hearts of their accusers]. And if we had talked in public, we should 
have been ridiculed more than we were. The world, being entirely 
ignorant of the testimony of the Prophets, and without knowledge of 
what God was about to do, treated all we said with pretended contempt 
and much ridicule, and had they heard all we said, it would have made 
worse for us. 

We talked about the people coming as doves to the windows; and 
that nations should flock unto it; that they should come bending to the 
standard of Jesus, saying, "Our fathers have taught falsehoods and 
things in which there is no profit,'' and of whole nations being born in 
one day. We talked such big things that men could not bear them, 
and they not only ridiculed us for what we did say in public, but 
threatened and inflicted much personal abuse; and if they had heard all 
we said, their violence would have been insupportable. God had great 
things to say for the salvation of the world, which, if they had been 
told the public, would have brought persecution upon us unto death: so 
we were obliged to retire to our secret chamber and commune ourselves 
with God. If we had told the people what jur eyes behold this day, 
we should not have been believed; but the rascals would have shed our 
blood if we had only told them what v> e believed. There we sat in 
secret and beheld the glorious visions and powers of the kingdom of 
heaven pass and repass. We had not n mighty congregation to shelter 
us. If a mob came upon us, we had to run and hide ourselves to save 
our lives. 

1Q.9rt Vnl VI 



290 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A. L>. 1844 

The time has now come to tell why we held secret meetings. We 
were maturing plans fourteen years aero which we can now tell. Were 
we maturing plans to corrupt the world, to destroy the peace of society? 
No. Let fourteen years' experience of the Church tell the story. The 
Church never would have been here if we had not done as we did in 
secret. The cry of "False prophet and irnposter!" rolled upon us. I 
do not know that anything has taken place in the history of this 
Church which we did not then believe. It was written upon our hearts 
and never could be taken away. It was indelibly engraved; no power 
beneath yonder heavens could obliterate it. This was the period when 
God laid the foundation of the Church, and He laid it firmly, truly, and 
upon eternal truth. 

If any man says it is not the work of God, I know he lies. Some of 
you who know you have a house, how long would it take to make you 
reason yourselves into a belief that you have no house where you now 
reside with your family? Neither have we any power whereby we can 
ever persuade ourselves that this is not the Church of God. We do not 
care who sinks or swims, or opposes, but we kuow here is the Church 
of God, and I have authority before God for saying so. I have the testi- 
mony of Jesus, which is the spirit of prophecy. I have slept with it, — 
I have walked with it. The idea has never been out of my heart for 
a moment, and I will reap the glory of it when I leave this world. I 
defy men and hell and devils to put it out of my heart. I defy all, and 
will triumph in spite of them. 

I know God. I have gazed upon the glory of God, the throne, vis- 
ions and glories of God, and the visions of eternity in days gone by. 
What is a man of God to do, when he sees all the madness, wrath and 
follies of our persecutors? He will do as God does — he will sit and 
laugh. * * * These were the beginning of good days — shut up in 
a room eating nothing but dry johnny-cake and buttermilk. E^ery man 
who had a little farm or clothes, sold them and distributed what he had 
among the rest, and did the best he could. I had a little to eat — little 
to wear, and yet it was the beginning of good days. 

Some say ''I want plenty to eat, plenty to drink, plenty to wear, and 
a good house to live in ; and, say they then I will believe. But God 
will not give it until you have proved yourselves unto Him. 

No wonder, then, that we should be joyful today. If the people 
will do as they are told, I will tell you what to do. Get the visions of 
heaven, and seek not what you shall eat or what you shall drink, but 
seek the will of God. Get ink) the presence of God, and then you will 
have johnny-cake and milk- a: id-water no more. Would you not be 
astonished if even now we should tell the glories and privileges of the 
Saints of God to you and to the world? We should be ridiculed; and 



A. D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 291 

no wonder we shut it up in secret. If we were to tell you when 
Jehovah is looked upon, lo it is beauty, it is heaven, it is felicity to 
look upon Jehovah. I should marvel if it were otherwise. If a man 
tells you one glory or one message, he is learning another at the same 
time. Do not be astonished, then, if we even yet have secret meetings, 
asking God for things for your benefit. 

Do not be afraid. Go back to the commencement of this Church, 
and see what was concocted then. There was no evil concocted when 
we first held secret meetings, and it is the same now. Has God for- 
gotten to be gracious, to be merciful to mankind? Did He ever con- 
coct anything that was devilish for mankind? He could not do it. I 
never am afraid of God or man concocting anything to hurt me. I have 
faith to detect men, even if they did. I would ask God to detect them, 
and hold them fast before they should do it. I am not afraid of men or 
devils. I have none of those fears, jealousies, dreads, forebodings, sur- 
misiugs, &c. I put my trust in God, and whatever God does for me is 
only for my salvation. 

A man is a bad teamster who runs his team in the worst road. What 
I have already said is only to prepare the way. [Here five of the Pot- 
tawattomie tribe appeared with their interpreter, and were assisted to 
the stand by the President.] I am going to tell of something that sur- 
prised me at the beginning of the Church. I have handled, heard, seen 
and known things which I have not yet told. 

After the Church began to grow, it was favored with rnarvelously 
wise men. They had so much wisdom that they could dispute what 
God said, and what His servant said. They were opposed to virtue. 
They would say they had revelations and visions, and were as certain 
that the Lord had given it as I was that the devil had. 

He referred to the children of Isi'ael who were snivelling and mur- 
muring about their leeks and onions, &c, &c; and so it is in these last 
days; some men are always yelling about what the Church believes and 
opposing every good thing. 

I want devils to gratify themselves; and if howling, yelling and yelp- 
ing will do you any good, do it till you are all damned. 

If calling us devils, &c, will do you any good, let us have the whole 
of it, and you can then go on your way to hell without a grunt. 

We hear these things ever since the Church existed. They have 
come up with us; they have had so much more wisdom, they knew all 
about the kingdom before God revealed it, and they know all things 
before they were heard; they understand more than God knows. We 
gather of all kinds. If we get all nations, we get all wisdom, cunning, 
and everything else. 

The sectarians cannot be as wise as we are, for they have only got 



292 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

man's plans, the devil's plans, and, the best of all, we have God's 
plan. 

I do not know whether there are any of these wise men here this 
morning or not; I have merely given this as a part of the history of this 
Church. I am disposed to give some reasons why salvation only 
belongs to the kingdom of God, and to that alone. 

I will endeavor to show why salvation belongs to us more pecul- 
iarly, in contradistinction to all other bodies. Will this be clear 
enough? 

I discover one thing: Mankind have labored under one universal 
mistake about this— viz., salvation was distinct from government; i. e., 
that I can build a Church without government, and that thing have 
power to save me! 

When God sets up a system of salvation, He sets up a system of 
government. When I speak of a government, I mean what I say. 
I mean a government that shall rule over temporal and spiritual 
affairs. 

Every man is a government of himself, and infringes upon no govern- 
ment. A man is not an honorable man, if he is not above all law and 
above government. 

I see in our town we have need of government. Some study law 
only for the purpose of seeing how many feuds, how many broils they 
can kick up, how much they can disturb the peace of the public without 
breaking the law, and then say — "I know my rights, and will have 
them;" "I did not know it was the marshal, or I would not have 
done it." 

He is no gentleman. Gentlemen would not insult a poor man in the 
street, but would bow to him, as much as those who appear more 
respectable. No marshal or any one else, should pull me up. We 
ought to live a great way within the circle of the laws of the land. I 
would live far above all law. 

The law of God is far more righteous than the laws of the land. The 
kingdom of God does not interfere with the laws of the land, but keeps 
itself by its own laws. (Reported by Elder Thomas Bullock.) 

Elder Rigdon stopped to refresh himself. The choir sang hymn 104. 

Elder John Taylor, being called upon to address the congregation, 
said — It gives me pleasure to meet and associate with so large an 
assemblage of the Saints. I always feel at home among the brethren . 
I consider them the honorable of the earth; and if I can do anything to 
conduce to their happiness, or that will in anywise tend to their edifica- 
tion, I am satisfied. 

I therefore address this congregation with cheerfulness and pleasure, 
and if by unfolding any of the principles of truth that I am in posses- 



A. D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 293 

sion of, or laying before you anything pertaining to the kingdom — if 
my ideas will enlarge your minds, or produce beneficial results to any, 
I shall consider myself on this, as on all other occasions, amply 
repaid. 

Many things have been spoken by Elder Rigdon concerning the early 
history of this Church. There is no person who has searched the oracles 
of eternal truth, but his mind will be touched with the remarks made 
by our venerable friend, which unfold the dispensation of Jehovah, and 
have a tendency to produce the most thrilling feelings in the bosoms of 
many who are this day present, and to promote our general edifica- 
tion. He traces with pleasure on the historic page — the rise of nations, 
kingdoms and empires. Historians dwell with great minuteness on the 
heroic deeds, the chivalrous acts, the dangers and deliverances, the 
tact, bravery, and heroism of their chieftains, generals and govern- 
ments. 

We, as Republicans, look back to the time when this nation was 
under the iron rule of Great Britain, and groaned under the power, 
tyranny and oppression of that powerful nation. We trace with delight 
the name of a Washington, a Jefferson, a LaFayette, and an 
Adams, in whose bosoms burned the spark of liberty. These themes 
are dwelt upon with delight by our legislators, our governors and 
presidents; they are subjects which fire our souls with patriotic 
ardor. 

But if these things animate them so much, how much more great, 
noble and exalted are the things laid before us! They were engaged in 
founding kingdoms and empires that were destined to dissolution and 
decay; and although many of them were great, formidable and pow- 
erful, they now exist only in name. Their cloud-capped towers, their 
solemn temples, are dissolved, and nothing now remains of their former 
magnificence or ancient grandeur but a few dilapidated buildings and 
broken columns. A few shattered fragments remain to tell to this 
and to other generations the perishable nature of earthly pomp and 
worldly glory. 

They were engaged in founding empires and establishing kingdoms 
and powers that had in themselves the seeds of destruction, and were 
destined to decay. We are laying the foundation of a kingdom that 
shall last forever — that shall bloom in time and blossom in eternity. 
We are engaged in a greater work than ever occupied the attention of 
mortals. We live in a day that prophets and kings desired to see, but 
died without the sight. 

When we hear the history of the rise of this kingdom from one who 
has been with it from its infancy — from the lips of our venerable friend 
who has taken an active part in all the history of the Church, can we 



294 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

be surprised if he should feel animated, and that his soul should 
burn with heavenly zeal? We see in him a man of God who can con- 
template the glories of heaven, the visions of eternity, and yet who 
looks forward to the opening glories which the great Elohim has mani- 
fested to him pertaining to righteousness and peace — a man who now 
beholds the things roll on which he has long since beheld in prophetic 
vision. 

Most men have established themselves in authority by laying desolate 
other kingdoms and the destruction of other powers. Their kingdoms 
have been founded in blood, and supported in tyranny and oppression. 
The greatest chieftains of the earth have obtained their glory — if glory 
it can be called — by blood, carnage and ruin. One nation has 
been built up at the expense and ruin of another, and one man has 
been made at the expense of another; and yet these great men were 
called honorable for their inglorious deeds of rapine. They have 
slain their thousands, and caused the orphans to weep and the widows 
to mourn. 

Men did these things because they could do it — because they had 
power to desolate nations, and spread terror and desolation. They have 
made themselves immortal as great men. The patriots of this country 
had indeed a laudable object in view — a plausible excuse for the course 
they took. They stood in defense of their rights, liberty and freedom. 
But where are now those principles of freedom 1 ? Where are the laws 
that protect all men in their religious opinions'? Where the laws that 
say, *'A man shall worship God according to the dictates of his own 
conscience"? What say ye, ye Saints — ye who are exiles in the land of 
liberty? How came you here 1 ? Can you in this land of equal rights 
return in safety to your possessions in Missouri? No. You are exiles 
from thence, and there is no power, no voice, no arm to redress your 
grievance. Is this the gracious boon for which your fathers fought 
and struggled and died? Shades of the venerable dead, could you but 
gaze upon this scene, and witness tens of thousands of Americans in 
exile on Columbia's soil — if pity could touch your bosoms, how you 
would mourn for the oppressed! If indignation, how would you curse 
the heartless wretches that have so desecrated and polluted the temple 
of liberty? "How uas the gold become dim, and the fine gold, how has 
it changed." Let it not be told among the monarchs of Europe, lest 
they laugh and say, l, Ha; so would we have it." 

Ye Saints, never let it go abroad that ye are exiles in the land of 
liberty, lest ye disgrace your republic in the eyes of the nations of the 
earth; but tell it to those who robbed and plundered and refused to give 
you your rights. Tell your rulers that all their deeds of fame are tar- 
nished, and their glory is departed. 



A.D. 1844] HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 295 

Are we now, indeed, in a land of liberty, of freedom, of equal rights? 
Would to God I could answer, Yes. But no, no, 1 cannot! They 
have robbed us, we are stripped of our possessions, many of our friends 
are slain, and our government says, "Your cause is just, but we can do 

nothing for you." 

Hear it, ye great men, we are here in exile! Here are thousands of 
men in bondage in a land of liberty— of freedom! If ye have any 
patriotism, shake off your fetters and come and proclaim us free, and 
give us our rights. I speak of this government as being one of the best 
of governments— as one of the greatest and purest; and yet, what a 
melancholy picture! ye venerable fathers who fought for your lib- 
erty, blush for your children, and mourn, mourn over your country's 
shame! We are now talking about a government which sets herself up 
as a pattern for the nations of the earth,and yet, oh, what a picture! If 
this is the best, the most patriotic, the most free, what is the situation 

of the rest? 

Here we speak with national pride of a Washington, a LaFayette, a 
Monroe aud a Jefferson, who fought for their liberties, achieved one of 
tlie greatest victories ever won; and scarcely has one generation passed 
away before fifteen thousand citizens petition government for redress 
of their wrongs, and they turn a deaf ear to their cry. 

Let us compare this with the Church of Christ. Fourteen years ago 
a few men assembled in a log cabin; they saw the visions of heaven, 
and gazed upon the eternal world; they looked through the rent vista 
of futurity, and beheld the glories of eternity; they were planting those 
principles which were concocted in the bosom of Jehovah; they were 
laying a foundation for the salvation of the world, and those principles 
which they then planted have not yet begun to dwindle; but the fire 
still burns in their bones; the principles are planted in different nations 
and are wafted on every breeze. 

When I gaze upon this company of men, I see those who are actuated 
by patriotic and noble principles, who will stand up in defense of the 
oppressed, of whatever country, nation, color or clime. I see it in their 
countenances. It is planted by the Spirit of God. They, have 
received it from the great Elohim, and all the power or influence 
of mobs, priestcraft or corrupt men cannot quench it. It will burn. It 
is comprehensive as the designs of God, and as expansive as the uni- 
verse and reaches to all the world. No matter whether it was an 
Indian, a negro, or any other man or set of men that are oppressed, you 
would stand forth in their defense. 

I say unto you, continue to cherish those principles. Let them 
expand. And if the tree of liberty has been blasted in this nation— if 
it has been gnawed by worms, and already blight has overspread it, we 



296 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

will stand up in defense of our liberties, and proclaim ourselves free in 
time and in eternity. 

The choir, by request, sang, "0 stop and tell me, Red Man." After 
prayer by Elder John P. Greene, the meeting was adjourned for 
one hour. 



A. D. 1844] HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 297 



CHAPTER XIII. 

CONFERENCE OF THE CHURCH, APRIL, 1844, CONTINUED — 
ADDRESS OF PATRIARCH HYRUM SMITH — THE BUILDING OF 
THE TEMPLE. 

Saturday, April 6, 1844, [Conference Report Continued.] 

The President arrived at the stand at half -past two o'clock, p. m. 
The choir sang a hymn; after which prayer by Elder John P. Greene, 
when the choir sang another hymn. 

Elder Rigdon resumed his history of the Church. 

A little before five o'clock the assembly was dismissed without cere- 
mony, until next morning, on the appearance of a shower. The people 
had scarcely time to retire before a heavy shower of rain, wind, thun- 
der and lightning followed. A splendid double rainbow seen in the 
heavens. 

Sunday, 7. 

Very pleasant morning. The President arrived at ten o'clock, the 
largest congregation ever seen in Nauvoo having assembled. The choir 
sang the hymn, "Ye slumbering nations that have slept." 

President Rigdon offered an affectionate appeal for the prayers of the 
Saints on behalf of the sick, and then prayer by Elder George J. 
Adams. 

Choir sang the hymn, "The Spirit of God like a fire is burning,'' &c. 

President Joseph Smith. 

The Mayor requested the people to keep good order, and observed to 
the police, who were round the outskirts of the congregation to keep 
order, "Policemen, I want you to exercise your authority; and don't 
say you can't do anything for us, for the constitutional power calls you 
to keep good order, and God Almighty calls you, and we command you 
to do it." 

Elder Sidney Rigdon arose and continued his subject of yesterday. 

Choir sang. Benediction. Intermission. 



298 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

During the intermission, thirty-five were baptized in the Mississippi 
river for the remission of their ans. 

Address of Elder Hyrum Smith, Patriarch to the Church. 

At 2 o 'clock p. m. 

Patriarch Hyrum Smith arrived at the stand, and said he wanted to 
say something about the temple. 

"We want 200,000 shingles, as we shall resume the work on the Tem- 
ple immediately. All who have not paid their tithing, come on and do 
it. We want provisions, money, boards, planks, and anything that is 
good; we don't want any more old guns or watches. I thought some 
time ago I would get up a small subscription, so that the sisters might 
do something. In consequence of some misunderstanding, it has not 
gone on as at first. It is a matter of my own; I do not ask it as a tith- 
ing. I give a privilege to any one to pay a cent a week, or fifty cents a 
year. I want it by next fall to buy nails and glass. It is difficult to 
get money. I know that a small subscription will bring more than a 
large one. The poor can help in this way. I take the responsibility 
upon myself, and call again upon the sisters. I call again until I get 
about $1,000. It only requires two thousand subscribers. 

I have sent this subscription plan to England and the branches . I a m 
not to be dictated to by any one except the Prophet and God. I want 
you to pay in your subscriptions to me, and it shall always be said 
boldly by me, the sisters bought the glass in that house, and their names 
shall be written in the Book of the Law of the Lord. It is not a tax, 
but a free will offering to procure something which shall ever be a 
monument of your works. No member of the Relief Society got it up. 
I am the man that did it. They ought not to infringe upon it. I am 
not a member of the Female Relief Society! I am one of the commit- 
tee of the Lord's House. 

I wish to accomplish something, I wish all the Saints to have an 
opportunity to do something. I want the poor with the purse of five dol- 
lars to have a chance. The widow's two mites were more in the eyes of 
the Lord than the purse of the rich; and the poor woman shall have a 
seat in the house of God — she who pays her two mites as well as the 
rich, because it is all she has. I wish to have a place in that bouse. 
I intend to stimulate the brethren. I want to get the roof on this 
season. I want to get the windows in, in the winter, so that we may 
be able to dedicate the House of the Lord by this time next year, if 
nothing more than one room. I will call upon the brethren to do some- 
thing. 

I cannot make a comparison between the House of God and anything 
now in existence. Great things are to grow out of that house. There 



A.D. 1844] HISTOBY OF THE JHURCH. 299 

is a great and mighty power to grow out of it. There is an endowment. 
Knowledge is power. We want knowledge. We have frequently diffi- 
culties with persons who profess to be Latter-day Saints. When the 
sacrament will be administered in the Lord's House it will do away with 
a great deal of difficulty that is now in existence. If we can have a 
privilege and confess our faults unto God and one another every Sab- 
bath day, it will do away with these. * * * You sisters shall have a seat 
in that house. I will stand on the top of that pulpit and proclaim to 
all what the sisters have done. When you offer up your sacraments 
every Sabbath, you will feel well a whole week; you will get a great 
portion of the Spirit of God, enough to last you a week — and you will 
increase. We are now deprived of the privilege of giving the neces- 
sar}* instruction; hence we want a house. 

All the money shall be laid out for what you design it. It shall not 
be paid for anything else. I am one of the committee. The committee 
tells me the quarry is blockaded; it is filled with rock. The stone cut- 
ters are wanting work. Come on with your teams as soon as conference 
is over. It is not necessary for me to tell who will come and do it. I 
will prophesy that you will do it. There is not one in the city but what 
will do right if he knows it, with only oue or two exceptions, and they 
are not worth notice. God will take care of them, and if He doesn't, 
the devil will. I described them once, and you will always know them 
while you see them. They will keep hopping till they hop out of town. 
Some of them are tree toads, who climb the trees and are continually 
croaking. 

We are now the most noble people on the face of the globe, and we 
have no occasion to fear tadpoles. We are designated by the All-seeing 
Eye to do good, not to stoop to anything low. We are apt to suffer 
prejudice to get into our hearts on hearing reports. We never should 
allow it — never should pass our judgment until we hear both sides. 

I will tell a Dutch anecdote: A certain Dutchman had a case brought 
before him, and heard one side, and he gave in his decision — "Sure you 
have got the case;" and when the other party brought their witnesses, 
he said again, "Sure, you have got the case, too." If you hear of any 
one in high authority, that he is rather inclined to apostasy, don't let 
prejudice arise, but pray for him. God may feel after him, and he may 
return. Never speak reproachfully nor disrespectfully; he is in the 
hands of God. I am one of those peacemakers who take a stand above 
these little things. It has been intimated we should have investigations 
this conference. Do you think I would trouble this conference with 
it? If I have a difficulty with a man, I will go and settle it. Let 
them settle their difficulties. There is not a man who has had a difficultv 



300 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

who would trouble this congregation about it. We ask no favors ; we 
can settle it ourselves. Don't think anything about persons who are on 
the eve of apostasy; God is able to take care of them. Let God judge, 
do your duty and let men alone. 

Never undertake to destroy men because they do some evil thing. It 
is natural for a man to be led, and not driven. Put down iniquity by 
good works. Many men speak without any contemplation; if they had 
given the matter a little contemplation it would not have been spoken. 
We ought to be careful what we say, and take the example of Jesus, 
cast over men the mantle of charity, and try to cover their faults. 
We are made to enlighten, and not to darken one another; save men, 
not destroy them. Do unto others what you would have them do unto 
you. It is well enough to root out conspiracy. Do not fear, but if 
you are in the right track, having God to guide you, He will save 
you; for God will save you, if He has to destroy the wicked so as 
by fire. 

I want to put down all false influence. If I thought I should be saved 
and any in the congregation be lost, I should not be happy. For this 
purpose Jesus effected a resurrection. Our Savior is competent to save 
all from death and hell. I can prove it out of the revelation. I would 
not serve a God that had not all wisdom and all power. 

The reason why I feel so good is because I have a big soul. There 
are men with small bodies who have got souls like Enoch. We have. 
We have gathered our big souls from the ends of the earth. The 
Gospel picks the big souls out of all creation, and we will get the big 
souls out of all the nations, and we shall have the largest city in the 
world. 

We will gather all the big souls out of every nation. As soon as the 
Gospel catches hold of noble souls, it brings them all right up to Zion. 
There is a thing called guiding star. The Gospel is similar. We will 
have a people great enough to be saved. 

Popery could not write what Enoch preached. He told the people 
that the Spirit of God took him up into a high mountain, showed him 
the distress of the people — the destruction of the world, and he said his 
heart swelled wide as eternity. But adherents of Popery could' not 
receive anything as large as that, and every man-made society is just 
like them. Men's souls conform to the society in which they live, with 
very few exceptions, and when men come to live with the Mormons, 
their souls swell as if they were going to stride the planets as I stride 
the Republic of America. I can believe that man can go from planet 
to planet — a man gets so high in the mansions above. 

A certain good sister came to my house, and she was troubled because 
she heard so many big things. She thought it weakened her faith. I 



A.D. 18U] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 301 

told her she had too much faith. She believed too n.iuch. I will tell 
you how you may know whether the thing is true or not. When any 
one comes to you with a lie, you feel troubled. God will trouble you, 
and will not approbate you in such belief. You had bettar get some 
antidote to get rid of it. Humble yourself before God, and ask Him for 
His Spirit and pray to Him to judge it for you. It is better not to have 
so much faith, than to have so much as to believe all the lies. 

Before this conference closes, I want to get all the Elders together. 

I shall make a proclamation. I want to take the line and ax and hew 
you, and make you as straight as possible. I will make you straight 
as a stretched line. Every Elder that goes from Nauvoo to preach the 
Gospel, if he preaches anything else, we will silence him through the 
public print. I want all the Elders to meet and to understand; and if 
they preach anything but the pure truth, we will call them home. 

At a quarter-past three p. m., President Smith having arrived, the 
choir sang a hymn. Elder Amasa Lyman offered prayer. 

President Joseph Smith delivered a discourse before twenty thousand 
Saints, being the funeral sermon of Elder King Follett. 



I 

318 J HISTORY OF 1HE CHURCH. |A. D. 1844 

J 



CHAPTER XIV. 

GENERAL CONFERENCE FOR APRIL, 1844, CONCLUDED — THE 
ANNOUNCEMENT THAT THE WHOLE LAND OF AMERICA IS 
ZION — INSTRUCTIONS TO ELDERS SET APART FOR MISSIONS 
— A GENERAL CONFERENCE IN ENGLAND. 

Monday, April 8, 1844. — [Conference Report Continued.] 

At three-quarters past 9 a. m., President Joseph Smith took his seat 
on the stand and reqnested the choir to sing a hymn. He called upon 
Elder Brigham Young to read 1st Corinthians, 15th chapter, as his own 
lungs were injured. 

Elder Brigham Young said — to continue the subject of President 
Smith's discourse yesterday, I shall commence by reading the 15th 
chapter of 1st Corinthians, from an old Bible; and requested W. W. 
Phelps to read it. 

Prayer by Elder Brigham Young, after which the choir sang a hymn. 

President Joseph Smith's Remarks — The Whole of America Zion. 

President Joseph Smith said: — It is just as impossible, for me to 
continue the subject of yesterday as to raise the dead. My lungs are 
worn out. There is a time to all things, and I must wait. I will give it 
up, and leave the time to those who can make you hear, and I will con- 
tinue the subject of my discourse some other time. \I want to make a 
proclamation to the Elders. I wanted you to stay, in order that I might 
make this proclamation. You know very well that the Lord has led 
this Church by revelation. I have another revelation in relation to 
economy in the Church — a great, grand, and glorious revelation. I 
shall not be able to dwell as largely upon it now as at some other time; 
but I will give you the first principles. You know there has been great 
discussion in relation to Zion — where it is, and where the gathering of 
the dispensation is, and which I an now going to tell you. The proph- 
ets have spoken and written upon it; but I will make a proclamation 
that will cover a broader ground, .'he whole of America is Zion itself 



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is a printing error only. There are no 



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A. D. 1814] HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 319 

from north to south, and is described by the Prophets, xoho declare that it is 
the Zion where the mountain of the Lord should be, and that it should be 
in the center of the land. When Elders shall take up and examine the 
old prophecies in the Bible, they will see it. 

^-sThe declaration this morning is, that as soon as the Temple and bap- 
tismal font are prepared, we calculate to give the Elders of Israel their 
washings and anointings, and attend to those last and more impressive 
ordinances, without which we cannot obtain celestial thrones. But 
there must be a holy place prepared for that purpose. There was a 
proclamation made during the time that the foundation of the Temple 
was laid to that effect, and there are provisions made until the work is 
completed, so that men may receive their endowments and be made 
kings and priests unto the Most High God, having nothing to do with 
temporal things, but their whole time will be taken up with things per- 
taining to the house of God. There must, however, be a place built 
expressly for that purpose, and for men to be baptized for th^ir dead. 
It must be built in this the central place; for every man who wishes to 
save his father, mother, brothers, sisters and friends, must go through 
all the ordinances for each one of them separately, the same as for 
himself, from baptism to ordination, washings and anointings, and 
receive all the keys and powers of the Priesthood, the same as for himself. ^V 
Cjhave received instructions from the Lord that from henceforth wherever 
the Elders of Israel shall build up churches and br-anehes unto the Lord 
throughout the States, there shall be a stake of Zion. In the. great cities, as 
Boston. New York. <fec., there shall be stakest\ It is a glorious proclama- 
tion, and I reserved it to the last, and designed it to be understood that 
this work shall commence after the washings, anointings and endow- 
ments have been performed here. 

The Lord has an established law in relation to the matter: there 
must be a particular spot for the salvation of our dead. I verily believe 
there will be a place, and hence men who want to save their dead can 
come and bring their families, do their work by being baptized and 
attending to the other ordinances for their dead, and then may go back 
again to live and wait till they go to receive their reward. I shall leave 
my brethren to enlarge on this subject: it is my duty to teach the doe- 
trine. I would teach it more fully — the spirit is willing but the flesh is 
weak. God is not willing to let me gratify you; but I must teach the 
Elders, and they should teach vou. God made Aaron to be the mouth- 
piece for the children of Israel,* and He will make me be god to you in 

* The scripture alluded to in the text is as follows: — Moses pleaded to be 
excused from the appointment to deliver Israel on the plea that he was not elo- 
quent; whereupon the Lord said: "Is not Aaron the Levite thy brother? I know 
that he can speak well. And also, behold, he corneth forth to meet thee; and when he 



320 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. TA.D. 1844 

His stead, and the Elders to be mouth, for me; and if you don't like it, 
you must lump it. I have been giving Elder Adams instruction iu some 
principles to speak to you, and if he makes a mistake, I will get up and 
correct him. 

Elier G. J. Adams preached a discourse which occupied three hours, 
and which could be heard a great distance. 

President Joseph Smith turned over the conference into the hands 
of the Twelve. 

Choir sang a hymn. Prayer. 

President Hyrum Smith called the conference to order at twenty-five 
minutes to four p. m., and spoke to the assembly one hour and a half. 

He treated upon the subject of Elders preaching abroad. He said it 
was a matter of consequence that the Elders of Israel should know 
what they were about when they go to preach the Gospel. They should, 
like Paul, be ready to give a reason for the hope of their calling. When 
they are sent to preach the Gospel, they should preach the Gospel and 
nothing else, if they wish to stand approved themselves. The Elders are 
sent into the world to preach faith, repentance, baptism for the remis" 
sion of sins, and the laying on of hands for the reception of the Holy 
Ghost and they should let the mysteries alone. 

God has commanded you to preach repeutance to this generation; 
and if this generation will not receive the first principles of the Gospel 
and the Book of Mormon, they will receive nothing greater. Just go 
and do as you are told and God will bless you. 

It is the power of God that is going to convert the world, and noth- 
ing but the power of God. Every man who knows me knows that I 
have taught these principles from the beginning. It is the honest and 
pure in heart that will harken to the everlasting covenant. They are 
those who are noble and good; they will feed and clothe you and receive 
your testimony; and we want the Elders to gather out the good seed 
to Nauvoo. The day will come when you will see the wicked flee 
when no man pursueth. I want you to be wise as serpents and harm- 
less as doves. Preach principles that will stand the test of ages; 
teach them good precepts and save souls, go forth as men of God, and 
you will find friends wherever you go. Drink deep of the Spirit of Truth 
and a great and mighty work shall be wrought in the world; hundreds 

seeth thee.he will be glad in his heart. And thou shalt speak unto him, and put words 
in his mouth; * * * And he shall be thy spokesman unto the people : 

* * * * he shall be to thee instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him 
instead of God" (Exodus iv: 14-16.) 

Somewhat later this passage occurs: "And the Lord said unto Moses, See, I have 
made thee a god to Pharaoh; and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet" (Exo- 
dus vii: 1.) 



A.D. 1844J HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 321 

and tens of thousands shall flock to the standard and go up to Zion 

Many other remarks were made bv the speaker 

After which Sidney Rigdon madJ a few remarks, and concurred in 
what Brother Hyrum had said. 

Twelve minutes to six, adjourned to April 9th, at eight o'clock, a. m. 

Special Meeting oj Elders. 
Tuesday, 9 .-[Conference Report Continued-]. At 8 a. in., the Elders 
assembled at the stand, (President Brigham Young presiding,) and 
were addressed by Elder Jtrnasa Lyman ; after which : President Brigham 
loungsaid — 

Address oj Brigham Young. 

What has been given is correct; the speech and conduct of Elders 
one towards another is frequently wrong; one Elder will speak evil 
ot another; and while you trample others you will sink yourself. A 
man has smking principles; but if his feelings are elevated, he will 
build up others and build up himself. Just as sure as one Elder tries 
to build himself upon the destruction of another, he will surelv sink 
himself. 

I would like to sit and hear the brethren teach for a week- but as 
business is pressing, we must hurry through. Preach repentance to 
this generation. Faith must go before repentance, and of course all 
men must follow the course and obey the laws and ordinances for the 
remission of sins, so as to receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, and then 
your mission is done. Let a man who goes into the vineyard build up 
all he can. If a man preaches anything in error, pray to God that no 
man may remember it any more. No Elder will correct another in 
public before unbelievers unless he has the sinking principle. I call all 
the Eiders together to witness that I always use charity, for it covers a 
multitude of sins. 

North and South America Zion. 
Let us obey the proclamation of Joseph Smith concerning the Elders 
going forth into the vineyard to build up the Temple, get their endow- 
ments, and be prepared to go forth and preach the Gospel. You may 
build up Zion, and learn to be men, and not children. It was a perfect 
sweepstakes when the Prophet called North and South America 
Zion. Let us go to and build the Temple with all our might, that 
we may build up the kingdom when established and her cords length- 
ened. It is a perfect knock-down to the devil's kingdom. There is'not 
a faithful Elder who cannot, if he is humble and diligent, build up the 
Church. There are many men who will give you large sums to build a 



21 VOL. VI 



322 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

Stake of Zion where they live. It proves the words of the Prophet of 
the last days. 

The Priesthood is fitted to every capacity in the world. There are 
blessings and conditions in that Priesthood that suit every man. This 
will suit the condition of thousands, because it is as broad as the heav- 
ens, deep as hell, and wide as eternity. 

I am asked all sorts of questions about making gods and devils, and 
organizing the eternal worlds; but we could not get it precisely into 
our understandings so as to make them. The God we serve is the God 
of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. There is no need of breaking the^ law 
of the land if you keep the law of the Lord. I want a wife that can 
take care of my children when I am away, who can pray, lay on hands, 
anoint with oil, and baffle the enemy; and this is a spiritual wife. 

The sweepstakes is a perfect knock-down to the devil. We will build 
up churches and establish Zion and her stakes. This is a fire which, 
cannot be put out: it has spread far faster than ever it did before. If 
you kick us and cuff us, we will turn the world upside down, and make 
the cart draw the horse. We want to build the Temple and have the 
roof on this fall, in the name of Israel's God. There are hundreds of 
Elders who will sell their property to build up the Temple. Let us pay 
up our tithing. If there are any men who have not paid their tithing, 
they will not get in there. Let the branches send teams with provisions 
to work all the year. 

We are aquainted with the views of Gen. Smith, the Democrats and 
Whigs and all factions. It is now time to have a President of the 
United States. Elders will be sent to preach the Gospel and election- 
eer. The government belongs to God. No man can draw the dividing 
line between the government of God and the government of the chil- 
dren of men. You can't touch the Gospel without infringing upon the 
common avocations of men. They may have helps and governments 
in the Church, but it is all one at last. 

Address oj Hyrum Smith the Patriarch. 

Patriarch Hyrum Smith said: I never knew a proclamation to be un- 
derstood at once. President Brigham Young wished to draw the atten- 
tion of the brethren, first to build the Temple and get your washings, 
anointings, and endowments; after that to build up branches through- 
out the nations. We must do all we can to build up the 
Temple, and aftei that to build churches. The gathering will 
continue here until the Temple is so far finished that the Elders 
can get their endowments; and after that the gathering will be 
from the nations to North and South America, which is the land of 
Zion. North and South America, are the symbols of the wings. The 



A.D. 1844| HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 323 

gathering from the old countries will always be to headquarters, and I 
have no doubt this conference will do a great deal of good. 

We have every power and principle to teach the people. Say what 
God says, and say no more. Never deviate one fraction from what God 
tells you. Elder Rigdon's remarks were very correct. Give out the 
simple principles. A man never fails who only says what he knows; 
and if any man says more, and can't give reasons, he falls short. Preach 
the first principles of the Gospel — preach them over again: you will find 
that day after day new ideas and additional light concerning them will 
be revealed to you. You can enlarge upon them so as to comprehend 
them clearly. You will then be able to make them more plainly under- 
stood by those who teach, so that you will meet with scarcely any hon- 
est man but will obey them, and none who can oppose. Adduce suffi- 
cient reason to prove all things, and you can convert every honest man 
in the world. The knowledge of the Gospel of Jesus Christ is not preval- 
ent in the world, although it is written in the Holy Book. You can 
prove it by the Holy Book they profess to believe in,' and your argu- 
ments will be so strong and convincing, that people will hear and obey it 
by thousands. The Savior says that to you it is given to know the mys- 
teries of God, but to the world it is not given. You have power; you 
are authorized to put down every foolish thing you hear. A wise man 
will put it out of existence as he goes along; for light cleaveth unto 
light, knowledge to knowledge, and intelligence to intelligence. 

We engage in the election the same as in any other principle: you 
are to vote for good men, and if you do not do this it is a sin: to vote 
for wicked men, it would be sin. Choose the good and refuse the evil. 
Men of false principles have preyed upon us like wolves upon helpless 
lambs. Damn the rod of tyranny; curse it. Let every man use his 
liberties according to the Constitution. Don't fear man or devil; elec- 
tioneer with all people, male and female, and exhort them to do the 
thing that is right. We want a President of the U. S , not a party 
President, but a President of '.he whole people; for a party President 
disfranchises the opposite party. Have a President who will maintain 
every man in his rights. 

I wish all of you to do all the good you can. We will try and convert 
the nations into one solid union. I despise the principle that divides 
the nation into party and faction. I want it to grow up like a green 
bay tree. Damn the system of splitting up the nation into opposite 
belligerent parties. Whatever are the rights of men guaranteed by the 
Constitution of these United States, let them have them. Then, if we 
were all in union, no one dare attempt to put a warlike foot on our soil. 
I don't like to see the rights of Americans trampled down. I am 
opposed to the policy of all such persons as would allow Great Britain 



324 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

or any other power to take from us Oregon or any portion of our 
national territory; and damn all who attempt it. Lift up your voices 
like thunder: there is power and influence enough among us to put in a 
President. I don't wonder at the old Carthagenian lawyer being 
afraid of Joseph Smith being elected. 

[A unanimous vote was passed by the immense assembly for Joseph 
Smith to be the candidate for the next President.] 

Address of Heber C. Kimball. 

Elder Heber C. Kimball arose and said — What Brother Hyrum has 
told you is God's truth, and will eventually come to pass. As he was 
making his observations to the Elders, it made me think of the first 
time that I went out into the vineyard to preach. I dwelt on one sub- 
ject till it branched like unto a tree that was cultivated, until the 
branches shot forth in all directions. Suppose you had only one seed 
to plant, and that^eed was an acorn, and you spend your time in cul- 
tivating it till it comes forth a great and mighty tree, branching forth 
with many branches, and bearing fruit abundantly after its own kind. 
So it is with the first principles of the Gospel, they branch out in all 
directions, unfolding new light continually. They are eternal princi- 
ples. I never preached anything else but the first principles. When 
first we went to England, we preached nothing else, and never even 
touched on the gathering, as there was no place of gathering, the 
Church having been driven from Jackson County and also from Kirt- 
land, and the Prophets, Patriarchs, Apostles and Saints were wander- 
ing in the wilderness seeking for a home; but as soon as the people 
were baptized and received the Holy Ghost, the most of them had the 
spirit of prophecy, and prophesied of coming to this land, as being the 
land of Zion; and the time would come that they should come here. 
Yet we never taught the doctrine of the gathering or Book of Doctrine 
and Covenants. 

If you tell the people to stay, they will gather here stronger than 
ever. If you want to cut anything off, you should know how to restore. 
You should never cut off the ears of the people until you are able to make 
them others. It is no matter what way you convert them so you do convert 
them to believe the doctrines of the very Bible they have always professed 
to believe. It is no use attempting to teach them other things until you 
can make them believe the principles contained in the Bible which they 
have been taught to reverence and believe from their infancy. It 
teaches the gathering and all the principles of the Gospel necessary to 
be taught to the unbelieving world. This is the thrashingfloor, where 
the wheat is gathered to be thrashed. There are a great many green 
heads, and they of course have to be pelted a little harder. After the 



A.D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 325 

wheat is thrashed, it has to go through the farming-mill, and then the 
screen, and then the smut-mill; then it has to be ground and to be 
bolted: but many bolt away and leave. If you get a cudgeling, don't 
be mad, for your heads are green. We are going to arrange a plan for 
Conferences, and we design to send Elders to all the different States to 
get up meetings and protracted meetings, and electioneer for Joseph to 
be the next President. 

A great many of the Elders will necessarily have to leave their fami- 
lies, and the mothers will have to assume the responsibility of govern- 
ing and taking care of the children to a much greater extent than when 
their husbands were at home. I therefore exhort them to be humble, 
faithful, and diligent, seeking to the Lord for wisdom to rear up their 
children in righteousness and prepare them to roll on the work of the 
Lord when their fathers shall have been worn out in the ministry. The 
mothers, therefore, are the persons who will more or less have to train 
the children. 

Twenty minutes toll: A call was made for the volunteers to go 
preaching to pass out to the green. A great company moved out and 
returned to the right of the stand, and were numbered 244. 

Twenty minutes to 1: Adjourned for one hour. 

Met according to adjournment. The names of the volunteers were 
called, and places assigned to each. 

Brigham Young's Instruction to the Elders. 

President Brigham Young said: Take care of yourselves, be wise, 
be humble, and you will prosper. I curse all who degrade themselves 
with corruption and licentiousness, as many have done. Magnify your 
calling, keep yourselces pure and innocent, and your path shall be 
clear as the horizon. We have all manner of prejudices to contend 
with. We thank God for the Gospel, the Book of Mormon, and the 
Temple, and sing glory to God; and yet there are characters among us 
who from mere covetousness will squeeze a sixpence two inches long, 
and we have all their iniquity to bear. 

We have the honor to be the first fruits of this dispensation, and have 
to contend with floods of oppression. Go humbly and prayerfully, 
trusting and believing in God, and what you desire to do you will 
accomplish. Cease not to ask the Father what you shall do, and He will 
give you the Spirit. You know not the day of your visitation. What 
is asked for in the name of Jesus Christ will be granted. J. C. Ben- 
nett's power fell like the lightning. God was asked not to let Joe Dun- 
can be governor, and it was so. We asked the Lord to deliver us from 
Governor Revnolds. of Missouri; and he shot himself, and has 



326 HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D. 1844 

gone to hell. As for Squire Warren, of Quincy, it takes two of 
him to make a shadow. 

The Lord is cutting off the bitterest branches. Look at the explosion 
of the big gun on board of the Princeton war-steamer at Washington. 
God will deliver His faithful Saints. You will be innocent, and do a 
good work: you will come back, and bring your sheaves with you, 
rejoicing. Every man has the privilege of practicing godliness and vir- 
tue, and of manifesting himself as a servant of the Most High God. Doc- 
tor Foster lost his money by gambling, and joined blacklegs. Those 
men who say there is evil in the Church are evil themselves. This doc- 
trine is the best for any man to practice, and will do him good. Ask of 
God that you may have wisdom to do all things. If you hear anything 
of an Elder preaching false doctrine, ask of God in full faith that it may 
be taken off the minds of the people. 

A contribution was taken up for President Joseph Smith, $100 was 
raised, and another $100 loaned. 




Tuesday, April 9th, [ Continued] ?\-The weather has 
been beautiful for the conference ; and they have been the 
comment of greatest, best, and most glorious five consec- 
smuh e on the utive days ever enjoyed by this generation, 
conference. Much good was done. Many spectators were 
present from Quincy, Alton, Warsaw, Fort Madison, and 
other towns. When we consider the immense number 
present, and the good order that was preserved, it speaks 
much in favor of the morality of the city. j> 

In the afternoon I rode out with Emma, Dr. Goforth, 
and others to the mound. The peach trees look beautiful. 

The Mayor and Marshal received a notification to pro- 
duce docket and other papers in case of O. F. Bostwick, 
before the circuit court at Carthage ; also a similar notifi- 
cation to produce papers in case of Amos Davis, 
appealed before Circuit Court. 

A General Conference in England Beginning April 6th, and Continu- 
ing Until April 9th, 1844. 

According to previous announcement, the general conference of the 
various branches of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
commenced its sittings in the Music Hall, Liverpool, on the 6th of April, 



A.D. i844| HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 327 

1844, Elder Reuben Hedlock, president of the mission, presiding, and 
Elder J. S. Cantwell, acting as clerk. 

Morning Session. 

After opening meeting by singing and prayer, it was voted unani- 
mously that Elder Reuben Hedlock preside over the conference and 
that Elder J. S. Cantwell, act as clerk. 

The number of officers present at the opening are as follows:— High 
Priests, 10; Elders, 23; Priests, 5; Teachers, 3; Deacons, 2. The rep- 
resentation of ihe various conferences was then called for: — 

Manchester Conference represented by Elder Charles Miller, 
including the branches of Manchester, Stockport, Ashton, Duckenfield* 
Newton Moor, Mottram, Bolton, Edgeworth Moor, Edgerton, Leitb, 
Chewmoor, Breightmet Fold, Bradshaw, Tottington, Summerseat, Bury. 
Haslingden, Royton, Oldham, Rochdale, Eccles, Pendlebury, Heatons, 
Ratcliffe, Halfare. Crossmoor, Didsbury, Middleton, Crompton Fold r 
Marble Bridge, Ashworth Tops, Vale House. Comprises 1583 mem- 
bers, 2 High Priests, 41 Elders, 100 Priests, 56 Teachers, 19 Dea- 
cons. Baptized since last general conference, 194. 

Liverpool Conference represented by Elder Mitchelson, including 
Liverpool, the Isle of Man, Chester, part of Wales, Warrington, St. 
Helens, and Graseby. Comprises 596 members, 3 High Priests, 29 
Elders, 39 Priests, 19 Teachers, 11 Deacons. Baptized since last, 
general conference, 107. 

Preston Conference represented by Elder John Banks, including 
Preston, Lancaster, Kendal, Brigsteer Holme, Heskin, Hunter's HilL 
Euxton, Leyland, Southport, and Longton. Comprises 594 members, 
1 High Priest, 16 Elders, 23 Priests, 17 Teachers, 4 Deacons. Bap- 
tized since last general conference, 21. 

London Conference represented by Elder John Cairns, including 
London, Newbury, Woolwich, Dover, and Luton. Comprises 324 mem- 
bers. 1 High Priest, 11 Elders, 21 Priests, 5 Teachers, 5 Deacons. 
Baptized since last general conference, 47. 

Macclesfield Conference represented by Elder Galley, including Mac- 
clesfield, Bollington, Middlewich, Northwich, Plumbley, and Crewe. 
Comprises 219 members, 1 High Priest, 10 Elders, 22 Priests, 14 
Teachers, 7 Deacons. Baptized since last general conference, 15. 

Birmingham Conference represented by Elder Crook, including 
Birmingham, Gritsgreen, Oldbury, Wolverhampton, Dudley, Brittle- 
lane, Bilston, Kidderminster, Leamington, Bloxwich, Stratford-upon- 
Avon, Catthorpe, Westbromwich, Penydarren, Abersychan, Beaufort, 
Rumny, Tredegar, Merthyr Tydvil,Aberdare. Comprises 707 members. 



328 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

38 Elders, 49 Priests, 27 Teachers, 12 Deacons. Baptized since last 
general conference, 200. 

Wooden Box represented by Elder Robert Crook, including Wooden 
Box, Dunstall, Branstone, Barton, and Colebille. Comprises 96 mem- 
bers, 9 Elders, 10 Priests, 6 Teachers, 5 Deacons. Baptized since last 
general conference, 60. 

Staffordshire Conference represented by Elder George Simpson, 
including Burslem, Hanley, Stoke-upon-Trent, Newcastle, Baddely 
Edge, Bradley Green, Knutton Heath, Longton, Coxbank, Prees, Tun- 
stall, Leek, Longport, Hassell Green, Allsager's Bank. Comprises 370 
members, 1 High Priest, 29 Elders, 48 Priests, 20 Teachers, 11 Dea- 
cons. 

Edinburgh Conference represented by Elder George P. Waugh, includ- 
ing Edinburgh, Wemyss,Sterling,and Pathead. Comprises 330 members, 
11 Elders, 16 Priests, 7 Teachers, 3 Deacons. Baptized since Novem- 
ber, 1843, 37. 

Garaway Conference represented by Elder Blakey, including Gara- 
way, Llanfoist, Buckle, Ewaisbarold, Llanthony, and Llanvano. Com- 
prises 172 members, 4 Elders, 9 Priests, 8 Teachers, 1 Deacon. 

Glasgow Conferennce represented by Elder James Houston, including 
Glasgow, Paisley, Kilbirnie. Bridge of Weir, Thorny Bank and Shaws, 
Campsie, Renfrew, Greenock, Ayr, Bonhill, Balfrone, Johnstone, Air- 
drie, Irvine, and Calry. Comprises 833 members, 1 High Priest, 26 
Elders, 39 Priests, 30 Teachers, 19 Deacons. 

Sheffield Conference represented by letter, including Sheffield, Wood- 
house, Dennington, and Brampton. Comprises 201 members, 5 Elders, 
9 Priests, 5 Teachers, 3 Deacons. 

Bradford Conference represented by Elder William Speakman, 
including Bradford, Idle, Leeds, Doncaster. Comprises 206. members, 
9 Elders, 15 Priests, 8 Teachers, 6 Deacons. Baptized since last gen- 
eral conference, 44. 

Ireland represented by Elder Sloan, including Hillsborough, Craw- 
fordsburn, and Melusk, Comprises 52 members, 5 Elders, 1 Priest, 1 
Teacher. 

Lincolnshire Conference represented by letter. Comprises 27 mem- 
bers, 2 Elders, 2 Priests, 1 Teacher, 1 Deacon. Baptized since last gen- 
eral conference, 17. 

Worcestershire Conference represented by Elder Thomas Smith, 
including Earls Common, Pinvin, Flyford Plavel, Worcester, Broms- 
grove, Randan Woods, Barford, St. John's, and Milton. Comprises 140 
members, 6 Elders, 10 Priests. 3 Teachers, 3 Deacons. Baptized since 
last general conference, 28. 

Clitheroe Conference represented by Elder William Snalatn, including 



A J). 1844| HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 329 

Clitheroe, Chatburn, Downham. Waddington, Ribchester, Chaigley, and 
Settle. Comprises 299 members, 16 Elders, 22 Priests, 18 Teachers, 4 
Deacons. Baptized since last general conference, 14. 

Leicester Conference represented by Elder Thomas Margetts, includ- 
ing Leicester and Nottingham. Comprises 127 members, 5 Elders, 10 
Priests, 1 Teacher, 2 Deacons. 

Cheltenham Conference represented by letter, consisting of 18 
branches. Comprises 532 members, 17 Elders, 30 Priests, 13 Teach- 
ers, 5 Deacons. Baptized since last General Conference, 90. 

Bath represented by letter, comprising 31 members, 1 Elder, 2 
Priests. 

Wolverton represented by letter. Comprises 8 members, 1 Elder, 2 
Priests. 

Carlisle represented by letter. Comprises 160 members, 8 Elders, 
19 Priests, 8 Teachers, 3 Deacons; and contains four branches. 

Littlemoor represented by letter. Comprises 6 members, 1 Priest. 

Bedfordshire Conference represented by letter, including 12 branches 
Comprises 184 members, 14 Elders, 20 Priests, 9 Teachers, 2 Deacons. 

The number of members and authorities of each conference being 
ascertained as nearly as possible, it was determined that the delegates 
should represent the condition of each conference, and what alterations 
or measures were necessary to be adopted for the wellbeing of each 
other. 

Elder Charles Miller having remarked that he had been challenged 
to discussion, and had accepted it, it led to some remarks from Elder 
Ward as to the very little good effected in general by discussions; and 
that it was beneath the servants of God to turn aside from the path of 
duty to wrangle and dispute like the people of the world; and that 
while the professors of modern religion were in a manner devouring 
each other, the path of the Saints ought to be onward in the proclama- 
tion of the principles of truth. 

Elder Hedlock agreed with the remarks of Elder Ward, and stated 
that they were in perfect accordance with the advice of the First Presi- 
dency, and that the evil ought to be guarded against as much as 
possible. 

[The remaining sessions of the conference were devoted to hearing 
reports from the several conferences comprising the mission, giving 
instruction relative to ordaining men to the ministry, and the manner 
of conducting the ministry of the Church to make it effective. Among 
other items of interest was a communication from the Twelve in Nau- 
voo making the nomination of Elders Reuben Hedlock and Thomas 
Ward to preside over the British Mission, which nomination was 
accepted by the conference, and these brethren were unanimously 



330 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. IA.D. 1844 

sustained as the presidency of the mission. The publication of the 
Millennial Star had been ordered suspended by the Twelve, but the 
conference voted by unanimous acclamation that this conference request 
the quorum of the Twelve to permit the continued publication of that 
periodical. The minutes of the conference state that — 

"Elder Hedlock addressed the assembly on the subject of the publica- 
tions, and was desirous of taking the sense of that meeting on the same. 
It was true that the quorum of the Twelve had advised that the publi- 
cation of the Millennial Star be stopped, and had given him authority 
to publish a circular as occasion might require; but he believed most 
sincerely that the stoppage of the Star would have a most injurious 
tendency. 

"Several having spoken to the same effect, Elder Ward remarked 
that, if a publication was to be issued at all, it appeared trifling with 
the interest of the cause to change the name, inasmuch as the office had 
received the name of the Millennial Star Office, and many letters came 
to them with that address." 

[Then followed the action of the conference upon the subject noted 
above. Permission must have been given soon afterwards to renew the 
publication of the Star, since it missed but one issue, that of May, 1844 
— it was then published monthly. See vols, v and vi.] 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 331 



CHAPTER XV. 

DIFFICULTIES WITH THE HIGBEES AND FOSTERS — CONFER- 
ENCES APPOINTED BY THE TWELVE THROUGHOUT THE 
UNITED STATES — INSTRUCTIONS TO REUBEN HEDLOCK, 
PRESIDENT OF THE BRITISH MISSION — PREPARATIONS FOR 
ENLARGEMENT OF THE WORK — FRANCIS M. HIGBEE's 
SUIT AGAINST PRESIDENT SMITH — THE PROPHET RELEASED. 

Wednesday, May 10, 1844.— The Twelve were in coun- 
cil arranging a plan for appointing conferences. 

Thursday, 11. — In general council in Masonic Hall, 
morning and afternoon. Had a very interesting time. 
The Spirit of the Lord was with us, and we closed the 
council with loud shouts of Hosanna! 

Friday, 12. — The Twelve met in council. Rode out 
with Brothers Parker and Clayton to look at some land. 

A conference was held at Cypry, Tuscaloosa County, 
Alabama. Elder Benjamin L. Clapp, president, and 
John Brown, clerk. Seven branches were represented, 
consisting of 192 members, 12 Elders, 5 Priests, 4 Teach- 
ers, and 2 Deacons, all in good standing. 

Saturday, 13. — At 10 a. m. met in City Council. George 
P. Styles was appointed City Attorney. I advise that the 
council take such a course as would protect the innocent : 
that in many cases the attorney would get his pay off the 
individual emplojing him ; that the appointment would be 
a valuable consideration, and for one year a salary of $100 
would be sufficient; perhaps 8160 the next year, &c, 
increasing as the city increases ; and if $100 would not 
satisfy, we had better have no attorney. "I would 



332 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

rather give my services as counselor, &c, than levy a tax 
the people are not able to pay; and that every man ought 
to be willing to help prop the city by bearing a share of 
the burden till the city is able to pay a higher salary. My 
opinion is that the officers of the city should be satisfied 
with a very small compensation for their services. I have 
never received twenty-five dollars for my services; [as 
counselor] but the peace I have enjoyed in the rights and 
liberties of the city has been ample compensation." 

I suggested the propriety of inserting a clause in the 
ordinance to be made relating to the City Attorney, auth- 
orizing him to claim fees of parties in certain cases, and 
the small salary satisfy the attorney in cases where he can 
get no fees from his client. "I would rather be docked 
$100 in my salary than have the $200 given to the City 
Attorney by the city." 

I also proposed that the Council take into consideration 
the payment of the police ; also proposed that a public 
meeting be called in each ward to see if they will not, 
then the council will take the case into consideration. 

At 1 p. m. , the Municipal Court sat in the assembly 
room, where I asked Dr. R. D. Foster if he bore my 
expenses to Washington, or any part thereof. 

Foster replied he did not. 

I stated that Dr. Goforth had said that he was taken in 
a secret council when Foster told him he had paid my 
expenses. 

Dr. Foster replied he never had a secret interview with 
Dr. Goforth, and gave his version of the meeting. 

I then asked him — "Have I ever misused you anyway? 

Foster said — "I do not feel at liberty to answer this 
question, under existing circumstances?" 

I again asked him — "Did I ever misuse you?" 

He again replied — "I do not feel at liberty to answer 
under existing circumstances" 

I then asked — "Did I ever wrong you in deal, or per- 
sonally misuse you in any shape?" 



A. D. 1844] HISTOEY OF THE CHUKCH. 333 

Foster said, "I do not feel at liberty to answer. I have 
treated you Christianly and friendly too, so far as I have 
had the ability." 

I then asked him to tell me where I had done wrong, 
and I will ask his forgiveness ; for I want you to prove to 
this company by your testimony that I have treated you 
honorably. 

Foster then said — "I shall testify no further at 
present." 

I then asked Justice Aaron Johnson — "Did I ever make 
oath before you against Simpson!" 

He replied — "Not before the prosecution." 

I then told the whole story. 

Andrew Colton then came up before the Municipal Court 
on habeas corpus, and was discharged on the insufficiency 
of the papers. 

After which, I preferred the following charge before 
the High Council against Dr. Robert D. Foster "for 
unchristianlike conduct in general, for abusing my char- 
acter privily, for throwing out slanderous insinuations 
against me, for conspiring against my peace and safety, 
for conspiring against my life, for conspiring against the 
peace of my family, and for lying." 

A charge was preferred against Harrison Sagers for 
teaching spiritual wife doctrine and neglecting his family, 
which was handed over to the High Council to act upon. 

At 2 p. m., Elder John Taylor delivered a political 
discourse. 

About 5 p. m., the "Maid of loiva" arrived at the 
Nauvoo House wharf, filled with passengers from 
England, led by William Kay. 210 souls started from 
Liverpool, and nearly all arrived in good health and spir- 
its, one smaller company having previously arrived. 

Sunday, 14. — Rainy day. No meeting at the stand. I 
preached on board the "Maid of Iowa." 

Committee of the Council met in the afternoon at my 
office. 



334 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

Monday, 15. — At home settling with Dan Jones for 
steamboat '"''Maid of Iowa.'''' She has returned in debt 
about $1,700. After much conversation and deliberation, 
I agreed to buy out Jones, by giving him property in the 
city worth $1,231, and assuming the debts. 

I rode out in the afternoon. 

The Twelve Apostles arranged the appointments for the 
general conferences in the United States as follows: 

Quincy, 111., Sat. and Sun. May4 and 5 

Princess Grove, 111., " 

Ottowa, 111 v " 

Chicago, 111., " 

Comstock, Kallamazoo county, Mich., 

Pleasant Valley, Mich....... '" 

Frankland, Oakland county, Mich " 

Kirtland, Ohio " 

G. A. Neal's six miles west of Lockport,N.Y. " 

Batavia, JST. Y,, " 

Portage, Alleghany county, N. Y., " 

Hamilton, Madison county, N. Y., " 

Oswego, N. Y., " 

Adams, Jefferson county, N. Y„ " 

London, Caledonia county, N. Y 

Northfield, Washington county, ten miles 
of Montpeliev, at Lyman Houghton's, N.Y. 
Fairfield, Essex Co., at Elder Tracy's, N. Y. " 

Boston, Mass., " 

Salem, " " 

New Bedford, Mass " 

Peterboro.N.H., " 

Lowell, Mass., " 

Scarboro, Maine, " 

VinalHaven" 

Westfield, Mass., " 

Farmington, Mass., 

New Haven, Conn., " 

Canaan, Conn., " 

Norwalk, " 

New York City, N. Y., " 

Philadelphia, Pa., 

Dresden, Weekly county, Tenn., 



1 4 


" 11 


12 


( I 


': is 


19 


(( 


" 25 


26 


II 


June 1 


2 


4 i 


" 8 


9 


. . 


" 15 


16 


11 


" 22 


23 


41 


" 29 


30 


i 1 


July 6 


7 


4 1 


" 13 


14 


. 4 


'• 20 


21 


4 4 


June 29 


30 


( 1 


July 6 


7 


II 


June 15 


16 


It 


" 29 


30 


II 


July 13 


14 


II 


June 29 


30 


II 


July 6 


7 


4 1 


" 13 


14 


1 1 


" 13 


14 


. 4 


" 27 


28 


II 


11 G 


7 


• ' 


" 13 


14 


4 4 


" 27 


28 


4 4 


Aug. 3 


4 


4 4 


" 10 


11 


4 4 


'• 17 


18 


1 . 


4. U 


25 


4l 


" 17 


18 


1 • 


Aug.31Sep. 1 


'• 


May 25 


26 



Ji.D. 1844] 



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 



335 



Eagle Creek, Benton county, Tenn., Sat and 

Dyer county, C. H., 

Rutherford county, C. H., Tenn., 

Lexington, Henderson county, Tenn., 

New Albany, Clinton county, Ky., 

Alquina, Fayette county, la., 

Pleasant Garden, la., 

Fort Wayne, la., 

Northfield, Boon county, la., 

Cincinnati, Ohio, 

Pittsburgh, Pa., 

Leechburg, " 

Running Water Branch, Noxuble Co., Miss., 

Tuscaloosa, Ala., 

Washington City, D. C, Sept. 7, 8, 9, 10, 

We also publish the names of the Elders who are 
appointed to the several states, together with their 
appointments. Those who are numbered with the figures 
1 and 2 will take the presidency of the several states to 
which they are appointed. 



Sun June 8 


9 


4* l« rto 


23 


* 


' July 20 


21 


* 


Aug. 3 


4 


c 


June 29 


30 


• 


" 1 


2 


i « 


" L5 


16 


» • 


" 29 


30 


4 


July 13 


14 


t i 


May 18 


19 


4 


June 1 


2 


4 


" 15 


16 


I 


" 1 


2 


" " 22 


23 


LI, 


12, 13, 14, 


15. 





MAINE. 


J. Butterfield, 1st 


Jonathan H. Hale 


Elbridge Tufts, 2nd 


Henry Herriman, 


S. B. Stoddard 


John Moon 




NEW HAMPSHIRE. 


W. Snow, 1st 


Harley Morley 


Howard Egan, 2nd 


Israel Barlow 


Alvin Cooley 


David Clough, Sen. 


John S. Twiss, 


Calvin Reed 


Charles A. Adams, 


Chilion Mack 


Bethuel Miller 


Isaac Burton 


A. D. Boynton. 






MASSACHUSETTS. 


Daniel Spencer, 1st 


George Lloyd 


Milton F. Bartlett 


Orlando D. Hovey 


Daniel Loveland 


Nathaniel Ashby 


Joseph J. Woodbury 


Samuel P. Hoyt 


W. H. Woodbury. 


Daniel W. Gardner 


John R. Blanchard 








336 



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 



[A. D. 1844 



William Seabury, 1st 
Thomas McTaggart 



E. H. Davis, 1st 



Erastus Snow, 1st 
William Hyde 
Denman Cornish, 
Jeremiah Hatch 
Martin Titus 
William Haight 
John D. Chase 
Josiah H. Perry 
Amo?; Hodges. 



C. W. Wandell, 1st 
Marcellus Bates, 2nd 
Truman Gillett 
A. A. Farnham 
Edmund Ellsworth, 
Gregory Bentley 
Homer C. Hoyt 
Isaac Chase, 
Simeon A. Dunn 
Daniel Shearer 
James W. Phippin 
J. H. Van Natta 
Samuel P. Bacon 
Bradford W, Elliott 
J. R. G. Phelps 
Joseph P. Noble 
John Tanner 
Thomas Fuller 
O. M. Duel 
Samuel White 
W. R. R. Stowell 
William D. Pratt 
Marcellus McKeown 
Horace S. Eldredge 



RHODE ISLAND. 

Melvin Wilbur 

CONNECTICUT. 

Quartus S. Sparks 

VERMONT. 

Warren Snow 
Dominicus Carter 
Levi W. Hancock 
Alfred Cordon 
Charles Snow 
James C. Snow 

A. M. Harding 
Isaac Houston 

NEW YORK. 

William Newland 
Allen Wait 
William H. Parshall, 

C. H. Wheelock 
Timothy B. Foote 
George W. Fowler 
Henry L. Cook 
William W. Dryer 
Elijah Reed 
Solon Foster 
Hiram Bennett 
Chandler Holbrook 
Lyman Hall 
William Felshaw 
Daniel Fisher, 

D. H. Redfield 
Martin H. Tanner 
G. D, Goldsmith 
Charles Thompson 

B. C Elsworth 
Archibald Bates 
David Pettigrew 
Ellis Eames 



A.D. 1844J 



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 



337 



Ezra T. Benson, 1st 

D. D. Yearsley, 1st 
Edson Whipple, 2nd 
John Duncan 
Stephen Post 
G. W. Grouse 
Jacob Shoemaker 
Stephen Winchester 
Hyrum Nyman 
J. M. Cole 
Charles Warner. 

John Jones 
Warren Snow 

Jacob Hamblin 
Lyman Stoddard. 

B. Winchester, 1st 
S. C. Shelton, 2nd 
Geo. D. Watt. 3rd 
Chapman Duncan 
Joseph King 
Peter Fife 
Robert Hamilton 



A. McRae, 1st 
Aaron Razer, 2nd 
Thomas Guymon 
George Watt. 



Alonzo LeBaron, 1st 
John M. Emell 
William D. Lyman. 

Morgan L. Gardner 
Isaac Beebe 

22 Vol. VI 



NEW JERSEY. 

John Pack 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Wm. P. Mclntyre 
Jacob Zundall 
Orrin D. Farlin 
Henry Mouer 
G. Chamberlain 
Thomas Hess 
A. J. Gl*efke 
Henry Dean 
James Downing 

DELAWARE. 

Jonathan 0. Duke 
Justus Morse 

MARYLAND. 

Patrick Norris 

VIRGINIA. 

James Park 
A. W. Whitney 
Pleasant Ewell 
W. E. Higginbottom 
John F. Betts 
Alfred B. Lambson 
David Evans 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

John Holt 
John Houston 
James Sanderson 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Ekells Truly 
William Smith 

GEORGIA. 

Miles Anderson 
S. E. Carpenter 



338 



John D. Lee, 1st 
D. H. Rogers 
Samuel B. Frost 
John 0. Angus 
Charles Spry 
John H. Reid 
William Watkins. 



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 

KENTUCKY. 

D. D. Hunt 
M. B. Welton 
Horace B. Owens 
Joseph Holbrook 
Hiram W. Mikesell 
Garret W. Mikesell 



A O. 1844 



A. O. Smoot, 1st 
Alphonzo Young, 2nd 
W. W. Riley 
Amos Davis 
L. T. Coon 
Jackson Smith 
W. P. Vance 

H. D. Buys 

A. D. Young 

Joseph Younger 

G. W. Langley 

G. Penn 

B. L. Clapp, 1st 
G. W. Brandon 



J. B. Walker 
Ethan Barrus. 

J. B. Bosworth, 1st 
H. H. Wilson 
Wm. Nelson 



A. A. Simmons 
Darwin Chase 



Lorenzo Snow, 1st 
L. Brooks, 2nd 
Alfred Brown 
J. J. Riser 



TENNESSEE. 

J. J. Castell 

J. A. Kelting 

J. Hampton 
Alfred Bell 

Armstead Moffitt 
D. P. Rainey 
James Holt, 
Warren Smith 
J. J. Sasnett 
H. B. Jacobs 
John L. Fullmer 
Joseph Mount 

ALABAMA. 

L. D. Butler 
T. J. Brandon 

MISSISSIPPI- 

Daniel Tyler 

LOUISIANA. 

John Kelly 
George Pew 
Lorenzo Moore 

ARKANSAS. 

J. A. Mcintosh 
Nathaniel Leavitt 

OHIO. 

William Batson 
G. C. Riser 
Clark Lewis 
B. W. Wilson 



A. D. 1844| 



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH 



339 



J. Carroll 
L. 0. Littlefteld 
J. M. Powers 
Milo Andrus 
John Lovelace 
W. H. Folsom 
John Cooper 
S. Carter 
John Nichols 
David Jones 
Nathaniel Childs 
Jesse Johnson 
J. A. Casper 
Joseph Rose 
W. Brothers 
Jared Porter 
John W. Roberts 



Amasa Lyman, 1st 
G. P. Dykes, 2nd 
A. L. Lamoreaux 
Charles Hopkins 
F. M. Edwards 
Salmon Warner 
F. D. Richards 
S. W. Richards 
John Mackey 
James Newberry 
Abraham Palmer 
John G. Smith 



Charles C. Rich, 1st 
Harvey Green, 2nd 
Thomas Dunn 
R. C. Sprague 
Joseph Curtis 
Zebedee Coltrin 
Reuben W. Strong 
L. N. Kendall 



E. H. Groves, 1st 



A. W. Condit 
Loren Babbitt 
Elijah Newman 
Milton Stow 
Edson Barney 
Hiram Dayton 
Jacob Morris 
Ezra Strong 
J. M. Emmett 
Allen Tulley 
P. H. Young 
S. P. Hutchins 
J. H. Foster 
Nathan T. Porter 
Ezra Vincent 
Lysander Dayton 



INDIANA. 



U. V. Stewart 
Washington Lemon 
Edward Carlin 
L. D. Young 
Wm. Snow 
Nathan Tanner 
Wm. Marlndale 
Henry Elliott 
A. F. Farr 
John Jones 
Frederick Ott 

MICHIGAN. 

Wm. Savage 
David Savage 
Graham Coltrin 
Samuel Parker 
Jeremiah Curtis 
C. W. Hubbard 
S. D. Willard 
Wm. Gribble 

ILLINOIS. 

Morris Phelps, 2nd 



340 



HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 



[A. D. 1844 



John Vance 
H. Olmstead, Galena 
H. W. Barnes, do. 
Hiram Mott, 
David Candland 
W. A. Duncan 
Wm. 0. Clark 
Almon Bathrick 
P. H. Buzzard 
Zachariah Hardy 
John Hammond 
G. W. Hickerson 
Daniel Allen 
David Judah 
Thomas Dobson 
James Nelson 
David Lewis 

A. H. Perkins. 1st 
John Lowry 2nd 
Wm. G. Rule 



F. Nickerson, 1st 



S. Mulliner 
John Gould 
Zenus H. Gurley 
Jefferson Hunt 
Jacob L. Burnham 
D. J. Kershner 
N. Leavitt 
John Laurence 
Nathan A. West 
Levi Jackman 
Abel Lamb 
Howard Coray 
Stephen Markham 
Levi Stewart 
James Graham 
Timothy S. Hoit 
Duncan McArthur 

MISSOURI. 

Wm. Coray 
0. M. Allen 
Wm. H. Jordan 

WISCONSIN TERRITORY. 

■ 

S. H. Briggs 

FREE. 

A. C. Nickerson 



L. S. Nickerson 



Those Elders who are numbered in the foregoing list to preside over 
the different states will appoint conferences in all places in their several 
states where opportunities present, and will attend all the confer- 
ences, or send experienced and able Elders, who will preach the truth 
in righteousness, and present before the people "General Smith's Views 
of the Powers and Policy of the General Government," and seek dili- 
gently to get up electors who will go for him for the Presidency. All 
the Elders will be faithful in preaching the Gospel in its simplicity and 
beauty, in all meekness, humility, long-suffering and pray erf ulness; and 
the Twelve will devote the season to traveling, and will attend as many 
conferences as possible. 

Elder B. Winchester is instructed to pass through Mississippi, Ala- 
bama, Georgia, North and South Carolina and Virginia, to visit the 
churches, hold conferences, and preside over them. 

Brigham Young, President 

W. Richards, Clerk of the Quorum of the Twelve. 



A. D. 1844.] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 341 

Tuesday, 16. — Bode out to Brother Green wood's, but 
he had not returned. Five p. m. had a long talk with 
Chauncey L. Higbee and Esq. Marr, in front of my house, 
and read to them Dr. A. B. Williams' and M. G. Eaton's 
affidavit before Esq. Wells. 

The Twelve Apostles met in council. 

Wednesday 17. — Rode out with Brother Heber C. Kim- 
ball and William Clayton to the steamboat landing. 
Remainder of the day at home. 

Thursday, IS. — Nine a. m. went into general council 
until noon and introduced J. W. Coolidge, D. S. Hollister, 
and added Lyman Wight's name. 

While at Hinner I made mention of the report that Fos- 
ter, Higbee, et al. were paying someone's board at my 
table so as to catch something against me; so that, if the 
report is true, they may have something to carry back. 

Two to five thirty p. m. in council. 

ig, Willard Richards, John 
Heber C. Kimball, Wilford 
Woodruff, of the Twelve Apostles ; Alpheus Cutler, Sam- 
uel Bent, George W. Harris, A. Johnson, William Marks, 
of the City Council; Charles C. Rich, Amasa M. Lyman, 
of the High Council; William W. Phelps, Newel K. Whit- 
ney, John Smith, John M. Bernhisel, Joseph Fielding, 
George J. Adams, Erastus Snow, Reynolds Cahoon, J. 
W. Coolidge, John Scott, JohnD. Lee, LeviW. Hancock, 
S. Williams, Jos. Young, John P.Greene, John D. Parker, 
Alexander McRae, George D. Watt, and William Clayton 
held a council and unanimously cut off Robert Eicommuui- 
D. Foster, Wilson Law, William Law and the^Laws, 
Jane Law, of Xauvoo, and Howard Smith of Fosters - et aL 
Scott county, Illinois, from the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints, for unchristianlike conduct; and 
their names were published in the Times and Seasons. ^> 

Friday, 19. — A company of about eighty Saints arrived. 

In the evening rode to the upper steamboat landing. 



iwo to nve tnirty p. m. in i 
\A.t 6 p. m. Brighain Youn| 
Taylor, George A. Smith, E 



342 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

Saturday, ^.-Emma started for St. Louis to purchase 

goods. 

I rode out with Dr. Bernhisel and my boys Frederick 
and Alexander to the prairie, which is now very green. 

Elders Brigham Young and Wilford Woodruff rode to 
Lima and spent the night with Father Morley. 

Sunday, 21.— At home; rainy day. A meeting at the 
Stand. Elder Erastus Snow preached on "The Law of 

•Nature.' 1 

Elders Young and Woodruff attended a conference and 
preached to the Saints in Lima, where twenty-six Elders 
volunteered to go out preaching. 

Elder Kimball attended a conference at Ramus. 

Monday, 22.— All night lightning, thundering, raining, 
with strong east wind which continued through the day. 

The river very high; all the mills in the city stopped on 
account of the high water. 

This morning a man, who had put up at my house told 
me he wanted to see me alone. I went into my room with 
him, when he told me he was a prophet of G-od, that he 
came from Vermont, and he prophecied that this Govern- 
ment, was about to be overthrown, and the kingdom 
which Daniel speaks of was about to be established some- 
where in the West, and he thought in Illinois. 

My brother William arrived from New Jersey with some 
forty or fifty Saints. I spent some time with him in the 

evening. 

Elders Young and Woodruff started for Nauvoo; but 
on account of a tremendous storm of hail and rain, they 
were glad to take shelter at Brother William Draper's, 
where they spent the night. 

Tuesday, 9.— From 9 to 12 a general meeting of citi- 
zens friendly to my election, was held in the hall, to elect 
a delegate to go to the Baltimore Convention, to be held 
on the first Monday in May. D. S. Hollister was 
elected. 



A.D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 343 

From 3 to 5 p. m. again assembled, and many speeches 
were made, &c; and appointed the second Monday in 
May to hold a State Convention at Nauvoo. 

In the evening, visited Agnes, my brother Carlos' 
widow, and Dr. Richards, with Hyrum. 

Wednesday, 24.— Rode up to the steamboat landing, 
where we found Elder J. M. Grant, who introduced me to 
Judge William Richards, of New Jersey, took him to 
Brother Winchester's. 

In the evening Brother Ezra Thayer, Dr. Richards, and 
Dr. Williams were in my room, and a man who boarded 
at the Masonic Hall. At their request, I gave them a his- 
tory of the Laws' proceedings, in part, in trying to make 
a difficulty in my family, &c. 

Gave recommendations to Elders Amasa M. Lyman and 
D. S. Hollister. 

Thursday, 25. — Emma returned from St. Louis. 

A brother who works in the St. Louis Gazette office came 
up at the same time, and wanted to know by what prin- 
ciple I got so much power, how many inhabitants and 
armed men we had, &c. I told him I obtained power on 
the principles of truth and virtue, which would last when 
I was dead and gone, &c. 

In general council from 10 till 12, and from 2 to 5, 
when they adjourned sine die, after appointing a State 
Convention to meet in Nauvoo on 17th May. The coun- 
cil then dispersed to go abroad in the nations. 

Instructed Dr. Richards to make out a writ of habeas 
corpus for Mr. Jeremiah Smith, of Iowa, who was expect- 
ing to be arrested by the U. S. Marshal for getting money 
which was due him, as he says, at Washington. 

A play on rational amusement was to commence this 
evening, but a most tremendous shower of rain and large 
hail from the southwest commenced about six p. m. which 
prevented it. The small creeks rose over four feet high, 
overflowed their banks, sweeping away fences, and doing 
considerable damage. 



344 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

The Mississippi river is higher at this place than ever 
known by the oldest inhabitant. 

^Friday 26. — At home. At 10 a. m. the Marshal went 
up on the hill to arrest Augustine Spencer for an assault 
on his brother, Orson Spencer, in his own house. Robert 
D. Foster, Charles Foster and Chauncey L. Higbee came 
down. Charles Foster drew a pistol pointed 

Violence of -i i i -i 

the Fosters towards me, and threatened to shoot while 
standing on the steps of my office. I 
ordered him to be arrested and the pistol taken from him, 
when a struggle ensued, in which Charles Foster, Robert 
D. Foster and Chauncey L. Highbee resisted, and I 
ordered them to be arrested also, and I as the Mayor 
ordered the policemen to be called ; then went on to try 
Augustine Spencer. He was fined $100, and required to 
give bonds in $100 to keep the peace for six months. He 
appealed the case at once to the Municipal Court. 

Robert D. Foster, Chauncey L. Higbee, and Charles 
Foster were also tried for resisting the authorities of the city. 

O. P. Rockwell sworn. Marshal John P.Greene sworn: — 
Said Dr. Foster swore by (rod that he would not assist 
the Marshal, and swore by God they would see the Mayor 
in hell before they would go; and that Charles Foster 
drew a pistol and presented at the Mayor, which was 
being wrested- from him when Dr. Robert D. Foster in- 
terfered. Charles Foster and Chauncey L. Higbee said 

they would be G — d d if they would not shoot the 

Mayor. They breathed out many hard threatenings and 
menacing sayings. They said they would consider them- 
selves the favored of God for the privilege of shooting 
or ridding the world of such a tyrant (referring to the 
Mayor) . ^s* 

Joseph W. Coolidge sworn, and confirmed the Marshal's 
testimony. 

Elbridge Tufts sworn, and confirmed the foregoing 
statements. 



A. D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 345 

Robert D. Foster, Charles Foster and Chauncey— L. 
Higbee were each fined $100. Tney immediately took 
an appeal to the Municipal Court. 

I issued a warrant for Robert D. Foster, on complaint 
of Willard Richards, for a breach of ordinance, in that 
Foster said to Richards: "You," shaking his fist in the 
doctor's face, "are another d— ned black-hearted villain! 
You tried to seduce my wife on the boat, when she was 
goiug to Xew York and I can prove it; and the oath is 
out against you. " 

Saturday, 27. — A large company of gentlemen from St. 
Louis and other places on the river, called at the Man- 
sion. After spending some time, they returned to the 
boat, but it was gone, when they again returned to the 
Mansion. 

At 9 a. m. the case of Dr. Robert D. Foster came up 
for trial before the Municipal Court. I had a conversation 
with Foster in which he charged me with many crimes, 
and said that Daniteism was in Xauvoo; and he used a 
great variety of vile and false epithets and charges. 

The court adjourned to Monday, the 29th at 9 a. m. 

Foster agreed to meet me on the second Monday in 
May, at the Stand, and have a settlement, and he would 
publish the result of it in the Warsaw papers. I told him 
if he did not agree to be quiet, and not attempt to raise a 
mob, I would not meet him; if he would agree to be quiet, 
I would be willing to publish the settlement in thp Neigh- 
bor. But Foster would not agree to be quiet. I then 
told him 1 had done my duty ; the skirts of my garments 
were free from his (Foster's) blood; I had made the last 
overtures of peace to him; and then delivered him into 
the hands of God, and shook my garments against him as 
a testimony thereof. 

I continued in the office some time afterwards in con- 
versation, and then went into the big room and read in 
the Warsaw Signal a vile article against the Saints. 



345 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. fA.D.1844 

Elder Hiram Smith arrived from Liverpool accompanied 
by one hundred and fifty immigrating Saints. 

There was a meeting at the Stand at one o clock, 
to give instructions to the Elders going out electioneer- 
They were addressed by President Rigdon and Wil- 



ing 



liam Smith. 

Dr. Richards prosecuted Robert D. Foster for slan- 

der t^c. 

Sunday, 28. -At home. A beautiful clear day. 

My brother Hyrum preached at the Stand in the morn- 
ing, and among other things, said the time will shortly 
come that when one man makes another an offender tor a 
word, he shall be cut off from the Church of Jesus Christ 
There were prophets before, but Joseph has the spirit and 
power of all the prophets. 

President Brigham Young also spoke very pointedly 
and very truly about Dr. Foster and others. Dr. Foster 
was cursed, and the people cried "Amen.'' 

Several persons were baptized in the river at the foot ot 

Main street. 

There was a meeting of the Twelve Apostles, Seventies 
and others, in the Seventies' Hall, in the afternoon. 

Prayer meeting in the evening: the brethren prayed for 
the sick, a deliverance from our enemies, a favorable 
termination to lawsuits, &c, &c. I had been suddenly 
taken sick, and was therefore unable to attend. 

A conference of Elders assembled at Yelrome, or 
Morley Settlement, Lima, Isaac Morley presiding, when a 
quorum of High Priests was organized, consisting ot 
thirty-one members. Horace Rawson president, Philip 
Gardner and Joseph S. Allen, his counselors, and James 

C. Snow, clerk. 

/There was a meeting at Wilson Law's, near the saw- 
^M of those who had been cut off from the Church, and 
their dupes. Several affidavits which they had taken 
against me and others were read. William Law, Wilson 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 347 

Law, Austin A. Cowles, John Scott, Sen., Francis M. 
Higbee, Kobert D. Foster, and Robert Pierce were 
appointed a committee to visit the different families in 
the city, and see who would join the new church; i. e., 
as they had decided that I was a fallen prophet, &c. ; and 
they appointed William Law in my place, who chose Aus- 
tin Cowles and Wilson Law as his counselors. Robert D. 
Foster and Francis M. Higbee to be two of the Twelve 
Apostles, &c, «&:c., as report says. ^> 

Elder James Blackeslee preached in the forenoou, 
bearing a faithful testimony of the truth of the work and 
my being a true prophet, and in the afternoon joined the 
"Anties.' ; They chose Charles Ivins Bishop. 

A conference was held in Sheffield, England, repre- 
senting 215 members, 7 Elders, 19 Priests, 5 Teachers, 
and 3 Deacons. 

Monday , 29 . — At home; received a visit from L. R. 
Foster of New York, who gave me a good pencil case, 
sent me by Brother Theodore Curtis, who is now in New 
York; and the first words I wrote with it were, "God 
bless the man!" 

At 11 a. in., Robert D. Foster came up for trial. I 
transferred the case to Alderman William Marks. Fos- 
ter objected to the jurisdiction of the court, also to an 
informality in the writ, &c. 

The court decided he had not jurisdiction. Esquire 
Noble, from Rock river, assisted the City Attorney. 
Esquire Patrick was present. 

I called a special session of the City Council at 3:30 p. 
m., when it was voted that W. W. Phelps take the place 
of John Taylor during his absence this season ; also Aaron 
Johnson in place of Orson Hyde; Phineas Richards in 
place of Heber C. Kimball; Edward Hunter in place of 
Daniel Spencer; Levi Richards in place of Brigham 
Young as councilors in the City Council ; and Elias Smith 
as alderman in place of George A. Smith. 

Lieutenant Williams filed his affidavit versus Major- 



348 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

General Wilson Law, and he was suspended from office to 
await his trial before a court-martial of the Nauvoo Le- 
gion for nngentleinanly conduct, &c; and he was notified 
of his command in the Legion being suspended, and Charles 
C. Rich was notified to take command, and also notified 
seven officers to sit as a court-martial. 

William Law was supended for trial about the same 
time. 

Steamer Mermaid touched at Nauvoo House, landing at 
5 p. m. for a short time when going down. 

John P. Greene published the following in the 
Neighbor: (Impression of May 1st.) 

The Foster-Higbee Embroilment. 

All is peace at Nauvoo, among the Saints: 

But, Mr. Taylor, I wish you to give the following outrage an inser- 
tion in the Neighbor, that the public mind may be disabused, and the 
disgrace and shame fall on those who have justly deserved it and merited 
the people's rebuke! 

On Friday morning, the 26th inst.,I was informed by Mr.Orrin P.Rock- 
well that one Mr. Augustine Spencer had committed an assault on the 
person of Alderman Orson Spencer, and the Mayor of the city had sent 
t'oi Augustine Spencer, and found him in Mr. Marr's law office, made 
him a prisoner, and informed him he must go with me to the Mayor's 
office, when he said he would not go. 

I then called upon Robert D. Foster, Chauncey L. Higbee, and Charles 
A. Foster to assist me in taking said Spencer to the Mayor's office; but 
they swore they would not, and used many threatening oaths and asper- 
sions, saying they would see the Mayor and the city damned, and then 
they would not; but soon followed me and Mr. Augustine Spencer 
to the office door, when the Mayor ordered me to arrest these three 
men for refusing to assist me in the discharge of my duty: and when 
attempting to arrest them, they all resisted, and with horrid impreca- 
tions threatened to shoot. 

I called for help, and there not being sufficient, the Mayor laid hold on 
the two Fosters at the same time. At that instant Charles A. Foster drew 
a double-barrel pistol on Mr. Smith, but it was instantly wrenched from 
his hand; and afterwards he declared he would have shot the Mayor, if 
we had let his pistol alone, and also he would thank God for the privil- 
edge of ridding the world of a tyrant! Chauncey L. Higbee responded 
to Foster's threats, and swore that he would do it. 



A. D. 1844.] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 349 

However, the three were arrested and brought before the Mayor, 
whereupon Orrin P. Rockwell, Joseph Coolidge, John P. Greene and E. 
Tufts testified to the amount of the above statements; upon which evi- 
dence the court assessed a fine of one hundred dollars to each of the 
above-named aggressors, who appealed to the Municipal Court. 

I wish the public to know who it is that makes insurrections and dis- 
turbs the peace and quiet of the people of the city of Nauvoo; and in 
order to do this I need only to tell the world that this Robert D. Foster 
is a county magistrate, and the same Robert D. Foster that was fined 
for gambling a few weeks since; and that this Chauncey L. Higbee is 
a lawyer and notary public of Hancock county, and the same Chauncey 
L. Higbee that was fined for insulting the city officers (the marshal and 
constable) when in the discharge of their official duties, a frw weeks 
since. 

"When the wicked rule the people mourn, but righteousness exalteth 
any nation" — Solomon. 

J. P. Greene, City Marshal. 

N. B. — We wish it to be distinctly understood that neither of the 
three above-named individuals are members of the Church of Latter-day 
Saints, but we believe Charles A. Foster is a Methodist. — J. P. G. 

Tuesday, 30. — At home counseling the brethren about 
many things; received much company, &c. 

In the afternoon in council with Hiram Clark and 
Brigham Young, at Brigham Young's house, on the affairs 
of the Church in England. 

A complaint was commenced against William and Wil- 
son Law in the Masonic Lodge, &c. 

Sent notification to two more officers to sit in the court- 
martial on the trial of William and Wilson Law. 

The Osprey steamer touched at the Nauvoo House land- 
ing in the evening. 

Wednesday, May 1. — Heavy rain and wind last night. 

At home counseling the brethren, and rode out a short 
time in the afternoon with a gentleman from Quincy. 

Elder Lyman Wight and Bishop George Miller arrived 
from the Pine country. 

Mr. Thomas A. Lyne,a tragedian from New York, assisted 
by George J. Adams and others, got up a theatrical exhibi- 
tion in the lower room of the Masoni 3 Hall, which was fitted 



350 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. IA.D. 1844 

up with very tasteful scenery. They performed ' 'Pizarro," 
"The Orphan of Geneva," "Douglas," "The Idiot Wit- 
ness," "Damon and Pythias," and other plays with 
marked success. The Hall was well attended each 
evening, and the audience expressed their entire 
satisfaction and approbation. 

Thursday, 2. — Very windy all night, breaking down 
large trees; a thunder storm also. 

At home and counseling the brethren. 

Sent William Clayton to Wilson Law to find out why he 
refused paying his note, when he brought in some claims 
as a set-off which Clayton knew were paid, leaving me no 
remedy but the glorious uncertainty of the law. • 

At 10 a. m. the Maid of Ioiva steamer started for 
Rock River for a load of wheat and corn to feed the lab- 
orers on the Temple. 

William Clayton and Colonel Stephen Markham started 
to attend court at Dixon, on the case of "Joseph Smith 
vs. Harmon T. Wilson and Joseph H. Reynolds." 

In the afternoon I rode to the prairie to sell some land, 
and during my absence Lucien Woodworth returned from 
Texas/ 

Lieut. Aaron Johnson made the following affidavit: 

Nauvoo, May 2nd, 1844. 

State of Illinois, Hancock Co., ) 
City op Nauvoo. I 

Personally appeared before me, John Taylor, Judge-Advocate of the 
Nauvoo Legion, Aaron Johnson; and being duly sworn deposes and 
says that on or about the 28th day of April, 1844, at the dwelling house 
of Wilson Law in Nauvoo aforesaid, Colonel R. D. Foster, Surgeon- in- 
Chief, and Brevet Brigadier-General of said Nauvoo Legion, while talk- 
ing about General Joseph Smith, said that General Smith kept a gang 
of robbers and plunderers about his house for the purpose of robbing 
and plundering, and he (Smith) received half the spoils; also that said 
General Joseph Smith tried to get him (Foster) to go and kill Boggs, 
with many other ungentlemanly and unofficer-like observations concern- 
ing said General Smith and others. Aaron Johnson, 
2nd Lieut., 1st Comp,, 1st Regiment, 2nd Cohort, Nauvoo Legion. 

Personally appeared, Aaron Johnson, the signer of the above com- 



A.D. 1844J HISTOKY OF THE CHDECH. 351 

plaint, and made oath the same was true according to the best of his 
knowledge and belief, the day and year above written before me. 

John Taylor, 
Judge- Advocate of the Nauvoo Legion. 

Friday, 3. — At home giving advice to brethren who 
were constantly calling to ask for counsel. Several thun- 
der showers during the day. 

In general council from 2 to 6, and from 8 to 10 p. m. 
Lucien Woodworth gave an account of his mission. 

Wrote a letter to Uncle John Smith, and requested him 
to attend general council next Monday. 

The following letter was written: 

Letter: Brigham Young and Willard Richards to Reuben Hedlock — In- 
' s'tructions on Immigration Matters. 

Nauyoo, May 3rd, 1844. 
Elder Reuben Hedlock: 

Dear Brother — Your long communication by Elder Kay was 
received two weeks last Saturday, also the one by Elder Clark last Sat- 
urday, and we feel to thank you for the care you have taken to write us 
so particularly. We are glad to receive such communications, and wish 
you to continue the same course as opportunities present. The brethren 
have all had good passages (four ships). Elder Clark was only five 
weeks and three days to New Orleans. All things safe. 

All things are going on gloriously at Nauvoo. We shall make a great 
wake in the nation. Joseph for President. Your family is well, and 
friends generally. We have already received several hundred volun- 
teers to go out electioneering and preaching and more offering. We go 
for storming the nation. But we must proceed to realities. 

The whisperings of the Spirit to us are that you do well to content 
yourself awhile longer in old England, and let your wife remain where 
she is. We hope the Temple may be completed, say one year from this 
spring, when in many respocts changes will take place. Until then, 
who can do better in England than yourself! But we will not leave 
you comfortless; we will send Elders to your assistance. For three or 
four months we want all the help we can get in the United States; after 
which you may expect help. 

In the meantime you are at liberty to print as many Stars, pamphlets 
hymn books, tracts, cards, &c, as you can sell; and make all the 
money you can in righteousness. Don't reprint everything you get 
from Nauvoo. Many things are printed here not best to circulate in 
England. Select and write doctrine, and matter, (new) such as will be 



352 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

useful to the Saints in England and new to us; so that when we 
exchange papers all will be edified. God shall give you wisdom, if you 
will seek to Him, aud you shall prosper in your printing. 

We also wish you to unfurl your flag on your shipping office, and send 
all the Saints you can to New York, or Boston, or Philadelphia or any 
other port of the United States, but not at our expense any longer. We 
have need of something to sustain us in our labors, and we want you to 
go ahead with printiug and shipping, aad make enough to support your- 
self and help us a bit. You will doubtless find it necessary to employ 
Brother Ward. Keep all your books straight, so that we in the end 
can know every particular. 

Ship everybody to America you can get the money for — Saint and 
sinner — a general shipping-office. And we would like to have our 
shipping-agent in Liverpool sleep on as good a bed, eat at as respectable 
a house, keep as genteel an office, and have his boots shine as bright, 
and blacked as often as any other office-keeper. Yes sir; make you 
money enough to wear a good broadcloth, and show the world that you 
represent gentlemen of worth, character and respectability. 

We will by-and-by have offices from the rivers to the ends of the 
earth, and we will begin at Liverpool from this time and increase and 
increase and increase the business of the office as fast as it can be 
done in safety, and circumstances will permit. Employ a runner, if 
necessary, and show the world you can do a better and more honorable 
business than anybody else, and more of it. Don't be afraid to blow 
your trumpet. 

We need not say, deal with everybody so that they will want to deal 
with you again, and make all the money you honestly can. Send no 
more emigrants on emigration books or Star monev. Temple orders 
for emigrants may be filled on Temple funds. Keep account of all 
moneys in their separate departments and favor us with a report 
occasionally. 

Sell the Books of Mormon the first opportunity, if it be at a reduced 
price, and forward the money by the first safe conveyance to Brigham 
Young. 

We will pay your wife as you requested in your letter, as soon 
as possible. We wish you to take care of yourself and family, and 
withal help us besides; and we have now put you in possession of 
means to do it. 

Let nobody know your business but the underwriters. Our wives 
know not all our business, neither does any wise man's wife know all 
things, for the secret of the Lord is with those that fear Him and do His 
business. A hint to the wise is sufficient. But we will add, if you 
want us to do anything for your wife, write us, and we will do it; but 



A.D. 1844 J HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 353 

keel) our business from your wife and from everybody else 

We are glad to hear a door is open in France, and sure we have no 
objections to your going over and preaching, &c. ; but we think per- 
haps you will now find as much to do in England as you can And time 
to do it in; if not, go by all means. We are in hopes of sending a 
special messenger to France in a few days; if so, very likely he may 
call on you, and you pass over and give him an introduction: this would 
be pleasant for you all. 

Brother Hedlock, a word with you privately. Joseph said, last con 
ference, that Zion included all North and South America; and after 
the Temple was done, and the Elders endowed, they would spread 
and build up cities all over the United States; but at present we are not 
to teach this doctrine. Nay, hold your tongue. But by this you can 
see why it is wsidom for the Saints to get into the United States — any* 
where rather than stay in England to starve. 

The prophet has a charter for a dam from the lower line of the city 
to the island opposite Montrose, and from thence to the sand-bar above 
in the Mississippi. Could five, six or seven thousand dollars be raised 
to commence the dam at the lower extremity, and erect a building, any 
machinery might be propelled by water. The value of a steam-engine 
would nearly build the dam sufficient for a cotton-factory, which we 
much need. Start some capitalists, if jou can: 'tis the greatest specu- 
lation in the world: a world of cotton and woollen goods are wanted 
here. 

We have proposed to Brother Clark to return to your assistance in 
the shipping business soon; also to enter into exchanges of goods and 
produce. Which he will do, he has not decided. What will hinder your 
doing a good business in shipping this season? Good? Yes, in com- 
peting with the first offices in the city, and by next season taking the 
lead, if not this! When the Saints get to New York, Boston, &c, let 
them go to work, spread abroad in the land, or come to Nauvoo, as 
they find convenient and have means, and when the season arrives, 
start again for New Orleans. Write soon after the receipt of this, and 
let us know the prospect. 

Tell the Saints, when they arrive in America, to make themselves as 
comfortable as they can, and be diligent in business, and not be over- 
anxious if they cannot come to Nauvoo. They will find Elders in all 
the states who will be ready to give them instruction; and if they can 
gather something by the way by their industry to assist themselves with 
when they arrive here, it will be well for them. 

We have dropped the Nauvoo House until the Temple can be com- 
pleted, and the Temple is going on finely. We have had an open win 
ter and a forward spring. The Twelve are holding general conferences 
all over the United States. They will go East soon, and Brother Young 

23 VOL. VI 



354 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A. D. 1844 

will write to you as soon as he gets the information to tell what house 
you can remit the book money to in New York. 

We shall have a State Convention at Nauvoo on the 17th inst., — an 
election. A great many are believing the doctrine. If any of the 
brethren wish to go to Texas, we have no particular objection. You 
may send a hundred thousand there if you can, in eighteen months, 
though we expect before that you will return to receive your endow- 
ments; and then we will consult your interest, with others who may be 
going abroad, about taking their families with them. 

The kingdom is organized; and, although as yet no bigger than a 
grain of mustard seed, the 1 ttle plant is in a nourishing condition, and 
our prospects brighter than ever. Cousin Lemuel is very friendly, and 
cultivating the spirit of peace and union in his family very 
extensively. 

William and Wilson Law, Robert D. Foster, Chauncey L. and Francis 
Higbee, Father Cowles, &c, have organized a new church. (Laws and 
Fosters were first cut off). William Law is Prophet; James Blakesley 
and Cowles, Counselors; Higbee and Foster of the Twelve. Cannot 
learn all particulars. Charles Ivins, Bishop; old Dr. Green and old John 
Scott, his counselors. They are talking of sending a mission to England. 
but it will probably be after this when they come among you. 'Tis the 
same old story over again — "The doctrine is ri^ht, but Joseph is a 
fallen prophet." 

Yonr brethren in the new covenant, 

Brigham Young, 
Willard Richards. 

Elder Parley P. Pratt wrote from Richmond, Mass., as 
follows : 

Letter: Parley P. Pratt to Joseph Smith etal., Denouncing Augustine 

Spencer. 

Dear Brother Joseph and Brother Orson Spencer, or whom it may concern: 
This is to forewarn you that you have a snake in the grass — a base 
traitor and hypocrite in your midst, of whom perhaps you may not be 
fully aware. You may think these harsh terms, but I speak from good 
evidence and speak the truth. 

Mr. Augustine Spencer, brother to Elder Orson Spencer, has written 
a letter from Nauvoo, which is now going the rounds in this neighbor- 
hood, and is fraught with the most infamous slander and lies concern- 
ing Joseph Smith and others, and which is calculated to embitter the 
minds of the people who read or hear it. It affirms that Joseph Smith 
is in the habit of drinking, swearing, carousing, dancing all night, &c, 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 355 

and that he keeps six or seven young females as wives, &c, and many 
other such like insinuations. 

At the same time he cautions thp people to whom he writes to keep 
the letter in such a way that a knowledge of its contents may not reach 
Nauvoo, as he savs he is on intimate terms and confidential friendship 
with the "Prophet Joe" and the Mormons, and that he hopes to get into 
office by their means. This is his own acknowledgment of his own base- 
ness, imposition and hypocrisy. I have not seen the letter my&elf, but 
have carefully examined the testimony of those who have, and I have 
also seen and witnessed its baneful effect upon \,he people here. 

Now, I say to the Saints, Let such a man alone severely; shun him as 
they would the pestilence; be not deceived by a smooth toague nor 
flattering words; neither accept of any excuse or apology until he boldly 
contradicts and counteracts his lying words abroad; but rather expose 
and unmask him in your midst, that he may be known and consequently 
become powerless, if he is not already so. I am well and expect to b^ 
in Boston tomorrow. 

I remain, as ever, your friend and brother, in the love of truth, 

P. P. Pratt. 
Richmond, Mass., May 3rd, 1814. 

Saturday, 4. — Bode out on the prairie to sell some land. 
The stone work for four circular windows finished cutting 
for the middle story of the Temple. Elder Wilford Wood- 
ruff moved into his new brick house. 

A court-martial was detailed as follows: 

Headquarters Nauvoo Legion May 4, 1814. 
lo Alanson Ripley, Sergeant- Major, 2nd Cohort, Nauvoo Legion: 

You are hereby forthwith commanded to notify the following named 
officers of the Nauvoo Legion to assemble at the office of Lieut. -General 
Joseph Smith, on Friday, the 10th inst., at 9 o'clock a. m., as members 
of a court-martial detailed for the trial of Robert D. Foster, Surgeon-in- 
Chief and Brevet Brigadier- General of the Nauvoo Legion, on the com- 
plaint of Lieut. Aaron Johnson for unofficer-like and unbecoming 
conduct, and hereof fail not, and make returns of your proceedings to 
the President of the Court on the first day of its sitting — vis. 

Brig., -Gen. George Miller as President; Brevet Brig. Gen. Hugh 
McFall, Brevet Brig. -General Daniel H. Wells, Brevet Brig.-Gen. John 
S. Fullmer, Colonel Jonathan Dunham, Colonel Stephen Markham, 
Colonel Hosea Stout, Colonel John Scott, Lieut. -Colonel John D.Parker, 
Lieut.-Colonel Jonathan H. Hale, Lieut.-Colonel Theodore Turley, as 
members of said court, and Colonel John Taylor as Judge- Advoca+p 



356 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH- [A. D. 1844 

Also to summons Willard Richards and Aaron Johnson to appear at the 

same time and place as witnessses. 

Given under my hand the day and year above written. 

Charles C. Rich, 

Maior-General N. L., Commanding. 

Dr. Richards wrote a letter, at President Brigham 
Young's request, to Reuben Hedlock. 

Sunday, 5. — At home. Rainy day. Elder Jedediah 
M. Grant preached at the Mansion at 2 p. m. A large 
company of friends at my house afternoon and evening, 
whom I addressed on the true policy of this people in our 
intercourse with the national government. 

A conference was held at Marsh Hill, (formerly 
Froom's flill) England, compi*ising 681 members, 22 
Elders, 43 Priests, 15 Teachers, 7 Deacons. 

Monday, 6'.- -Attended general council all day. Elder 
J. M. Grant was added to the council. Voted to send 
Almon W. Babbitt on^a mission to France and Lucien 
Woodworth to TexaslC Sidney Rigdon was nominated as 
a candidate for the Vice-Presidency of the United States J^ 

I had a warrant served on me by John D. Parker, 
issued by the clerk of the Circuit Court at Carthage, on 
the complaint of Francis M. Higbee, who had laid his 
damages at $5,000, but for what the writ does not state. 
I petitioned the Municipal Court for a writ of habeas 
corpus, which I obtained. 

At 6 p. m. I was in conversation with Jeremiah Smith 
and a number of gentlemen, in my office on the subject of 
Emma's correspondence with Governor Carlin. 

Beautiful day. West wind. 

Tuesday 7. — Rode out on the prairie at nine a. m., with 
some gentlemen, to sell them some land. A tremendous 
thunder shower in the afternoon, with a strong wind and 
rain, which abated about sunset, and I stayed at my farm 
all night. 

Esquire Daniel H. Wells issued a writ of ejectment 
against all persons who had bought land of Robert D. 



A.D. 1844| HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 35? 

Foster on the block east of the Temple, Foster having 
given them warranty deeds, but not having paid for the 
land himself. 

An opposition printing press arrives at Dr. Foster's. 

The following notice was issued by the Recorder: 

State of Illinois, ) 
City of Nauvoo. j 

lo the Marshal of the said City, greeting: 

You are hereby required ,'to notify Phineas Richards, Edward Hunter 
and Levi Richards, that they have been elected members of the City 
Council of said city; and Elias Smith, that he has been elected Alder- 
man of said city by said Citv Council; and the said Councilors and 
Alderman and Gustavus Hills are required to appear, receive their oath 
of office, and take seats in said Council on Saturday, the 8th of June, 
1844. at 10 o'clock a. m., at the Council Chamber. By order of the Council. 

Witness my hand and corporation seal this 7th May, 1814. 

[L. S.] W. Richards. Recorder. 

Thursday, 8* — Returned home. At 10 a. m. went 
before the Municipal Court on the case, "Francis M. Hig- 
bee versus Joseph Smith." 

Ihe Prophet" 1 s Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus. 

Municipal Court, City of Nauvoo, Illinois. 
Third day, regular term, May 8, 1844. 

Before Alderman N. K. Whitney, acting Chief Justice, and Aldermen 
Daniel H. Wells, William Marks, Orson Spencer, George W. Harris, 
Gustavus Hills, George A. Smith and Samuel Bennett, Associate Just- 
ices presiding. 

Ex-parte ) Messrs. Styles and 

Joseph Smith, Sen., > Rigdon, Counsel for 
on habeas corpus. } Smith. 

This case came before the court upon a return to a writ of habeas 
corpus, which was issued by this court on the 6th of May instant, upon 
the petition of Joseph Smith, Sen., as follows: 

State of Illinois, J „ . 
City of Nauvoo, J 

lo the Honorabl". Municipal Court and for the City oj Nauvoo: 

The undersigned, your petitioner, most respectfully represents that 
he is an inhabitant of said city. Your petitioner further represents 
that he is under arrest in said city, and is now in the custody of one 
John D. Parker, deputy sheriff of the county of Hancock, and state of 



358 HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. [A.D.1844 

Illinois; and that the said Parker holds your petitioner by a writ of 
Capias ad respondendum, issued by the clerk of the Circuit Court of the 
county of Hancock and state of Illinois, at the instance of one Francis 
M. Higbee of said county, requiring your petitioner to answer the said 
Fraucis M. Higbee, "of a plea of the case;" damage, five thousand 
dollars. Your petitioner further represents that the proceedings against 
him are illegal; that the said w^irant of arrest is informal, and not of 
that character which the law recognizes as valid; that the said writ is 
wanting and deficient in the plea therein contained; that the charge or 
complaint which your petitioner is therein required to answer is not 
known to the law. 

Your petitioner further avers that the said writ does not disclose in 
any way or manner whatever any cause of action; which matter your 
petitioner most respectfully submits for your consideration, together 
with a copy of the said warrant of arrest which is hereunto attached. 

Your petitioner further states that this proceeding has been instituted 
against him without any just or legal cause; and further that the said 
Francis M. Higbee is actuated by no other motive than a desire to perse- 
cute and harass your petitioner for the base purpose of gratifying feel- 
ing's of revenge, which, without any cause, the said Francis M. Higbee 
has for a loug time been fostering and cherishing. 

Your petitioner further states that he is not guilty of the charge pre- 
ferred against him, or of any act against him, by which the said Francis 
M. Higbee could have any charge, claim or demand whatever against 
your petitioner. 

Your petitioner further states that he verily believes that another 
object the said F. M. Higbee had in instituting the proceeding was and 
is to throw your petitioner into the hands of his enemies, that he might 
the better carry out a conspiracy which has for some time been brewing 
against the life of your petitioner. 

Your petitioner further states that the suit which has been instituted 
against him has been instituted through malice, private pique and corrup- 
tion. 

Your petitioner would therefore most respectfully ask your honorable 
body to grant him the benefit of the writ of habeas corpus, that the 
whole matter may be thoroughly investigated, and such order made as 
the law and justice demand in the premises: and your petitioner will 
ever pray. Joseph Smith, Sen. 

Order of the Municipal Court. 

State op Illinois, j g . Nauvoo, May 6th, 1844. 

City op Nauvoo, J c ' 

Ihe people of the State of Illinois, to the Marshal of said city, greeting: 
Whereas application has been made before the Municipal Court of 



A.D. 1844] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 359 

said city, that the body of one Joseph Smith, Senior, of the said city of 
Nauvoo, is in the custody of John D. Parker, deputy sheriff of Hancock 
county and state aforesaid. 

These are therefore to command the said John D. Parker, of the 
county aforesaid, to safely have the body of said Joseph Smith, Senior, 
of the city aforesaid, in his custody detained, as it is said, together with 
the day and cause of his caption and detention, by whatsoever name the 
said Joseph Smith, Senior, may be known or called, before the Municipal 
Court of said city forthwith, to abide such order as the said court shall 
make in this behalf; and further, if the said John D. Parker, or other 
person or persons, having said Joseph Smith, Senior, of said citv of 
Nauvoo, in custody, shall refuse or neglect to comply with the provi- 
sions of this writ, you, the marshal of said city, or other person author- 
ized to serve the same, are hereby required to arrest the person or per- 
sons so refusing or neglecting to comply as aforesaid, and bring him or 
them, together with the person or persons in his or their custody, forth- 
with before the Municipal Court aforesaid, to be dealt with according 
to law; and herein fail not and bring this writ with you. 

Witness, Willard Richards, clerk of the Municipal Court at Nauvoo, 
this 6th day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hun- 
dred and forty- four. 

Willard Richards, 

Clerk M. C. C. N. 

I hold the within-named Joseph Smith, Senior, under arrest, by vir- 
tue of a capias ad respondendum. 

Hancock County Court. 

To May Term, A. D. 1844. 

Francis M. Higbee j 

vs. > In case. 

Joseph Smith J 

The day of his caption, May 6th, 1844. 
To damage five thousand dollars. 

Wm. Backenstos, S. H. C. 

By J. D. Parker, D. S. 

State of Illinois, | 
Hancock County, j 

The people of the state of Illinois to the Sheriff of said county, greeting: 

We command you that you take Joseph Smith, if to be found within 
your county, and him safely keep, so that you have his body before the 
Circuit Court of said county of Hancock on the first day of the next 
term thereof, to be holden at the Courthouse in Carthage on the third 



360 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

Monday in the month of May instant, to answer Francis M. Higbee, of 
a plea of the case; damage, the sum of five thousand dollars, as he 
says; and you have then there this writ, and make due return thereon 
in what manner you execute the same. 

Witness, J. B. Backenstos, clerk of said Circuit Court 
[Seal] at Carthage, this first day of May, in the year of our 

Lord, one thousand eight hundred and forty- four. 

J. C. Backenstos, Clerk. 
By D. E. Head, Deputy. 

This is a true copy of the original now in the possession of William B. 
Backenstos, Sheriff of Hancock county. 

By J. D. Parker, Deputy. 

State op Illinois, ) 
Hancock County, > Set. 
City op Nauvoo. ; 

lo Mr. Francis M. Higbee: 

Sir. — You will please to take notice that Joseph Smith, Senior, has 
petioned for a writ of habeas corpus from the Municipal Court of said 
city, praying that he may be liberated from the custody of John D- 
Parker, deputy sheriff of Hancock county, by whom he is held in cus- 
tody on a capias ad respondendum, issued by the Circuit Court of Han- 
cock county, on the first day of May instant, to answer Francis M. 
Higbee on a plea of the case, etc.; which writ is granted; and you will 
have the opportunity to appear before the Municipal Court at 10 o'clock 
a. m. on the 7th of May instant, at the Council Chamber in said city, 
and show cause why said Joseph Smith, Senior, should not be liberated 
on said habeas corpus. 

[Seal] Witness my hand and seal of court this 5th day of May, 
1844. 

Willard Richards, Clerk M. C. C. N. 

The case was argued at length by Messrs. George P. Styles and Sid- 
ney Rigdon. After which the court allowed the petitioner and his 
counsel to proceed with the case. Whereupon President Joseph Smith, 
Brigham Young, Sidney Rigdon, Hyrum Smith, Orrin Porter Rock. 
well, Cyrus H. Wheelock, Joel S. Miles, Henry Gr. Sherwood, Heber C. 
Kimball, were permitted to testify proving (1) the very bad and 
immoral character of Francis M. Higbee; and (2) the maliciousness of 
his prosecution of Joseph Smith. In the course of his testimony the 
Prophet said: "The only sin I ever committed was in exercising sym- 
pathy and covering up their [the Higbees', Fosters', Laws' and Dr. Ben- 
nett's] iniquities, on their solemn promise to reform, and of this I am 



A. D. 18441 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. 361 

ashamed, and will never do so again." After hearing these witnesses 
the Judge said: "It is considered and ordained by the court — 

"1st. That the said Joseph Smith, Senior, be discharged from the said 
arrest and imprisonment complained of in said petition, on the illegality 
of the writ upon which he was arrested, as well as upon the writ of the 
case, and that he go hence without day. 

"2nd. Francis M. Higbee's character having been so fully shown as 
infamous, the court is convinced that this suit was instituted through 
malice, private pique, and corruption, and ought not to be counte- 
nanced; and it is ordained by the court that the said Francis M. Higbee 
pay the costs." 

In testimony whereof I hereunto set my hand and affix 
LSeal] the seal of said court at the city of Nauvoo, this 8th 

day of May, 1844. 

Willard Richards, Clerk. 

1 copy the following from the Neighbor of this date: 

Hurrah jor the General! The following which we extract from the 
St. Louis Organ, shows how the public mind is turning, and what their 
feelings are in regard to the Prophet, his views and theirs also in regard 
to the Presidency. 

i orebear awhile — iveHl hear a little more. Tne matter is now settled 
with Messrs. Clay, Tyler and Van Buren. Let Mr. Clay return at once 
from his political perambulations in the South, Mr. Tyler abandon his 
hopes of re-election by aid of the "immediate annexation" of Texas, 
and, let Mr. Van Buren be quiet at Kinderhook, that he may watch the 
operations of the "sober second thought" of the people! 

General Joseph Smith, the acknowledged modern Prophet, ha«s got 
them all in the rear; and from the common mode of testing the success 
of candidates for the Presidency, to wit., by steamboat elections, he 
(Smith) will beat all the other aspirants to that office two to one. We 
learn from the polls of the steamboat Osprey, on her last trip to this 
city, that the vote stood for General Joseph Smith, 20 gents and 5 
ladies; Henry Clay, 16 gents and 4 ladies; Van Buren, 7 gents and 
ladies. 

Attended theatre in the evening. 



362 HISTOKY 01 THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 



CHAPTER XVI. 

ADDRESS OF THE PROPHET — HIS PROPHETIC CaLLING AND THE 
RESURRECTION — STATUS OF AFFAIRS AT NAUVOO — HYDE'S 
REPORTS FROM WASHINGTON ON THE WESTERN MOVEMENT 
— OREGON. 

Thursday, May 9, 1844. — A court-martial was held in my 
office for the trial of Major- General Wilson Law, on a 
charge of urjgentlemanly and unofficer-like conduct. Present 
— Generals Hyrum Smith, Charles C. Rich, Lyman Wight, 
George Miller and Albert P. Rockwood; Cols. John Scott 
and Hosea Stout; Judge-Advocate John Taylor; and Sec- 
retary Thomas Bullock. The charge was sustained aud 
Wilson Law cashiered. 

Theatricals in Evening, attended theatre, and saw "Damon 
Nauvoo. and Pythias," and "The Idiot Witness" per- 

formed. 

Elders Wilford Woodruff and George A. Smith called 
upon me this morning, and said they were ready to start 
on their mission to attend the conferences appointed 
throughout the north of Illinois, Indiana and Michigan. I 
blessed them in the name of the Lord, and told them to 
go, and they should prosper and always prosper. They 
left in company with Elders Jedediah M. Grant and Ezra 
Thayer. 

Friday, 10 — Rode out after breakfast to the prairie to 
sell some land to some brethren. 

The court-martial was held in the Mayor's office on the 
charge against Robert D. Foster, Surgeon-General, for 
unbecoming and unofficer-like conduct, &c. ; Brigadier- 
GeneraL George Miller presiding. The charges were sus- 
tained. 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 363 

A prospectus of the Nauuoo Expositor was distributed 
among the people by the apostates. 

The jury of Lee county, Illinois, awarded $40 damages 
and the costs against Joseph H. Reynolds and Harmon T. 
Wilson for illegal imprisonment and abuse, which I 
suffered from them last June in that county. 

Saturday, 11. — At 10 a. m. I attended City Council, 
and stayed till half-past eleven; but there not being a 
quorum, adjourned until next regular session. At 1 p. m. 
at my office, and had a conversation with Mr. Lyne on the 
theatre; and at 6 p. m. attended prayer meeting: John P. 
Greene and Sidney Rigdon present. Several showers of 
rain during the day. The Nauvoo Legion had a company 
muster. 

Sunday, 12. — At 10 a. m. I preached at the Stand. 
The following brief synopsis of my discourse was reported 
by my clerk, Thomas Bullock: 

President Joseph Smith's Address — Defense of his Prophetic Calling — 
Resurrection of the Dead — Fullness of Ordinances 
Xecessary Both for the Living and Dead. 

The Savior has the words of eternal life. Nothing else can profit us. 
There is no salvation in believing an evil report against our neighbor. 
I advise all to go on to perfection, and search deeper and deeper into 
the mysteries of Godliness. A man can do nothing for himself unless 
God direct him in the right way; and the priesthood is for that purpose. 

The last time I spoke on this stand it was on the resurrection of the 
dead, when I promised to continue my remarks upon that 
subject. I still feel a desire to say something on this subject. Let 
us this very day begin anew, and now say, with all our hearts, we will 
forsake our sins and be righteous. I shall read the 24th chapter of 
Matthew, and give it a literal rendering and reading; and when it is 
rightly understood, it will be edifying. [He then read and translated it 
from the German]. 

I thought the very oddity of its rendering would be edifying anyhow 
— "And it will preached be, the Gospel of the kingdom, in the whole 
world, to a witness over all people: and then will the end come.'' 1 I will 
now read it in German [which he did, and many Germans who were 
present said he translated it correctly]. 

The Savior said when these tribulations should take place, it should 
be committed to a man who should be a witness over the whole world : 



364 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. |A.D. 1844 

the keys of knowledge, power and revelations should be revealed to a 
witness who should hold the testimony to the world. It has always been 
my province to dig up hidden mysteries — new things — for my hearers. 
Just at the time when some men think that I have no right to the keys 
of the Priesthood — just at that time I have the greatest right. The 
Germans are an exalted people. The old German translators are the 
most correct — most honest of any of the translators; and therefore I 
get testimony to bear me out in the revelations that I have preached for 
the last fourteen years. The old Dermati, Latin, Greek and Hebrew 
translations all say it is true: they cannot be impeached, and therefore 
I am in good company. 

All the testimony is that the Lord in the last days woul,d commit the 
keys of the priesthood to a witness over all people. Has the Gospel of the 
kingdom commenced in the last days? And will God take it from the 
man until He takes him Himself? I have read it precisely as the words 
flowed from the lips of Jesus Christ. John the Revelator saw an angel 
flying through the midst of heaven, having the everlasting Gospel to 
preach unto them that dwell on the earth. 

The scripture is ready to be fulfilled when great wars, famines, pesti- 
lence, great distress, judgments, &c, are ready to be poured out on the 
inhabitants of the earth, John saw the angel having the holy priest- 
hood, who should preach the everlasting Gospel to all nations. God 
had an angel — a special messenger — ordained and prepared for that 
purpose in the last days. Woe, woe be to that man or set of men who 
lift up their hands against God and His witness in these last days: for 
they shall deceive almost the very chosen ones! 

My enemies say that I have been a true prophet. Why, I had rather 
be a fallen true prophet than a false prophet. When a man goes about 
prophesying, and commands men to obey his teachings, he must either 
be a true or false prophet. False prophets always arise to oppose the 
true prophets and they will prophesy so very near the truth that they 
will deceive almost the very chosen ones. 

The doctrine of eternal judgments belongs to the first principles of 
the Gospel, in the last days. In relation to the kingdom of God, the 
devil always sets up his kingdom at the very same time in opposition to 
God. Every man who has a calling to minister to the inhabitants of 
the world was ordained to that very purpose in the Grand Council of 
heaven before this world was. I suppose that I was ordained to this very 
office in that Grand Council. It is the testimony that I want that I am 
God's servant, and this people His people. The ancient prophets 
declared that in the last days the God of heaven should set up a king- 
dom which should never be destroyed, nor left to other people; and the 
very time that was calculated on, this people were struggling to bring 
it out. He that arms himself with gun, sword, or pistol, except in the 



A.D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 365 

defense of truth, will sometime be sorry for it. I never carry any 
weapon with me bigger than my penknife. When I was dragged before 
the cannon and muskets in Missouri, I was unarmed. God will always 
protect me until my mission is fulfilled. 

I calculate to be one of the instruments of setting up the kingdom of 
Daniel by the word of the Lord, and I intend to lay a foundation that 
will revolutionize the whole world. I once offered my life to the Mis- 
souri mob as a sacrifice for my people, and here I am. It will not be 
by swoid or gun that this kingdom will roll on: the power of truth is 
such that all nations will be under the necessity of obeying the Gospel. 
The prediction is that army will be against army: it may be that the 
Saints Till have to beat their ploughs into swords, for it will not do for 
men to sit down patiently and see their children destroyed. 

My text is on the resurrection of the dead, which you will find in the 
14th chapter of John — "In my Father's house are many mansions." It 
should be — "In my Father's kingdom are many kingdoms," in order 
that ye may be heirs of God and joint-heirs with me. I do not believe 
the Methodist doctrine of sending honest men and noble-minded men 
to hell, along with the murderer and the adulterer. They may hurl all 
their hell and fiery billows upon me, for they will roll off me as fast as 
they come on. But I have an order of things to save the poor fellows 
at any rate, and get them saved; for I will send men to preach to them 
in prison and save them if I can. 

There are mansions for those who obey a celestial law, and there are 
other mansions for those who come short of the law, every man in his 
own order. There is baptism, &c, for those to exercise who are alive, 
and baptism for the dead who die without the knowledge of the Gospel. 

I am going on in my progress for eternal life. It is not only neces- 
sary that you should be baptized for your dead, but you will have to go 
through all the ordinances for them, the same as you have gone through 
to save yourselves. There will be 144,000 saviors on Mount Zion, and with 
them an innumerable host that no man can number. Oh! I beseech 
you to go forward, go forward and make your calling and your election 
sure; and if any man preach any other Gospel than that which I have 
preached, he shall be cursed; and some of you who now hear me shall 
see it, and know that I testify the truth concerning them. 

In regard to the law of the priesthood, there should be a place where 
all nations shall come up from time to time to receive their endow- 
ments; and the Lord has said this shall be the place for the baptisms 
for the dead. Every man that has been baptized and belongs to the 
kingdom has a right to be baptized for those who have gone before; and 
as soon as the law of the Gospel is obeyed here by their friends who act 
as proxy for them, the Lord has administrators there to set them free. 



366 HISTORY 01 THE CHURCH. [A.D. 1844 

A man may act as proxy for his own relatives; the ordinances of the 
Gospel which were laid out before the foundations of the world have 
thus been fulfilled by them, and we may be baptized for those whom we 
have much friendship for; but it must first be revealed to the man of 
God, lest we should run too far. "As in Adam all die, even so in Christ 
shall all be made alive; " all shall be raised from the dead. The Lamb of 
God hath brought to pass the resurrection, so that all shall rise from 
the dead. 

God Almighty Himself dwells in eternal fire; flesh and blood cannot 
go there, for all corruption is devoured by the fire. "Our God is a con- 
suming fire." When our flesh is quickened by the Spirit, there will be 
no blood in this tabernacle. Some dwell in higher glory than others. 

Those who have done wrong always have that wrong gnawing 
them. Immortality dwells in everlasting burnings. I will from time 
to time reveal to you the subjects that are revealed by the Holy Ghost 
to me. All the lies that are now hatched up against me 
are of the devil, and the influence of the devil and his 
servants will be used against tne kingdom of God. The ser- 
vants of God teach nothing but principles of eternal life, by their works 
ye shall know them. A good man will speak good things and holy 
principles, and an evil man evil things. I feel, in the name of the Lord, 
to rebuke all such bad principles, liars, &c, and I warn all of you to 
look out whom you are going after. , I exhort you to give heed to all 
the virtue and the teachings which I have given you. All men who are 
immortal dwell in everlasting burnings. You cannot go anywhere but 
where God can find you out. All men are born to die, and all men 
must rise; all must enter eternity. 

In order for you to receive your children to yourselves you must have 
a promise — some ordinance; some blessing, in order to ascend above 
principalities, or else it may be an nngel. They must rise just as they 
died; we can there hail our lovely infants with the same glory — the 
same loveliness in the celestial glory, where they all enjoy alike. They 
differ in stature, in size, the same glorious spirit gives them the like- 
ness of glory and bloom; the old man with his silvery hairs w ill glory 
in bloom and beauty. No man can describe it to you — no man can 
write it. 

When did I ever teach anything wrong from this stand? When was 
I ever confounded? I want to triumph in Israel before I depart hence 
and am no more seen. I never told you I was perfect; but there is no 
error in the revelations which I have taught. Must I, then, be thrown 
away as a thing of naught? 

I enjoin for your consideration — add to your faith virtue, love, &c. 
I say, in the name of the Lord, if these things are in you, you shall be 



AD. 1844J HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 367 

fruitful. I testify that no man has power to reveal it but myself — 
things in heaven, in earth and hell; and all shut your mouths for the 
future. I commend you all to G>d, that you may inherit all things; 
and may God add His blessing. Amen. 

My brother Hyrum and Elder Lyman Wight also 
addressed the Saints. 

My brother Hyrum received an anonymous letter, sup- 
posed to have been written by Joseph H. Jackson, threat- 
ening his life, and calling upon him to make his peace 
with God for he would soon have to die. 

At 3 p. m. I attended prayer meeting in the council 
room. William Smith and Almon W. Babbitt were present. 
The room was full aud we all prayed for deliverance from 
our enemies and exaltation to such offices as will enable 
the servants of God to execute righteousness in the earth. . 

I copy the following from the Times and Seasons: 

FOR THE NEIGHBOR. 

Nauvoo and President Smith, 

Before taking my farewell of your beautiful and growing city, I avail 
myself of a few leisure moments in expressing some of my views and 
conclusions of the "Prophet Joe" and the Mormons. In the first place, 
allow me to say that the Mormons, as a people, have been most woe 
fully misrepresented and abused, and, in ninety-nine instances out of 
a hundred, by persons who know nothing of their principles and 
doctrines. 

Before visiting the place, my mind was very much prejudiced against 
the Mormons, from reports which I had listened to in traveling through 
the different states; and I presume, if I had never taken occasion to 
inform myself of their religion and views, my mind would have 
remained in the same condition. There is not a city within my knowl- 
edge that can boast of a more enterprising and industrious people than 
Nauvoo. Her citizens are enlightened, and possess many advantages 
in the arts and sciences of the day, which other cities of longer stand- 
ing cannot boast: in a word, Nauvoo bids fair to soon outrival any city 
in the West. 

General Smith is a man who understands the political history of his 
country as well as the religious history of the world, as perfectly as any 
politician or religionist 1 have ever met with. He advances ideas which 
if carried into effect would greatly benefit the nation in point of com - 






368 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1844 

merce and finance; and while he maintains and philosophically shows 
that our country is approaching a fearful crisis, which, if not arrested, 
will end in disgrace to the country, and cause our na'ional banner to 
hug its mast in disgust and shame, clearly points out the remedy. 

Shall the liberty which our fathers purchased at so dear a price be 
wrenched from the hand of their children? Shall our national banner, 
which floated so proudly in the breeze at rhe Declaration of Independ- 
ence, be disgraced and refuse to show its motto? Shall we, as American 
citizens, fold our arms and look quietly on, while the shackles of slavery 
are being fastened upon our hands, and while men only seek office for 
the purpose of exalting themselves into power? I say, shall we still 
rush blindly on and hasten on our own destruction by placing men in 
power who neither regard the interests of the people nor the prayers of 
the oppressed? Every American citizen will shout at the top of his 
voice — no! 

Mr. Smith's "Views of the Powers and Policy of the Government - ' 
manifest a Republican spirit, and if carri d out, would soon place the 
nation in a prosperous condition and brighten the prospects of those 
who now toil so incessantly to suppport the profligate expenditures and 
luxurious equipage of the present rulers and representatives of our 
nation. 

Joseph Smith is a man who is in every way calculated to make a free 
people happy. He is liberal in his sentiments and allows every man 
the free expression of his feelings on all subjects; he is sociable and 
easy in his manners, is conversant and familiar on all exciting topics, 
expresses himself freely and plainly on the different methods of admin- 
istering the Government, while he is not ashamed to let the world know 
his views and criticise upon his opinions. 

I am, sir, in no way connected with the Mormon Church, but am dis- 
posed to listen to reason in all cases. I have heretofore been a warm 
advocate of the measures of the Whig party; but, considering General 
Smith's views and sentiments to be worthy the applause of every citi- 
zen of the United States, and especially the yeomanry of the country, 
I shall in every instance advocate his principles and use my utmost 
influence in his favor. I am, sir, yours in haste, 

An American. 
Nauvoo Mansion, May 12, 1844. 

Monday 13. — Heavy thunder showers during the night. 
At 10 a. m. went to my office and conversed with several 
of the brethren. Sold Ellis ,VI. Sanders one hundred acres 
of land, received $300 in cash, and his note for $1,000, 
and $20 for che Temple. Paid Sisson Chase $298 and 



A.D. 18441 HISTOEY OF THE CHUECH. 3H9 

took up a note of Young, Kimball & Taylor, given for 
money they had borrowed for me ; and gave $10 to Heber 
C. Kimball. 

At 2 p. m. attended meeting of the general council, at 
which the following letter from Orson Hyde was read: 

Letter: Elder Orson Hyde's Report of Labors in Washington: President 
Smith's Memorial for Western Movement Before Congressmen. 

Washington, April 25, 1844. 

Honored Sir: — I take the liberty to transmit through you to the 
council of our Church the result of my labors thus far. I arrived in 
this place on the 23rd instaDt, by way of Pittsburg. Philadelphia, and 
New Jersey. 

I found Elder Orson Pratt here, Elder Page having been called 
home to Pittsburg on account of his wife's ill health. Elder Orson Pratt 
has been indefatigable in his exertions in prosecuting the business 
entrusted to his charge. His business has been before the Senate, and 
referred to the Committee on the Judiciary; and the report of said com- 
mittee is not yet rendered, which is the cause of his delay in writing 
to you. 

Yesterday we conversed with Messrs. Hoge, Hardin, Douglas and 
Wentworth; and last evening we spent several hours with the Hon. Mr. 
[James] Semple.* They all appear deeply interested in the Oregon ques- 
tion, and received us with every demonstration of respect that we could 
desh-e. Mr. Hoge thought the bill would not pass, from the fact that 
there already exists between England and America a treaty for the joint 
occupancy of Oregon, and that any act of our government authorizing 
an armed force to be raised, and destined for that country, would be 
regarded by England as an infraction of that treaty, and a cause of her 
commencing hostilities against us. 

But my reply was, These volunteers are not to be considered any part 
or portion of the army of the United States, neither acting under the 
direction or authority of the United States; and, said I, for men to go 
there and settle in the character of emigrants cannot be regarded by our 
government as deviating in the least degree from her plighted faith, 
unless she intends to tamely submit to British monopoly in that country. 

Mr. Hoge said he would present the memorial, if we desired it. I 
thanked him for his kind offer, but observed that I was not yet prepared 
for the bill to be submitted, but wished to elicit all the facts relative to 
the condition of Oregon, and also advise with many other members rela- 
tive to the matter; and we could better determine then how the bill 

* This was Illinois' senior Senator at the time. 

24 Vol. VI. 



370 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. L A.I). 1844 

should be introduced. We do not want it presented and referred to a 
standing committee, and stuck away with five or ten cords of petitions, 
and that be the last of it; but we want the memorial read, a move made 
to suspend the rules of the House, and the bill printed, &c. 

Mr. Wentworth said, "I am for Oregon, any how. You may set me 
down on your list, and I will go for you if you will go for Oregon." 

Judge Douglas has been quite ill, but is just recovered; he will help 
all he can; Mr. Hardin likewise. But Major Semple says that he does 
not believe anything will be done about Texas or Oregon this session, 
for it might have a very important effect upon the presidential election; 
and politicians are slow to move when such doubtful and important 
matters are likely to be effected by it. He says that there are already 
two bills before the House for establishing a territorial government in 
Oregon, and to protect the emigrants there; and now, he says, "Were 
your bill to be introduced, it might be looked upon that you claimed the 
sole right of emigrating to and settliug the new country to the exclusion 
of others. He was in favor of the Oregon being settled, and he thought 
the bills already before the House would extend equal protection to us; 
and equal protection to every class of citizens was what the Government 
could rightly do, but particular privileges to any one class they could 
not rightly do." 

I observed that the bill asks for no exclusive rights. It asks not for 
exclusive rights in Oregon, neither do we wish it. Other people might 
make a move to Oregon, and no prejudices bar their way, and their 
motives would not be misinterpreted. 

But, said I, Missouri knows her guilt; and should we attempt to 
march to Oregon without the government throwing a protective shield 
over us, Missouri's crimes would lead her first to misinterpret our inten- 
tions, to fan the flame of popular excitement against us, and scatter the 
firebrands of a misguided zeal among the combustible materials of other 
places, creating a flame too hot for us to encounter — too desolating for 
us to indulge the hope of successfully prosecuting the grand and benev- 
olent enterprise we have conceived.* We have been compelled to 

*The reason for this reference to Missouri and of possible difficulty arising from 
the Saints going to Oregon without a guarantee of protection from the general gov- 
ernment grew out of the fact that nearly all the early settlers of the Oregon terri- 
tory were from Missouri. Even in this month of May, 1844, Cornelius Gilliam, the 
inveterate enemy of the Saints, and who took so prominent a part in the troubles 
about Far West, was collecting a large company at Independence, Missouri, number- 
ing over three hundred persons, to start for Oregon that season; and all along the 
Oregon route on the south side of the Platte river, the road was thronged during 
the next several years by emigrants, very many of whom, and for some time the 
most of whom, were from Missouri. (See Western Missouri Expositor, May 18 
1844. Also Bancroft's Oregon Vol. I, page 440, Passim). 



A. D. 1844] HISTORY OF THE HISTORY. 371 

relinquish our rights in Missouri. We have been forcibly driven from 
our homes, leaving our property and inheritances as spoil to the 
oppressor; and more or less in Illinois we have been subject to the 
whims and chimeras of illiberal men, and to threats, to vexatious pros- 
ecutions and lawsuits. 

Our government professes to have no power to help us, or to redress 
the wrongs which we have suffered; and we now ask the government 
to protect us while raising our volunteers. And when we get into Ore- 
gon we will protect ourselves and all others who wish our protection. 
And after subduing a new country, encountering all its difficulties and 
hardships, and sustaining the just claims of our nation to its soil, we 
believe that the generosity of our government towards us will be equal 
to our enterprise and patriotism; and that they will allow us a grant or 
territory of land, which will be both honorable to them and satisfactory 
to us. 

This, he says, is all very just and reasonable. But still he thinks that 
Congress will take no step in relation to Oregon, from the fact that his 
resolution requesting the President of the United States to give notice 
to the British Government for the abolition of the treaty of joint occu- 
pation was voted down; and while that treaty is in force, our govern- 
ment dare do nothing in relation to that country. This resolution was 
introduced by Mr. Semple to pave the way for the passage of those bills 
in relation to a territorial government in Oregon. 

All our members [Illinois delegation] join in the acknowledgment 
that you now have an undoubted right to go to Oregon with all the 
emigrants you can raise. They say the existing laws protect you as 
much as law can protect you; and should Congress pass an additional 
law, it would not prevent wicked men from shooting you down as they 
did in Missouri. All the Oregon men in Congress would be glad we 
would go to that country and settle it. 

I will now give you my opinion in relation to this matter. It is made 
up from the spirit of the times in a hasty manner, nevertheless I think 
time will prove it to be correct: — That Congress will pass no act in 
relation to Texas or Oregon at present. She is afraid of England, 
afraid of Mexico, afraid the Presidential election will be twisted by it. 
The members all appear like unskillful players at checkers — afraid to 
move, for they see not which way to move advantageously. All are 
figuring and play round the grand and important questions. In the 
days of our Lord the people neglected the weightier matters of the law. 
but titbed mint, rue, anise and cummin; but I think here in Washing- 
ton they do little else than tithe the mint* 

A member of Congress is in no enviable situation; if he will boldly 
advocate true principles, he loses his influence and becomes unpopular; 



372 HISTOEY OF HE CHURCH. A. D. 1844 

and whoever is committed and has lost his influence has no power to 
benefit his constituents, so that ail go to figurine: and playing around 
the great points. 

Mr. Semple said that Mr. Smith could not constitutionally be consti- 
tuted a member of the army by law; and this, if nothing else, would 
prevent its passage. I observed that I would in that case strike out 
that clause. Perhaps I took an unwarrantable responsibility upon my- 
self; but where I get into a straight place I can do no better than act 
according to what appears most correct. 

I do not intend the opinion that I have hastily given shall abate my 
zeal to drive the matter through, but I have given the opinion for your 
benefit that your indulgence of the hope that Congress will do some- 
thing for us may not cause you to delay any important action. 

There is already a government established in Oregon to some extent; 
magistrates have been chosen by the people, &c. This is on the south 
of the Columbia. North of that river the Hudson Bay Company occupy. 
There is some good country in Oregon, but a great deal of sandy, barren 
desert. I have seen a gentleman who has been there, and also in 
California. 

The most of the settlers in Oresron and Texas are our old enemies, the 
mobocrats of Missouri. If, however, the settlement of Oregon and 
Texas be determined upon, the sooner the move is made the better; 
and I would not advise any delay for the action of our government, for 
there is such jealousy of our rising power alreadv, that government will 
do nothing to favor us. If the Saints possess the kingdom I think they 
will have to take it* and the sooner it is done the more easily it is 
accomplished. 

Your superior wisdom must determine whether to go to Oregon, to 
Texas, or to remain within these United States, and send forth the most 
efficient men to build up churches, and let them remain the time being; 
and in the meantime send some wise men among the Indians, and 
teach them civilization and religion, to cultivate the soil, to live in 
peace with one another and with all men. But whatever you do, don't 
be deluded with the hope that government will foster us and thus delay 
an action for which the present perhaps is the most proper time that 
ever will be. 

Oregon is becoming a popular question: the fever of emigration 
begins to rage. If the Mormons become the early majority, others will 
not come; if the Mormons do not become the early majority, the others 
will not allow us to come. 

Elder Pratt is faithful, useful and true; he ha